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How Does Soft Body Armor Work

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Presentation on theme: "How Does Soft Body Armor Work"— Presentation transcript:

0 NIJ 0101.06 Standards and its Impact on Law Enforcement

1 How Does Soft Body Armor Work
When a handgun bullet strikes body armor, it is caught in a "web" of very strong fibers. These fibers absorb and disperse the impact energy that is transmitted to the vest from the bullet, causing the bullet to deform or "mushroom." Additional energy is absorbed by each successive layer of material in the vest, until such time as the bullet has been stopped. Because the fibers work together both in the individual layer and with other layers of material in the vest, a large area of the garment becomes involved in preventing the bullet from penetrating. This also helps in dissipating the forces which can cause non-penetrating injuries (what is commonly referred to as "blunt trauma") to internal organs.

2 Protection Against Blunt Trauma
Since soft body armor deforms backward upon impact, it also deforms backward into the wearer of the vest. The damage to tissue caused by this transfer of kinetic energy is called blunt trauma. Minimizing blunt trauma helps save lives, since it not only reduces internal injury, but prevents temporary incapacitation during the initial hit, allowing the wearer to respond immediately in a high-threat situation. In testing against a soft clay backstop, a 1.7” (44 mm) deformation is the maximum indication of blunt trauma allowed by NIJ. As illustrated in Figure 1-2, Point Blank holds itself to an internal standard that is more stringent than NIJ requirements.

3 How Does Hard Body Armor Work
Ceramic plates are designed to stop rifle rounds and armor-piercing rounds which have a penetrating steel pin in the bullet. Plates are engineered by bonding a layer of ceramic to a hard armor panel made of multiple layers of ballistic material wrapped in a fabric covering. As the bullet hits the plate, the hard ceramic strike face begins to break up the bullet while the ballistic Material begins to absorb the energy of the Penetration. The round continues to break apart as the ballistic material extracts energy, decelerating the projectile and catching the fragments while limiting the effect of blunt trauma, the injury caused by an impacting bullet.

4 National Institute of Justice (NIJ) Standards
In the United States, body armor levels are certified by the NIJ. The levels are IIA, II, IIIA, III, and IV. The body-armor levels are often described by what sort of weaponry they guard against. Levels II through IIIA are soft and concealable. Levels III and IV use hard or semi-rigid plates to defeat high energy rifle rounds. NIJ STANDARD NIJ

5 For soft body armor, the NIJ has three categories of classification:
NIJ .06 STANDARDS Law enforcement personnel must keep in mind that armor is categorized and rated for different threat levels. They should select the appropriate level of protection based on an officer's role. SWAT members, for example, might need body armor that offers a higher level of protection than the body armor worn for regular duty. For soft body armor, the NIJ has three categories of classification: NIJ Level IIA - well suited for full-time use by police departments, particularly those seeking protection for their officers from lower velocity .40 S&W and 9mm ammunition. NIJ Level II – Ideal for full time officers seeking protection against higher velocity .357 Magnum and 9mm ammunition. NIJ Level IIIA - provides the highest level of protection currently available from concealable body armor. The general rule of thumb: The level of protection selected should be able to stop the round from your duty weapon. With many officers using a .45, .40, or 9mm, even the IIA becomes a great option for some officers.

6 NIJ 0101.06 Testing & Requirements
Before testing, the armor will be inspected for various defects, such as wrinkles, fabric tears, and cracks; uniformity in construction is also necessary. Also, after every test each sample’s ballistic components will be inspected immediately to verify their construction details (layers, weave, stitching, material, etc.). Body armor will be subjected to two tests, the Perforation and Backface Signature Test (P-BFS), and the Ballistic Limit (BL) Determination Test. For both tests, Types IIA, II, and IIIA are subjected to 2 rounds, because they are tested with two different bullets. Both new and conditioned armor are tested. The most significant change concerning the new standard is testing the effects of heat, moisture, and mechanical wear. Every new sample of armor will go through a standardized conditioning process. This new protocol will not predict the service life of the armor or the precise effects of usage, but this new conditioning of the armor will help achieve a critical goal–that all armor materials should be robust enough to handle different wear and climate conditions. Another change is that manufacturer and model of all test bullets will be standardized, reducing the variability in the test results.

7 Major Changes for NIJ Standard .04 Compared to .06
Increased Shots Required for Soft Armor  Old .04 requirement = 48 shots p-bfs  New .06 requirement = 144 shots p-bfs PLUS, the New .06 Standard requires: - 96 shots on new unconditioned armor - 48 shots on artificially aged conditioned armor plus v50 shots (120 shots per caliber)  Old .04 Level III requirement =  New .06 Level III & IV requirement = 24 p-bfs + 24 v50 Old .04 requirement = Total  New .06 requirement = Total 36 (8 each caliber) (18 each caliber with 2 sizes) Increased Shots Required for Hard Armor Increased BFS measurements per model

8 Major Changes for NIJ Standard .04 Compared to .06
Minimum shot to edge distance  Old .04 requirement = Not less than 3” from edge (could be further)  New .06 requirement = Not more than 2” from edge for small caliber and not more than 3” from edge for heavy caliber - 3 shots minimum distance from edge - 3 shots closely spaced within a 3.94” diameter. (ref. pg. 44) (Note: manufacturers can request a certification with shot to edge distance less then the minimum requirement) Shot placement per panel

9 Major Changes for NIJ Standard .04 Compared to .06
Reference Velocity Increases NIJ LEVEL IIA Old .04 requirement Low Caliber 9mm =1120 fps New .06 requirement Low Caliber 9mm =1225 fps Old .04 requirement High Caliber 40 S&W =1055 fps New .06 requirement High Caliber 40 S&W =1155 fps NIJ LEVEL II Old .04 requirement Low Caliber 9mm =1205 fps New .06 requirement Low Caliber 9mm =1305 fps Old .04 requirement High Caliber .357 Mag =1430 fps New .06 requirement High Caliber .357 Mag = Remains the same NIJ LEVEL IIIA Old .04 requirement Low Caliber .357 Sig replaces 9mm new Velocity of 1470 fps Old .04 requirement High Caliber 44 Magnum =1430 fps New .06 requirement High Caliber 44 Magnum =Remains the same

10 Major Changes for NIJ Standard .04 Compared to .06
Fig. 1 Wet Testing - Old .04 Requirement = 6 minute spray - New .06 Requirement = 30 minute vertical submersion – See Fig. 1 - Tumbling duration = 10 days - Tumbling rate = 5 rpm = 72,000 total revolutions - Temperature = 149 degrees - Relative humidity = 80% “ This protocol will not predict the service life of the armor nor does it simulate an exact period of time in the field” – NIJ July 2008 - All body armor manufacturers must submit the largest and smallest sizes they intend to offer for sale. Only sizes within the tested range will be certified sizes. If either size fails there is no certification. Artificial Aging – Soft Armor Systems Testing Size Ranges


12 Impact of New NIJ .06 Standards for Law Enforcement
Ballistic Resistance of Body Armor NIJ Standard will greatly increase the safety of our nation’s law enforcement officers. The enhanced conditioning of the armor to gauge the effects of heat, moisture and wear is perhaps the best approximation for determining its long term effectiveness. The testing of used armor is also important for achieving this goal. The increased test velocities for the P-BFS testing and new performance requirements for BL testing help ensure officers in the reliability of their armor. Overall, this new standard is a great improvement upon the old standard and will help save the lives of officers who are shot in the line of duty.

NIJ CERTIFICATIONS Point Blank Enterprises has more NIJ .06 certified products than any other body armor manufacturer in the industry Meet and exceed the requirements of NIJ Models for both male and female officers Variety of ballistic packages from sizes C1-C5

14 Commitment to Innovation
Point Blank Enterprises and its subsidiaries (Point Blank Body Armor, Protective Products Enterprises, PACA Body Armor and Paraclete) are focused on developing the lightest, most flexible body armor systems with the greatest ballistic strength. The ways in which this is accomplished and how we can differentiate from the competition is through innovation. Our R&D team, working in tandem with product design, sales and marketing, and manufacturing/quality assurance, develops solutions based upon customer needs. We take real-time feedback from soldiers, law officers and federal agents and then work with our supply chain partners to develop new ballistic packages and solutions. R&D starts with fibers – which is why our relationships with the world’s leading fiber companies provide us with unique insight and advantages. We are now at the cusp of the next major shift and advancing protective solutions. Developing strategic supply partners to advance development of protection technologies

15 Research & Development Capabilities
Today, Point Blank’s comprehensive approach to product development continues to set the industry benchmark for ballistic armor technology. Our industry leading research and development team is comprised of chemical engineers, polymer chemists, ballistics specialists and seasoned law enforcement and military professionals 15

16 Advanced Ballistic Testing Capabilities
All of Point Blank’s ballistic systems are pre-tested and undergo a full spectrum evaluation and analysis before it is approved for NIJ, International or First Article Certification Testing. This evaluation includes the following: Development of baseline V50 data for both heavy and light caliber NIJ protocol pass / fail testing Back Face Signature (BFS) testing with maximum limits established Fragmentation simulating projectile (FSP) testing on military or selected models Special threats testing on selected models 16

17 World Class Technology & Testing Center
Point Blank’s multi-million dollar Technology Center includes two 75 feet ballistic shooting test ranges. The ranges are equipped to meet all of the requirements of an NIJ Certified ballistic testing facility and are capable of testing a full spectrum of projectiles from 22 to 50 caliber projectiles or bullets, as well as 2, 4, 6, 16 and 64 grain fragment simulating projectiles (FSP). 17

18 Live-Fire Shoot Demonstrations
Point Blank routinely conducts Live-Fire Shoot Demonstrations for law enforcement agencies nationwide. These shoots consistently demonstrate the exceptional performance of our industry leading ballistic systems.

19 Commitment to Saving Lives
"On the morning of November 23, 2008, Agent Gerald Harrigan was working a security detail outside of 847 E. 11th Ave. During his tour, a large disturbance broke out inside listed establishment which resulted in Agent Harrigan as well as other security personnel having to respond inside in an attempt to break up the numerous fights now taking place. Once inside, Agent Harrigan approached an unknown male who was still actively involved in a disturbance, as he did Agent Harrigan was forced to deploy his issued stun gun, striking this male in the upper body. Immediately after this contact, this male pulled a small caliber handgun from his waist, pointed it at Agent Harrigan, and fired one shot, striking Agent Harrigan in the right upper chest area. Serious injury or death was averted this evening because Agent Harrigan was wearing his issued Point Blank body armor. Agent Harrigan was truly “saved by the vest.” Letter From Detective Randy A. VanVorhis, National Investigation and Protection Agency - (January 5, 2009) 19

Protecting the Protectors for Over 30 Years INNOVATION ◙ PRODUCTION TRADITION ◙ LEADERSHIP

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