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I. Jefferson Becomes President (pages 307–309)  Nation’s new capital, Washington, D.C., located on Potomac River.  City contained only 2 prominent buildings.

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Presentation on theme: "I. Jefferson Becomes President (pages 307–309)  Nation’s new capital, Washington, D.C., located on Potomac River.  City contained only 2 prominent buildings."— Presentation transcript:

1 I. Jefferson Becomes President (pages 307–309)  Nation’s new capital, Washington, D.C., located on Potomac River.  City contained only 2 prominent buildings  White House  unfinished Capitol  Adams & his wife Abigail are 1 st prez. And 1 st lady to live there.

2 I. Jefferson Becomes President (pages 307–309)  Rematch election in 1800  In election of 1800, Republicans- Jefferson for prez. & Aaron Burr for v.p.  Federalists-John Adams for prez. & Charles Pinckney from SC for v.p.  Election of 1800 is considered 1 of ugliest prez. campaigns in U.S. history  Slander/ personal attacks  Candidates publicized their views by writing in newspapers & in letters to people.

3 I. Jefferson Becomes President (pages 307–309)  Jefferson & Burr tied for most votes  House of Reps had to decide election.  Hamilton used his influence!  1 Federalist in House decided not to vote for Burr, so Jefferson became prez. & Burr became v.p.

4 I. Jefferson Becomes President (pages 307–309)  Congress ratified 12th Amendment in 1804  Requires electors to vote for prez. & v.p. on separate ballots.  This amendment would prevent another tie btwn. prez. & v.p. candidate.

5  3 rd prez of US  1 of only 2 prez (Adams) who signed Declaration of Independence.  1st prez to be inaugurated in Washington, D.C.  1st prez to shake hands instead of bow to people.  1st prez to have grandchild born in White House.  His library of approximately 6,000 books became basis for Library of Congress.  His books were purchased from him for $23,950.

6  Kept mockingbird who rode on his shoulder in White House. He even trained the bird to take bits of food held between his lips!  Lewis & Clark brought him bears which were displayed in cages on White House lawn- sometimes WH was referred to as "president's bear garden."  Was once given a 1,235 pound hunk of cheese, giving us term "the big cheese."  Played the violin  Suggested the decimal system of money we use  Wrote over 20,000 letters in his lifetime  Founded, designed & built University of Virginia.  Took a cold foot bath every morning for 60 years  Once ate a tomato in public to prove it wasn't poisonous  Owned 200 slaves


8 I. Jefferson Becomes President (pages 307–309)  Jefferson tried to reach out to Federalists in his inaugural address.  “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists”  He also emphasized reducing power of fed. govt.  This idea is similar to French philosophy laissez-faire, which means “let (people) do (as they choose).”

9 I. Jefferson Becomes President (pages 307–309)  Jefferson’s administration was small compared to those of today.  This followed his idea of limited national govt.  Jefferson appointed  James Madison as secretary of state  Albert Gallatin as secretary of treasury.  Jefferson & Gallatin wanted to reduce national debt & they cut military expenses to do so.

10  TJ also pardoned those jailed under Sedition Act  He asked Congress to change application for citizenship back to 5 yr. waiting period  So more “common” people could be part of country  Kept some Federalists ideas/people  Kept BUS that he had been so opposed to  Paid off state debts that had been taken over by fed. Govt.  Let Federalists keep their gov’t jobs

11  Judiciary Act of 1801 increased # of fed. judges.  Before leaving office, Adams filled many judicial positions w/ Federalists so Federalists could control courts.  These judges known as “midnight judges.”  After Jefferson was elected, he told Secretary of State Madison not to deliver outstanding commissions (jobs).  To force delivery of his commission, William Marbury took case to Supreme Court. II. Jefferson’s Policies (pages 308–309)

12  Chief Justice John Marshall turned down Marbury’s claim.  Decision known as Marbury v. Madison  Even though Madison was not found in the wrong Jefferson not happy because case made Supreme Court stronger II. Jefferson’s Policies (pages 308–309)

13  In Marbury v. Madison Marshall set out 3 principles of judicial review :  Constitution is the supreme law of the land  When there is conflict btwn. Constitution & any other law, Constitution must be followed  The judicial branch has obligation to uphold Constitution.  In several court cases, Marshall broadened power of fed. govt. at expense of states. II. Jefferson’s Policies (pages 308–309)

14  Very intelligent, wealthy VA planter  2nd cousin once removed to Jefferson  Federalist who believed in strong central govt.  Served for over 34 yrs.  Participated in more than 1,000 decisions & authored over 500 opinions.  Instrumental in establishing court's authority in national govt.  During his time, Supreme Court began issuing single majority opinions, enabling it to speak w/ more united voice.  Rulings during this era strengthened federal power over states.

15 I. Western Territory (page 313)  Early 1800s more people moved west in search of land & adventure.  Most pioneers were farmers.  Loaded their possessions on Conestoga wagons to make journey across Appalachian Mts.  U.S. territory extended only to Mississippi R  Land west belonged to Spain.  This land was enormous, extending south to New Orleans & west to Rocky Mts.

16  In 1800 most Americans lived btw Atlantic coast & Appalachian Mtns.  Roads had not really been created for land west of Appalachian Mt.- no one lived there  Farmers in west had to send their produce down MS R. to New Orleans to ship off to rest of world


18 I. Western Territory (page 313)  Spanish allowed pioneers who established farms along rivers that fed into Mississippi R. to use river to New Orleans to trade.  In 1802 Jefferson learned that Spain & France had made agreement that transferred Louisiana Territory to France.  He sent Robert Livingston & James Monroe to negotiate purchase of New Orleans & other French territory.  Gave them $10 million budget  At 1st Talleyrand (remember XYZ) isn’t interested

19  France colonized islands in W. Indies/ Caribbean  1 of most successful colonies of France is Santo Domingo (now Haiti)

20 I. Western Territory (page 313)  Napoleon Bonaparte, France’s leader, wanted to use Santo Domingo as naval base.  However, enslaved plantation workers led by Toussaint-Louverture, revolted & declared colony indep.  French troops tried to regain control, but they were defeated.  Santo Domingo became Republic of Haiti.

21 I. Western Territory (page 313)  As things looked worse in Haiti & Napoleon lost ground in Europe things changed  Napoleon gave up ideas of N. American empire  Needed $ to fund wars in Europe

22  Instead of just N.O. & western FL Talleyrand offers U.S. all of LA!!  Monroe & Livingston didn’t have permission to do this but Jefferson wanted control of MS R.  Decided it was too good offer & negotiated $15 mill. price

23  Remember Jefferson is strict constitutionalist  Const. didn’t mention buying land  He struggles w/ this but finds peace w/ his actions because Const. does give prez. power to make treaties  Senate approved “treaty” signed on Apr. 30, 1803.  U.S. now owns more than 800,000 sq. mi. of land from the MS R. to Rocky Mts. II. The Nation Expands (pages 314–317)

24  Jefferson persuaded Congress to sponsor expedition west into new territory.  Jefferson chose Meriwether Lewis & William Clark to lead journey.  Left St. Louis in 1804 & worked its way up Missouri R.  Along way, crew encountered Shoshone woman- Sacagawea -joined group as guide.  Traveled for 18 mos., returning w/ valuable info. about plants, people, & animals they encountered. II. The Nation Expands (pages 314–317)

25  Jefferson’s orders:  Map route to Pacific Ocean  Study plant & animal life, climate, minerals  Learn about N. Am. tribes in areas- steal trade from other countries II. The Nation Expands (pages 314–317)

26  Kept meticulous journals- stunned by different scenery, wildlife…  L&C brought many trinkets to trade & butter up N. Am.- mirrors, medals w/ US seal, beads, knives, blankets, sewing needles & fish hooks

27  Sacajawea was incredibly helpful  Knew plants to eat- wild vegetables, where to fish & hunt, healing plants & herbs…  Encountering Shoshone tribe she found her brother was among them- Shoshones then supplied horses & food for trip & told of best route over Rockies  U.S. has honored Sacajawea’s contribution in many ways: Sacajawea State Park, Lake Sacajawea, Sacajawea Monument & Sacajawea dollar

28  Jefferson sent Zebulon Pike on 2 expeditions into area now known as CO.  Pike’s Peak in Colorado  Went little too far south into Spanish territory & was captured- all info. confiscated II. The Nation Expands (pages 314–317)

29  Because of Pike’s & Lewis & Clark’s expeditions, Americans are excited about possibilities that lie to west.  Use maps they created  So many people move in & around N.O. that territory applies & is accepted for statehood in 1812- becomes LA  Not yet, but in near future there will be mass migration west.

30  Federalists in MA planned to secede (withdraw) from U.S.  They disagreed w/ Louisiana Purchase.  Federalists thought Republicans would gain support of new territory & further weaken Federalist Party.  To succeed, Federalists needed NY to support them, so they gave Burr their support when he ran for gov. of NY. II. The Nation Expands (pages 314–317)

31  Federalists in MA planned to secede (withdraw) from U.S.  They disagreed w/ Louisiana Purchase.  Federalists thought Republicans would gain support of new territory & further weaken Federalist Party.  To succeed, Federalists needed NY to support them II. The Nation Expands (pages 314–317)

32  Federalists gave Aaron Burr their support when he ran for gov. of NY.  Burr had turned Federalist  Hamilton accused Burr of plotting treason  Burr lost & blamed Hamilton  Hamilton & Burr met for a duel.  Burr shot Hamilton, who died next day.  Burr fled country. II. The Nation Expands (pages 314–317)

33  Federalists’ plans for Northern Confederacy failed  Federalists also lost 1804 election.  Jefferson reelected 162 electoral votes to 14 II. The Nation Expands (pages 314–317)

34 I. Creating a Democratic Society (pages 321–322)  During Jefferson’s presidency, nationalism (feeling of pride in nation & loyalty to its goals) spread thru/out country.  Many Americans came to believe (as Jefferson did) that a strong democracy depended on education.  Success of public schools in MA & Philadelphia increased demands for nationwide system of public schools.

35 I. Creating a Democratic Society (pages 321–322)  Religious revival known as 2 nd Great Awakening stressed equality of all believers before God & promise of salvation for all who believed.  Gave people determination to better their lives & society.  Citizens influenced by Awakening joined movements to end slavery, curb drinking & advance education.  Many African Americans formed their own churches & denominations at this time.

36  Many Protestants (major religion in U.S.) believed God decided in advance who would go to heaven- predestination  Because they believed things were predestined people felt they could not & should not try to change society  Finney was leader of 2 nd Great Awakening  Powerful speaker who inspired many  Wrote articles giving tips on effective preaching  Strongly believed in complete reformation of whole world- starting with self Charles Grandison Finney

37  Emphasized adult baptism.  Stressed equality of all men & women before God- women could now pray aloud in church!  Looked toward redemption of society & 2nd Coming of Christ & his era of peace.

38  American writers began using settings & characters that were typically American.  Washington Irving wrote The Sketch Book ( collection of short stories set in America)  Best known for short stories "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" & "Rip Van Winkle". II. An American Culture (pages 322–325)

39  James Fenimore Cooper wrote novels about American folk-heroes.  best known for his stories of frontier life & pioneer adventure  Most popular work is The Last of the Mohicans (1832) which is part of the Leatherstocking series w/main character Natty Bumppo  Natty-man straddling 2 worlds  William Cullen Bryant wrote poems about nature. II. An American Culture (pages 322–325)

40  Edgar Allan Poe  Nathanial Hawthorne- The Scarlet Letter  Herman Melville- Moby Dick  African American- William Wells- Clotel or The President’s Daughter-1 st Af. American novel  Some women were top sellers, not very popular today  Catherine Sedgwick  Fanny Fern  Stories often of women triumphing over adversity or because of their virtues  Hawthorne called these successful women writers “mob of scribbling women”

41  American artists began focusing on American subjects.  George Caleb Bingham painted fur traders, riverboat workers, & political speakers.  George Catlin painted scenes of Nat. American daily life.  Thomas Doughty painted views of Catskill Mtns. II. An American Culture (pages 322–325)

42  Americans developed their own forms of music & instruments, such as banjos & pianos.  Stephen C. Foster composed songs about American South.  "Camptown Races" "Swanee River", "My Old Kentucky Home" &"Jeannie With the Light Brown Hair" II. An American Culture (pages 322–325)

43  American architects created their own forms of building based on classical Greek & Roman styles.  These styles became models for public buildings. II. An American Culture (pages 322–325)

44  Americans begin to develop own style  Hudson River School- located along Hudson River area painted landscapes  Thomas Cole  Asher B. Durand  Af. Am. Robert S. Duncanson

45  Thomas Cole paintings

46  George Caleb Bingham- from Missouri; hard working country folk  Some painters painted N. Am. Life  George Catlin  Alfred Jacob Miller

47 George Caleb Bingham

48 George Catlin

49  People in North lived in villages & towns, w/ farm communities on outskirts.  Farming was major economic activity in North.  People in South lived on widely separated farms, & their economy depended on slavery.  Slavery set South apart from rest of country. III.A Rural Nation (pages 326–327)

50  Planters (large landowners) became South’s economic & social leaders.  They began farming cotton as cash crop.  It was very successful  Increased cotton production led to increased demand for enslaved people to work in cotton fields. III.A Rural Nation (pages 326–327)

51  Most enslaved people worked on farms & plantations.  Enslaved men generally worked in fields  Enslaved women generally performed housekeeping chores.  Some enslaved people worked in South’s towns & cities as coach drivers, household servants, & artisans. III.A Rural Nation (pages 326–327)

52  Many Americans began living in cities.  Cities in North were booming (doing well).  South had fewer towns &cities.  Mills & factories in North grew in 1800s  Rise in industry incr. gap btwn. rich & poor.  Wealthy merchants controlled urban economic & social life. III.A Rural Nation (pages 326–327)

53  Middle class of artisans, shopkeepers, & professionals had some prosperity.  Growing working class had to struggle to survive.  Northern cities drew many free African Americans.  Although many northerners opposed slavery, free African Americans faced many barriers to full equality.  Discrimination/prejudice  No voting rights  Excluded from schools, churches… III.A Rural Nation (pages 326–327)

54  Settlers moved West  to escape growing populations & taxes in East  to claim new land.  Settlers cut down trees to build log cabins & clear land for farming. IV.Westward Movement (pages 328–329)

55  Pioneers met w/ many struggles on frontier, including:  An uncertain climate,  Limited supplies,  Crops that failed,  Loneliness  Difficult transportation conditions. IV.Westward Movement (pages 328–329)

56  Settlers came into conflict w/ Nat. Americans- developed ways to resist & survive settlers.  Some like Cherokee, tried to adjust peacefully hoping to stop more land loss & defend freedom.  Adopted laws & a constitution modeled after American states.  Accepted Christianity  Settled down as farmers, mill owners, & shopkeepers.  Others, such as Shawnee & Creek, prepared for armed resistance. IV.Westward Movement (pages 328–329)

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