Presentation on theme: "I. Jefferson Becomes President (pages 307–309) Nation’s new capital, Washington, D.C., located on Potomac River. City contained only 2 prominent buildings."— Presentation transcript:
I. Jefferson Becomes President (pages 307–309) Nation’s new capital, Washington, D.C., located on Potomac River. City contained only 2 prominent buildings White House unfinished Capitol Adams & his wife Abigail are 1 st prez. And 1 st lady to live there.
I. Jefferson Becomes President (pages 307–309) Rematch election in 1800 In election of 1800, Republicans- Jefferson for prez. & Aaron Burr for v.p. Federalists-John Adams for prez. & Charles Pinckney from SC for v.p. Election of 1800 is considered 1 of ugliest prez. campaigns in U.S. history Slander/ personal attacks Candidates publicized their views by writing in newspapers & in letters to people.
I. Jefferson Becomes President (pages 307–309) Jefferson & Burr tied for most votes House of Reps had to decide election. Hamilton used his influence! 1 Federalist in House decided not to vote for Burr, so Jefferson became prez. & Burr became v.p.
I. Jefferson Becomes President (pages 307–309) Congress ratified 12th Amendment in 1804 Requires electors to vote for prez. & v.p. on separate ballots. This amendment would prevent another tie btwn. prez. & v.p. candidate.
3 rd prez of US 1 of only 2 prez (Adams) who signed Declaration of Independence. 1st prez to be inaugurated in Washington, D.C. 1st prez to shake hands instead of bow to people. 1st prez to have grandchild born in White House. His library of approximately 6,000 books became basis for Library of Congress. His books were purchased from him for $23,950.
Kept mockingbird who rode on his shoulder in White House. He even trained the bird to take bits of food held between his lips! Lewis & Clark brought him bears which were displayed in cages on White House lawn- sometimes WH was referred to as "president's bear garden." Was once given a 1,235 pound hunk of cheese, giving us term "the big cheese." Played the violin Suggested the decimal system of money we use Wrote over 20,000 letters in his lifetime Founded, designed & built University of Virginia. Took a cold foot bath every morning for 60 years Once ate a tomato in public to prove it wasn't poisonous Owned 200 slaves
I. Jefferson Becomes President (pages 307–309) Jefferson tried to reach out to Federalists in his inaugural address. “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists” He also emphasized reducing power of fed. govt. This idea is similar to French philosophy laissez-faire, which means “let (people) do (as they choose).”
I. Jefferson Becomes President (pages 307–309) Jefferson’s administration was small compared to those of today. This followed his idea of limited national govt. Jefferson appointed James Madison as secretary of state Albert Gallatin as secretary of treasury. Jefferson & Gallatin wanted to reduce national debt & they cut military expenses to do so.
TJ also pardoned those jailed under Sedition Act He asked Congress to change application for citizenship back to 5 yr. waiting period So more “common” people could be part of country Kept some Federalists ideas/people Kept BUS that he had been so opposed to Paid off state debts that had been taken over by fed. Govt. Let Federalists keep their gov’t jobs
Judiciary Act of 1801 increased # of fed. judges. Before leaving office, Adams filled many judicial positions w/ Federalists so Federalists could control courts. These judges known as “midnight judges.” After Jefferson was elected, he told Secretary of State Madison not to deliver outstanding commissions (jobs). To force delivery of his commission, William Marbury took case to Supreme Court. II. Jefferson’s Policies (pages 308–309)
Chief Justice John Marshall turned down Marbury’s claim. Decision known as Marbury v. Madison Even though Madison was not found in the wrong Jefferson not happy because case made Supreme Court stronger II. Jefferson’s Policies (pages 308–309)
In Marbury v. Madison Marshall set out 3 principles of judicial review : Constitution is the supreme law of the land When there is conflict btwn. Constitution & any other law, Constitution must be followed The judicial branch has obligation to uphold Constitution. In several court cases, Marshall broadened power of fed. govt. at expense of states. II. Jefferson’s Policies (pages 308–309)
Very intelligent, wealthy VA planter 2nd cousin once removed to Jefferson Federalist who believed in strong central govt. Served for over 34 yrs. Participated in more than 1,000 decisions & authored over 500 opinions. Instrumental in establishing court's authority in national govt. During his time, Supreme Court began issuing single majority opinions, enabling it to speak w/ more united voice. Rulings during this era strengthened federal power over states.
I. Western Territory (page 313) Early 1800s more people moved west in search of land & adventure. Most pioneers were farmers. Loaded their possessions on Conestoga wagons to make journey across Appalachian Mts. U.S. territory extended only to Mississippi R Land west belonged to Spain. This land was enormous, extending south to New Orleans & west to Rocky Mts.
In 1800 most Americans lived btw Atlantic coast & Appalachian Mtns. Roads had not really been created for land west of Appalachian Mt.- no one lived there Farmers in west had to send their produce down MS R. to New Orleans to ship off to rest of world
I. Western Territory (page 313) Spanish allowed pioneers who established farms along rivers that fed into Mississippi R. to use river to New Orleans to trade. In 1802 Jefferson learned that Spain & France had made agreement that transferred Louisiana Territory to France. He sent Robert Livingston & James Monroe to negotiate purchase of New Orleans & other French territory. Gave them $10 million budget At 1st Talleyrand (remember XYZ) isn’t interested
France colonized islands in W. Indies/ Caribbean 1 of most successful colonies of France is Santo Domingo (now Haiti)
I. Western Territory (page 313) Napoleon Bonaparte, France’s leader, wanted to use Santo Domingo as naval base. However, enslaved plantation workers led by Toussaint-Louverture, revolted & declared colony indep. French troops tried to regain control, but they were defeated. Santo Domingo became Republic of Haiti.
I. Western Territory (page 313) As things looked worse in Haiti & Napoleon lost ground in Europe things changed Napoleon gave up ideas of N. American empire Needed $ to fund wars in Europe
Instead of just N.O. & western FL Talleyrand offers U.S. all of LA!! Monroe & Livingston didn’t have permission to do this but Jefferson wanted control of MS R. Decided it was too good offer & negotiated $15 mill. price
Remember Jefferson is strict constitutionalist Const. didn’t mention buying land He struggles w/ this but finds peace w/ his actions because Const. does give prez. power to make treaties Senate approved “treaty” signed on Apr. 30, U.S. now owns more than 800,000 sq. mi. of land from the MS R. to Rocky Mts. II. The Nation Expands (pages 314–317)
Jefferson persuaded Congress to sponsor expedition west into new territory. Jefferson chose Meriwether Lewis & William Clark to lead journey. Left St. Louis in 1804 & worked its way up Missouri R. Along way, crew encountered Shoshone woman- Sacagawea -joined group as guide. Traveled for 18 mos., returning w/ valuable info. about plants, people, & animals they encountered. II. The Nation Expands (pages 314–317)
Jefferson’s orders: Map route to Pacific Ocean Study plant & animal life, climate, minerals Learn about N. Am. tribes in areas- steal trade from other countries II. The Nation Expands (pages 314–317)
Kept meticulous journals- stunned by different scenery, wildlife… L&C brought many trinkets to trade & butter up N. Am.- mirrors, medals w/ US seal, beads, knives, blankets, sewing needles & fish hooks
Sacajawea was incredibly helpful Knew plants to eat- wild vegetables, where to fish & hunt, healing plants & herbs… Encountering Shoshone tribe she found her brother was among them- Shoshones then supplied horses & food for trip & told of best route over Rockies U.S. has honored Sacajawea’s contribution in many ways: Sacajawea State Park, Lake Sacajawea, Sacajawea Monument & Sacajawea dollar
Jefferson sent Zebulon Pike on 2 expeditions into area now known as CO. Pike’s Peak in Colorado Went little too far south into Spanish territory & was captured- all info. confiscated II. The Nation Expands (pages 314–317)
Because of Pike’s & Lewis & Clark’s expeditions, Americans are excited about possibilities that lie to west. Use maps they created So many people move in & around N.O. that territory applies & is accepted for statehood in becomes LA Not yet, but in near future there will be mass migration west.
Federalists in MA planned to secede (withdraw) from U.S. They disagreed w/ Louisiana Purchase. Federalists thought Republicans would gain support of new territory & further weaken Federalist Party. To succeed, Federalists needed NY to support them, so they gave Burr their support when he ran for gov. of NY. II. The Nation Expands (pages 314–317)
Federalists in MA planned to secede (withdraw) from U.S. They disagreed w/ Louisiana Purchase. Federalists thought Republicans would gain support of new territory & further weaken Federalist Party. To succeed, Federalists needed NY to support them II. The Nation Expands (pages 314–317)
Federalists gave Aaron Burr their support when he ran for gov. of NY. Burr had turned Federalist Hamilton accused Burr of plotting treason Burr lost & blamed Hamilton Hamilton & Burr met for a duel. Burr shot Hamilton, who died next day. Burr fled country. II. The Nation Expands (pages 314–317)
Federalists’ plans for Northern Confederacy failed Federalists also lost 1804 election. Jefferson reelected 162 electoral votes to 14 II. The Nation Expands (pages 314–317)
I. Creating a Democratic Society (pages 321–322) During Jefferson’s presidency, nationalism (feeling of pride in nation & loyalty to its goals) spread thru/out country. Many Americans came to believe (as Jefferson did) that a strong democracy depended on education. Success of public schools in MA & Philadelphia increased demands for nationwide system of public schools.
I. Creating a Democratic Society (pages 321–322) Religious revival known as 2 nd Great Awakening stressed equality of all believers before God & promise of salvation for all who believed. Gave people determination to better their lives & society. Citizens influenced by Awakening joined movements to end slavery, curb drinking & advance education. Many African Americans formed their own churches & denominations at this time.
Many Protestants (major religion in U.S.) believed God decided in advance who would go to heaven- predestination Because they believed things were predestined people felt they could not & should not try to change society Finney was leader of 2 nd Great Awakening Powerful speaker who inspired many Wrote articles giving tips on effective preaching Strongly believed in complete reformation of whole world- starting with self Charles Grandison Finney
Emphasized adult baptism. Stressed equality of all men & women before God- women could now pray aloud in church! Looked toward redemption of society & 2nd Coming of Christ & his era of peace.
American writers began using settings & characters that were typically American. Washington Irving wrote The Sketch Book ( collection of short stories set in America) Best known for short stories "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" & "Rip Van Winkle". II. An American Culture (pages 322–325)
James Fenimore Cooper wrote novels about American folk-heroes. best known for his stories of frontier life & pioneer adventure Most popular work is The Last of the Mohicans (1832) which is part of the Leatherstocking series w/main character Natty Bumppo Natty-man straddling 2 worlds William Cullen Bryant wrote poems about nature. II. An American Culture (pages 322–325)
Edgar Allan Poe Nathanial Hawthorne- The Scarlet Letter Herman Melville- Moby Dick African American- William Wells- Clotel or The President’s Daughter-1 st Af. American novel Some women were top sellers, not very popular today Catherine Sedgwick Fanny Fern Stories often of women triumphing over adversity or because of their virtues Hawthorne called these successful women writers “mob of scribbling women”
American artists began focusing on American subjects. George Caleb Bingham painted fur traders, riverboat workers, & political speakers. George Catlin painted scenes of Nat. American daily life. Thomas Doughty painted views of Catskill Mtns. II. An American Culture (pages 322–325)
Americans developed their own forms of music & instruments, such as banjos & pianos. Stephen C. Foster composed songs about American South. "Camptown Races" "Swanee River", "My Old Kentucky Home" &"Jeannie With the Light Brown Hair" II. An American Culture (pages 322–325)
American architects created their own forms of building based on classical Greek & Roman styles. These styles became models for public buildings. II. An American Culture (pages 322–325)
Americans begin to develop own style Hudson River School- located along Hudson River area painted landscapes Thomas Cole Asher B. Durand Af. Am. Robert S. Duncanson
Thomas Cole paintings
George Caleb Bingham- from Missouri; hard working country folk Some painters painted N. Am. Life George Catlin Alfred Jacob Miller
George Caleb Bingham
People in North lived in villages & towns, w/ farm communities on outskirts. Farming was major economic activity in North. People in South lived on widely separated farms, & their economy depended on slavery. Slavery set South apart from rest of country. III.A Rural Nation (pages 326–327)
Planters (large landowners) became South’s economic & social leaders. They began farming cotton as cash crop. It was very successful Increased cotton production led to increased demand for enslaved people to work in cotton fields. III.A Rural Nation (pages 326–327)
Most enslaved people worked on farms & plantations. Enslaved men generally worked in fields Enslaved women generally performed housekeeping chores. Some enslaved people worked in South’s towns & cities as coach drivers, household servants, & artisans. III.A Rural Nation (pages 326–327)
Many Americans began living in cities. Cities in North were booming (doing well). South had fewer towns &cities. Mills & factories in North grew in 1800s Rise in industry incr. gap btwn. rich & poor. Wealthy merchants controlled urban economic & social life. III.A Rural Nation (pages 326–327)
Middle class of artisans, shopkeepers, & professionals had some prosperity. Growing working class had to struggle to survive. Northern cities drew many free African Americans. Although many northerners opposed slavery, free African Americans faced many barriers to full equality. Discrimination/prejudice No voting rights Excluded from schools, churches… III.A Rural Nation (pages 326–327)
Settlers moved West to escape growing populations & taxes in East to claim new land. Settlers cut down trees to build log cabins & clear land for farming. IV.Westward Movement (pages 328–329)
Pioneers met w/ many struggles on frontier, including: An uncertain climate, Limited supplies, Crops that failed, Loneliness Difficult transportation conditions. IV.Westward Movement (pages 328–329)
Settlers came into conflict w/ Nat. Americans- developed ways to resist & survive settlers. Some like Cherokee, tried to adjust peacefully hoping to stop more land loss & defend freedom. Adopted laws & a constitution modeled after American states. Accepted Christianity Settled down as farmers, mill owners, & shopkeepers. Others, such as Shawnee & Creek, prepared for armed resistance. IV.Westward Movement (pages 328–329)