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Aboriginal History in Canada. What’s in a name? Indian-historical term, not politically correct Native- a person who was born in a particular place First.

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Presentation on theme: "Aboriginal History in Canada. What’s in a name? Indian-historical term, not politically correct Native- a person who was born in a particular place First."— Presentation transcript:

1 Aboriginal History in Canada

2 What’s in a name? Indian-historical term, not politically correct Native- a person who was born in a particular place First Nations-refers to only certain groups, not including Métis or Inuit Aboriginal Peoples-all encompassing

3 Contact- 1700’s The arrival of Samuel de Champlain, the father of New France, on the site of Quebec City GBR wins ‘7 year war’. Royal proclamation confirms GBR / Aboriginal relations

4 1862-Small Pox WIPE OUT Smallpox wiped out approximately 1/3 of the First Nations population

5 1867- Confederation (BNA Act) Canadian expansion 1869 Imposed Canadian sovereignty 1869 Red River Rebellion Led by Louis Riel Hanged for treason on November 16 th, 1885

6 1876-The Indian Act ‘Indian Agents’ assigned to First Nations people First nations people are “encouraged” to move into reservations (far from traditional hunting ground and resources)

7 Residential Schools Established 1870’s Assimilation is their main goal Church run

8 This is a picture of “the mush hole”. It is the name given to the Mohawk Institute located in Brantford. This is about 45 minutes away from here. Most children were seven years old when they arrived Children were forbidden from speaking their own language There was almost no contact with their families (once a year, maybe) Living conditions were inhumane (bad food, improper clothing, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse) This went on for over 100 years. That is over four generations.

9 In 1907 Dr. P. Bryce, Chief Medical Officer of the Dept. of Indian Affairs, reports that at least 25% of students who have attended residential schools have died

10 The last Government-run residential school closed in Saskatchewan in 1996

11 Video testimony from a former student at a residential school

12 Native contributions to Canada in the 20 th Century

13 At the turn of the century Who is included in this picture? Who is missing? What vision of Canada is it promoting? How does this cartoon represent colonization?

14 1910s 35% of Aboriginal men enlist for WW1 The 1911 census shows Aboriginal population at their lowest recorded point in history (106,000) Treaties being signed

15 1920’s & 1930’s Ceremonies banned (potlatch and sun dance) No national Aboriginal organization allowed Longhouse government banned and impose elected band council 70 residential schools in operation

16 1940’s & 1950’s  Aboriginal participation in WWII is high  Tommy Prince (shown right) becomes most decorated Aboriginal soldier in WWII  1950- Indian Act overhauled with Aboriginal participation

17 1960’s & 1970’s  “Indians” get the right to vote (1960)  Creation of National Indian Brotherhood (later Assembly of First Nations)  Federal White Paper recommends termination of treaties and Indian status

18 Minister of Indian Affairs Jean Chretien proposes the abolition of the Indian Act Rejection of all land claims Assimilation of First Nations people Status the same as other ethnic minorities rather than a distinct group White Paper- 1969

19 1982- Charter of Rights and Freedoms enshrines Aboriginal rights

20 As of December 2005, this is the list of land claims that are still not settled: -Under Review: 626 -Under Negotiation: 122 -In Active Litigation: 71 -In the Indian Specific Claims Commission Process: 35 -Other not settled: 192 -TOTAL UNSETTLED: 1046 -Claims Settled since 1973: 272

21 1927 Aboriginals cannot hire lawyers for land claims Indian Act amended to block effective court action. 1931 Native Brotherhood formed. Aboriginals begin to organize. 1949 First Nations can vote in BC (but not Canada) After fighting for Canada in WWI and WWII, First Nations can finally vote. Japanese also get the vote. WOMEN: 1920 (federal) Some groups, such as Doukhabours (1953), still cannot vote.

22 1951 Parliament repeals anti-potlatch laws & anti-land claims laws 1960 First Nations can vote in Canadian elections. Living standards for aboriginals still far below the rest of the population.

23 1950s Inuit population relocated In a bid to “protect” Canada’s sovereignty over the high north, federal government relocates Inuit families from northern Quebec to the Arctic. Many die.

24 1990 Sparrow Decision (Supreme Court) Musqueam people argue that they have the right to fish and have ceremonial food. Supreme court agrees. 1995 Gustafson Lake standoff Shuswap nation want their sacred land and recognition of their sovereign rights. RCMP launch large military operation, firing 77,000 rounds of ammo, killing a dog and injuring a woman. 15 people sent to jail.

25 1990- Oka crisis 1995- Ipperwash crisis 1 OPP officer killedDudley George killed

26 The Oka Crisis

27 Gustafsen Lake Standoff

28 Gustafsen B.C. Police and Secwepemc First Nation Land dispute ended in gunfire Negotiations failed, police operation launched Police set up land mines around armed Secwepemc camp Activists surrender September 1995 Long trial – 39 acquittals, 21 convictions Conditions improve by 2000

29 Ipperwash Also September 1995 Land dispute from 1942 Small group of protesters occupy the provincial park Protesting slow pace of land claims and destruction of sacred burial ground Police move in – Dudley George shot and killed Land recovered Police used excessive force Officer convicted of criminal negligence Official report finally published – after change of government – Harris refused an inquiry OPP and provincial government share in the responsibility of George’s death Add Inquiry wasn’t held until there was a change in the provincial government – Harris refused Inquiry only finished in August 2006 Several OPP officers exhibit racist behaviour (taped) – go for sensitivity training Harris – “get those fucking Indians out of my park”

30 Ipperwash News footage (strong language)

31 Ipperwash Use the link below to watch the video if the movie does not play.

32 1996 Nisga’a Treaty BC and Nisga'a people sign an agreement for disputed lands.

33 Self Determination 2000 Nisga’a land claim settlement 2,000 square kilometres of land in the Nass valley 300,000 cubic decameter water reservation First formal treaty signed by a First Nation since the Douglas treaties of 1854

34 The green represents the original land claim. The orange and purple is the actual land that the Nisga’a received.

35 Nisga’a Treaty

36 Caledonia Land Claim video clip

37 The next slide is a programme in the Cree language where young people from Davis Inlet talk about their experiences sniffing glue and propane.


39 2007 Saskatchewan became the first province in Canada to proclaim June as Aboriginal History Month

40 2008 $2 billion dollar compensation for survivors of residential schools Official apology


42 UN Declaration 2006- Canada votes against adopting the draft document: “vague and ambiguous, leaving it open to different, and possibly competing, interpretations.” 2007, Canada is 1 of 4 countries to vote against adopting document 2010 Canada signs on despite noting that its “concerns are well known and remain” The document is non-binding

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