Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Learning Targets 1-34 1. 1. I can name key members of our government’s first administration. George Washington President 1789-1797 Commander-in-Chief.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Learning Targets 1-34 1. 1. I can name key members of our government’s first administration. George Washington President 1789-1797 Commander-in-Chief."— Presentation transcript:

1 Learning Targets 1-34 1

2 1. I can name key members of our government’s first administration. George Washington President 1789-1797 Commander-in-Chief only unanimously elected President from Electoral College established two-term precedent 2

3 1. I can name key members of our government’s first administration. John Adams Vice-President 1789-1797 President of the Senate 3

4 1. I can name key members of our government’s first administration. Thomas Jefferson Secretary of State 1789-1797 leader of Democratic-Republicans also known as “Jeffersonians” previously, “antifederalists” 4

5 1. I can name key members of our government’s first administration. Alexander Hamilton Secretary of the Treasury 1789-1797 leader of Federalists proposed “Report on the Public Credit” B.U.S. “funding at par” Assumption Act protective tariff 5

6 1. I can name key members of our government’s first administration. Henry Knox Secretary of War 1789-1797 changed to Department of Defense 1947 6

7 1. I can name key members of our government’s first administration. Edmund Randolph Attorney General 1789-1797 Department of Justice 7

8 2. I can identify the purpose of the Cabinet. A dual capacity administer government activities advise the President regarding department related decisions on other general matters Chosen by President w/ consent of Senate (50% + 1) They serve at the pleasure of the President Congress creates new Cabinet positions 4 in first Cabinet 14 today 8

9 3. I can explain the purpose of and controversy over the National Bank Organization 20 year charter (1791 – 1811) 10 million operating capital 1/5 funded by gov’t. (taxpayer dollars) (20%) 4/5 funded through sale of stock (80%) $400.00 per share Services issue national currency hold federal funds/taxes collect taxes (what today?) grant loans act as central bank for smaller state banks 9

10 3. I can explain the purpose of and controversy over the National Bank Arguments Favors wealthy, moneyed interests Who can afford shares at $400.00 per? Constitutional question? “strict constructionist” view not “enumerated” in constitution, not a delegated power a “narrow” interpretation Thomas Jefferson “loose constructionist” view a “broad” interpretation an “implied” power, derived from delegated power to tax use of “elastic clause”, it is “necessary and proper” to have a bank Alexander Hamilton 10

11 4. I can explain how sectionalism impacted the location of our nation’s capital. Sectionalism placing the interests of one region or section of the nation over the interests of other regions Northeast Shipping, trade, manufacturing South Cash crop agriculture, low tariffs West Roads, canals, 11

12 4. I can explain how sectionalism impacted the location of our nation’s capital. Assumption Act 1791 moved the Capitol from New York to Washington D.C. along the Potomac River in land set aside by the state of Maryland to placate Southern leaders for passage of Alexander Hamilton’s Financial program: funding at “par” of the state/national debt face value low “revenue tariff” “excise” tax on goods produced within nation (Whiskey Rebellion) Bank of the United States 12

13 5. I can distinguish between a strict and loose interpretation of the Constitution “strict construction” not “enumerated” (named or, listed) in constitution not a delegated power “If it isn’t stated in the Constitution, it is forbidden.” Thomas Jefferson’s view of the Bank of the United States “loose construction” an “implied” power, derived from delegated power to tax use of “elastic clause”, it is “necessary and proper” to have a bank Alexander Hamilton’s view of the Bank of the United States 13

14 6. I can compare and contrast the political ideologies of the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans Federalists: national government should be a powerful central government controlled by the “upper class”, who were aristocratic, wealthy, and well educated too much democracy was to be feared common man untrustworthy and ignorant main aim of government to safeguard property and preserve law and order government should encourage and support industry 14

15 6. I can compare and contrast the political ideologies of the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans Federalists: Leaders: Alexander Hamilton, John Adams Supporters: manufacturers, merchants, bankers, holders of large estates; strong in Northeast, Middle States Interpretation of Constitution: “loose construction”, implied powers, strong central government 15

16 6. I can compare and contrast the political ideologies of the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans Federalists: Views on democracy: opposed extension of democracy, distrusted the “masses”, favored rule by the “best” people Views on specific issues: supported Hamilton’s program, a strong central bank, a “protective” tariff, and funding the national debt. Foreign Affairs: friendly to Great Britain, in sympathy with conservatism of the British government 16

17 6. I can compare and contrast the political ideologies of the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans Democratic-Republicans: national government should be weak, with limited power to prevent tyranny strong state governments government run in the interests of all people by well-informed leaders regardless of class background people were to be trusted and given opportunity for education main aim of government was protection of liberty country better if population of independent, land-owning farmers 17

18 6. I can compare and contrast the political ideologies of the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans Democratic-Republicans: Leaders: Thomas Jefferson, James Madison Supporters: Small farmers, plantation owners, laborers, small shopkeepers, (the non-propertied classes); strong in South, West Interpretation of Constitution: “strict interpretation”, “states’ rights”, weak central government 18

19 6. I can compare and contrast the political ideologies of the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans Democratic-Republicans: Views on democracy: favored expansion of democracy, desired rule for the masses by educated leaders, opposed privileged, aristocratic rule Views on specific issues: opposed Hamilton’s program, favored state rather than central banking, against favors to industry (opposed protective tariff) Foreign Affairs: friendly to France and the revolutionary traditions 19

20 7. I can identify the influence of sectionalism on the election of 1796. 20

21 8. I can identify the president responsible for the Alien and Sedition Acts. Alien and Sedition Acts passed by Congress in 1798 signed into law in 1798 John Adams President from 1797 – 1801 Extra Credit: Find a primary source revealing John Adams’ personal feelings on the ideas behind the Alien and Sedition Acts! 21

22 9. I can define the Alien and Sedition Acts. Alien Act - 1798 Allowed the President to deport or jail any alien considered undesirable Naturalization Act - 1798 Raised from 5 to 14 years the residency requirement for immigrants to become U.S. citizens Sedition Act - 1798 Set fines/jail terms for anyone expressing opinions considered damaging to the government 22

23 10. I can articulate the problems with the Alien and Sedition Acts. Alien Act seemed politically motivated to target pro-French sentiments of Democratic-Republican Party Genet Affair Naturalization Act seemed politically motivated to target immigrants more inclined to vote for candidates of Democratic-Republican Party must be a citizen to vote Sedition Act seemed politically motivated to target editors, publishers, and politicians of the Democratic-Republican Party were critical of government pro-British policies violate the free speech/press provisions of the 1 st Amendment 23

24 11. I can recognize the use of states’ rights in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions. “States Rights” the idea that since the states created the national government, they have the right to determine the constitutionality of federal laws! 24

25 11. I can recognize the use of states’ rights in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Argue the “states’ rights theory” that the “states” created the national government therefore, Virginia and Kentucky claim the right to declare the Alien and Sedition Acts unconstitutional in those states because they violated the Bill of Rights. synonymous with “Nullification” theory the states declare “null and void” any federal law going beyond the powers granted by the Constitution to the central government. synonymous with the “compact theory” the “states” created the national government therefore they have the authority to declare laws unconstitutional! 25

26 11. I can recognize the use of states’ rights in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions. “States Rights” theory … … just an “idea”, argued at the time raised the question, who/what declares laws unconstitutional? answered with the case of Marbury vs. Madison the federal courts determine constitutionality of laws! “states rights” in general, destroyed by Civil War! 26

27 12. I can explain how Marbury v. Madison resulted in judicial review. Election of 1800 Democratic-Republicans win Presidency! Democratic-Republicans win majorities in each House of Congress! for first time in short history in the Senate! Hence, Judiciary Act of 1801 Adams appoints several judges on his last day in office “midnight judges” seen as effort to hold on to Judicial Branch as Federalist stronghold 27

28 12. I can explain how Marbury v. Madison resulted in judicial review. James Madison Jefferson’s Secretary of State ordered by Jefferson NOT to deliver “commissions” keep Federalist judges from becoming judges William Marbury one of “midnight judges” a Federalist sues Madison for “commission” “Marbury vs. Madison” 28

29 12. I can explain how Marbury v. Madison resulted in judicial review. John Marshall 4th Chief Justice SCOTUS 1801-1835 repeatedly confirmed the supremacy of federal law over state law 29

30 12. I can explain how Marbury v. Madison resulted in judicial review. John Marshall Federalist perspective on economics and politics Chief Justice for 34 years asserts notion of “supremacy of national government” over the states! establishes principle of “judicial review” declares part of Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional making mute Marbury’s claim extracting himself from unenforceable decision earning for Supreme Court the power of “judicial review” 30

31 13. I can explain the sequence of events that lead to Hamilton’s death. 31

32 14. I can describe the accomplishments of Thomas Jefferson as president. Thomas Jefferson President 1801-1809 election constitutes the: Revolution of 1800 describes the peaceful transition of power from the Federalist to the Democratic-Republicans leader of Democratic-Republican Party 32

33 14. I can describe the accomplishments of Thomas Jefferson as president. 33

34 14. I can describe the accomplishments of Thomas Jefferson as president. Revolution of 1800 peaceful transfer of power from Federalist Party to Democratic- Republican Party re-establish revolutionary era principles Louisiana Purchase doubled size of U.S. territory reduce threat of war w/ Britain & France complete control of Mississippi River “right of deposit” at New Orleans aids western farmers promotes “western” expansion Lewis & Clark Expedition becomes “loose constructionist” no constitutional provision for purchase of land uses treaty-making powers of Constitution 34

35 14. I can describe the accomplishments of Thomas Jefferson as president. Early policies follows policy of “moderation” keeps Bank of the United States pays off debt follows policy of neutrality repeals “excise” tax on whiskey repeals Naturalization Act Alien & Sedition Acts expire Cuts federal expenditures reduces military spending funding for army/navy to bare minimum “Jeff’s”, “mosquito fleet” Embargo Act – 1807 avoids war with Britain & France 35

36 15. I can point out the ways in which Jefferson’s political views are represented in his accomplishments. Inaugural Address “equal & exact justice to all men” “peace, trade, friendship w/ all nations” pledges support of state governments favors militia over “regular” army reinforces civilian over military authority encourages agriculture & commerce urges simplicity in government declares “freedom of speech & press” Louisiana Purchase 36

37 15. I can point out the ways in which Jefferson’s political views are represented in his accomplishments. Inaugural Address “equal & exact justice to all men” repeals Naturalization Act allows Alien/Sedition Acts to expire “peace, trade, friendship w/ all nations” follows policy of neutrality avoids war with Britain & France Embargo Act - 1807 pledges support of state governments “Revolution of 1800” repeals “excise” tax on whiskey favors militia over “regular” army funding for army/navy to bare minimum “mosquito fleet”, Jeff’s” reinforces civilian over military authority follows policy of neutrality cuts military spending repeals excise tax 37

38 15. I can point out the ways in which Jefferson’s political views are represented in his accomplishments. encourages agriculture & commerce keeps Bank of the United States pays off debt repeals excise tax promotes westward expansion Louisiana Purchase urges simplicity in government cuts federal expenditures “Revolution of 1800” peaceful transfer of power from one political party to another declares “freedom of speech & press” allows Alien/Sedition Acts to expire repeals Naturalization Act Louisiana Purchase keeps strict construction by use of treaty-making powers 38

39 16. I can predict the impact that the Louisiana Purchase will have on the development of the U.S. Louisiana Purchase doubled size of U.S. territory acquisition of “natural resources” reduce threat of war w/ Britain & France U.S. will dominate North America complete control of Mississippi River aids trade, commercial growth promotes “western” expansion leads to “Manifest Destiny” war w/ Mexico, threatened war with Britain acquisition of Texas, Oregon claims of Lewis & Clark Expedition 39

40 17. I can describe the relationship that Lewis and Clark had with the Native Americans, specifically Sacagawea. 40

41 18. I can summarize George Washington’s views on governing our nation. 41

42 18. I can summarize George Washington’s views on governing our nation. "The Address of General Washington To The People of The United States on his declining of the Presidency of the United States,“ – 1796 known as Washington’s Farewell Address warns that independence, peace at home and abroad, safety, prosperity, and liberty are all dependent upon the unity between the states supports the Constitution be wary of those wishing to secede right to alter/abolish government only through the Amendment process avoid “entangling alliances” avoid political parties 42

43 19. I can determine whether or not our country follows Washington’s advice today. Washington’s Farewell Address avoid “entangling alliances” advocates a policy of good faith and justice towards all nations urges the American people to avoid long-term friendly relations or rivalries with any nation only lead to unnecessary wars Franco-American Alliance 0f 1778 post Battle of Saratoga ended by John Adams Convention of 1800 United Nations – 1945 N.A.T.O. North Atlantic Treaty Organization – 1947 S.E.A.T.O. Southeast Asia Treaty Organization - 1955 43

44 19. I can determine whether or not our country follows Washington’s advice today. Washington’s Farewell Address avoid political parties every government has recognized political parties as an enemy and has sought to repress them because of their tendency to seek more power than other groups and take revenge on political opponents “… is itself a frightful despotism.” thought “disloyal”* felt they would divide the country Federalists, Democratic-Republicans, National Republicans, Democratic, Whig, Republican, Free-Soil, Liberty, Greenback- Labor, Populist, Green, Republicratic, … 44

45 20. I can debate the value of having political parties in our nation. History not included in original drafting of Constitution! Founding Fathers felt “factions” would divide/destroy nation came into being over objections to Hamilton’s Financial Program Functions provide machinery to avoid deadlocks allow compromise and to settle differences between groups within Party present programs and policies select candidates provide political leadership provide choices for voters 45

46 21. I can predict consequences of having good or bad relationships with other nations. 46

47 22. I can describe the concerns that Native Americans had regarding their future in the early 1800’s. Jefferson to Congress – 1803 “Two measures are deemed expedient. First to encourage them to abandon hunting …. Secondly, to Multiply trading houses among them … leading them thus to agriculture, to manufactures, and civilization…” Zinn p. 126 AP p. 98 Native Americans encouraged to: settle down on smaller tracts farm 47

48 22. I can describe the concerns that Native Americans had regarding their future in the early 1800’s. As white settlers began to move west at the start of the nineteenth century, Native Americans became increasingly hostile. loss of land to farmers, miners, etc… loss of culture, ways of life, … many did not wish to adopt the ways of whites assimilation adopting the culture or, ways of life, of another culture Indian agents were supposed to instruct Indians on how to plow, raise cotton, spin, weave, care for domestic animals, and become skilled in carpentry or blacksmithing Indians also wanted to keep their lands 48

49 22. I can describe the concerns that Native Americans had regarding their future in the early 1800’s. “Five Civilized Tribes” Creek, Choctaw, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Seminole adopted agriculture, a government with bicameral legislature, a court system, a written constitution, a bilingual newspaper, using an alphabet developed by Sequoya owned slaves! 49

50 22. I can describe the concerns that Native Americans had regarding their future in the early 1800’s. Tecumseh’s Confederation Shawnee leader in Old Northwest Indiana, Michigan, etc… united Native-American tribes against white encroachment of their lands “The land, belongs to all, for the use of each …” fought against U.S. government in Creek War and War of 1812 Confederation dissolved after Tecumseh’s death in 1813 Eventually, Indian Removal Act of 1830 forced removal of Native-Americans to the west “Trail of Tears” 50

51 51

52 23. I can identify the causes of the War of 1812. Causes of the War of 1812 violations of “neutral rights” “freedom of the seas” impressment “seizing our ships and impressing our sailors!” national pride at stake War Hawks (Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun) defend nation’s “honor” Economic difficulties Embargo Act - 1807 Closure of European ports South and West blame New England for depression 52

53 23. I can identify the causes of the War of 1812. Causes of the War of 1812 Native-American unrest Northwest presence of British forts believe British are inciting Native attacks Tecumseh South raids into Georgia from Florida Land Hunger demands of Southerner’s, Westerner’s expand into Canada, Florida 53

54 54

55 55  Tecumseh Tecumseh (romanticized)  Tecumseh & William Henry Harrison 

56 23. I can identify the events of the War of 1812. Events of the War of 1812 Invasion of Canada - 1812 poorly equipped American army easily repulsed by British Naval battles some notable victories “privateers” capture many British merchant ships Battle of Lake Erie - 1813 Oliver Hazard Perry defeats British forces “We have met the enemy and they are ours.” Thomas McDonough - 1814 defeats British fleet on Lake Champlain NY forces British to abandon plan to invade NY and New England 56

57 57

58 23. I can identify the events of the War of 1812. Events of the War of 1812 Chesapeake campaign Washington D.C. captured by British – Spring 1814 Presidents (White) House, Capitol, other buildings burned Baltimore – Spring 1814 Fort McHenry holds out after night of bombardment inspires Francis Scott Key’s words Southern campaign Battle of Horseshoe Bend – March 1814 Creek Indians, a British ally, defeated by Andrew Jackson Battle of New Orleans – January 1815 keep Mississippi River out of British hands meaningless Battle as fought weeks after Treaty of Ghent signed makes Jackson a national hero however 58

59 59

60 60

61 61

62 24. I can describe the role of Native Americans in the War of 1812 and the Creek War. During the War of 1812, … Native-Americans allied with Spain and England … … against the Americans led by General Andrew Jackson when the Creek War ended in 1814, … … Creeks were forced to sign the Treaty of Fort Jackson … … ceding some 40,000 square miles of land to the United States Although the Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Cherokee fought for the United States against the Creek … … they, too, were soon pressured to cede their lands 62

63 24. I can describe the role of Native Americans in the War of 1812 and the Creek War. After the War of 1812, Natives forced to exchange their lands for land in Indian Territory present day Oklahoma most Indians fiercely resisted leaving their ancestral homelands States passed laws to ensure jurisdiction over Indians living within their borders President Jackson informed the Indians that the federal government was helpless to interfere with state laws Federal government and Congress actually have jurisdiction he told them their only option was to comply with removal 63

64 25. I can summarize the Treaty of Ghent (War of 1812). Ghent, Belgium December 24, 1814 news slow to reach America so, Battle of New Orleans fought after Treaty was negotiated An “armistice” cease fire a negotiated settlement Terms: end fighting return prisoners establish pre-war boundaries between U.S. and Canada no settlement of issues causing the war: violations of neutral rights “impressment” 64

65 Bonus LT! I can explain the Nullification Crisis concerning the Tariff of Abominations! Tariff of 1816 nation’s first “protective” tariff ask about difference between “revenue” & “protective” tariff’s tax on imports raises prices of foreign goods encourages buying of American-manufactured goods aids American industries supported by all “sections” of nation especially the manufacturing Northeast even the South, a consumer section passed during “Era of Good Feelings” “nationalistic” period 65

66 Bonus LT! I can explain the Nullification Crisis concerning the Tariff of Abominations! Tariff of 1824 tariff rates increase South begins to object John C. Calhoun of South Carolina is spokesperson as imported prices rise, what do you think happens to prices of domestic goods? Tariff of Abominations – 1828 higher rates still “South Carolina Exposition and Protest” anonymously written by John C. Calhoun argues “nullification” “states’ rights” to declare “null and void” tariff law in South Carolina 66

67 Bonus LT! I can explain the Nullification Crisis concerning the Tariff of Abominations! Tariff of 1832 a slight reduction of rates South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification nullifies tariff, threatens to secede! Force Bill Andrew Jackson threatens force if tariff not collected in South Carolina Compromise Tariff of 1833 Henry Clay Great Compromiser reduction of tariff rates over period of 10 years to 1816 levels 67

68 26. I can predict the long-term effect of the Treaty of Ghent on Native Americans. A key reason that American frontiersmen were so much in favor of the war in the first place was … … the threat by various Native American tribes, which they blamed on intervention by British agents in Canada In the Treaty the British promised … … not to arm the Native Americans in the U.S. from Canada nor even trade with them the U.S.-Canada border was largely pacified With the death of Tecumseh in battle in 1813, … … the natives became the main losers in the war, losing British protection, and never regained their influence 68

69 26. I can predict the long-term effect of the Treaty of Ghent on Native Americans. In the Southeast, Andrew Jackson’s destruction of Britain's allies, the Creek Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814, ended the threat of Native American hostilities in that region It opened vast areas in Georgia and Alabama for settlement as plantations and farmlands the U.S. occupied all of West Florida during the war and in 1819 purchased the rest of Florida from Spain, thus closing the base of weapons for hostile tribes Creek Indians who escaped to Spanish Florida joined the Seminoles there, and … … put up a long resistance known as the Seminole Wars 69

70 27. I can describe ways in which Andrew Jackson helped break down social class barriers. Perceived as “common man” from poor background parents were Scots-Irish immigrants actually a wealthy land speculator and slaveholder by time of election Lost Presidency after winning majority of popular vote “corrupt bargain” of 1824 helped propel him to win Presidency in 1828 Inauguration open to public, behaved badly King Mob Fought politically against what he denounced as a closed, undemocratic aristocracy elites in government, business, banking, etc … 70

71 27. I can describe ways in which Andrew Jackson helped break down social class barriers. Killed the “monster” Bank of the United States II saw as tool for the rich, elites … vetoed re-charter bill removed federal funds placed into state “pet banks” Implemented the Spoils System rewarded friends with political jobs Believed in “rotation in office” all citizens capable of serving in government positions 71

72 28. I can compare and contrast the relationship of Andrew Jackson and the Cherokee during the Creek War and during the Indian Removal Act. Creek War Battle of Horseshoe Bend Jackson killed 800 of 1,000 Creeks assisted by Cherokee promised government friendship if they joined the war swam a river to sneak up behind the Creek won the Battle for Jackson! Zinn AP – p. 99 Regular – p. 127 “He got himself appointed treaty commissioner and dictated a treaty in 1814 which took away half the land of the Creek nation.” (Zinn) 72

73 28. I can compare and contrast the relationship of Andrew Jackson and the Cherokee during the Creek War and during the Indian Removal Act. Indian Removal Act - 1830 Jackson informed Natives they were beyond the protection of the government and subject to the laws of the states “I informed the Indians … that their attempt to establish an independent government would not be countenanced by the Executive of the United States, and advised them to emigrate beyond the Mississippi or submit to the laws of those states.” 73

74 28. I can compare and contrast the relationship of Andrew Jackson and the Cherokee during the Creek War and during the Indian Removal Act. Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi pass laws to extend states’ rule over Indians although federal treaties and laws gave Congress authority over the tribes, Jackson as President supported state action against them encouraging them to relocate West Worcester vs. Georgia Jackson refuses to abide by SCOTUS decision entitling the Cherokee to their lands! 74

75 28. I can compare and contrast the relationship of Andrew Jackson and the Cherokee during the Creek War and during the Indian Removal Act. Jackson’s Message to Congress “benevolent policy…happy consummation…obvious advantages” “enable them to pursue happiness in their own way and under their own rude institutions” “Can it be cruel in this government when, by events which it cannot control, the Indian is made discontented in his ancient home to purchase his lands, to give him a new and extensive territory, to pay the expense of his removal, and support him a year in his new abode?” 75

76 28. I can compare and contrast the relationship of Andrew Jackson and the Cherokee during the Creek War and during the Indian Removal Act. Jackson’s Message to Congress “How many thousands of our own people would gladly embrace the opportunity of removing to the West on such conditions! If the offers made to the Indians were extended to them, they would be hailed with gratitude and joy.” “And is it supposed that the wandering savage has a stronger attachment to his home than the settled, civilized Christian?” “Rightly considered, the policy of the General Government toward the red man is not only liberal, but generous.” 76

77 29. I can describe the role of Chief Justice John Marshall in the Indian Removal Act. John Marshall refused to rule on a case brought by the Cherokee Cherokee had no legal standing not a foreign nation, nor a state “domestic dependent nation” brought suit with Samuel Worcester a missionary and U.S. citizen Worcester vs. Georgia SCOTUS recognized Cherokee as a distinct political community state of Georgia not entitled to regulate by law lands Georgia not entitled to invade Jackson refuses to abide by ruling “John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it.” 77

78 30. I can assess the impact of the Indian Removal Act on Native Americans. 78

79 79

80 30. I can assess the impact of the Indian Removal Act on Native Americans. 80

81 30. I can assess the impact of the Indian Removal Act on Native Americans. On May 28, 1830 The Indian Removal Act was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson while Native-American removal was, in theory, supposed to be voluntary, in practice great pressure was put on Native American leaders to sign removal treaties most observers, whether they were in favor of the Indian removal policy or not, realized that the passage of the act meant the inevitable removal of most Indians from the states American settlers' hunger for Indian land led to violent conflict in many cases succeeding treaties generally compelled tribes to cede large areas to the United States government 81

82 30. I can assess the impact of the Indian Removal Act on Native Americans. Trail of Tears marked by outbreaks of cholera, inadequate supplies, bitter cold, and death from starvation and exhaustion the Cherokees' march was a forced one under the direction of the United States army, and it came to be known as the "Trail of Tears" or, in their own term, "The Place Where They Cried." resulted in the deaths of an estimated 4,000 Cherokees removal was a tragedy as thousands of people were forced to leave behind their homes, livestock, crops, and places that had spiritual significance for them 82

83 31. I can identify and describe ways in which Andrew Jackson may have abused power as president. Indian Removal Jackson chose to blatantly disobey a ruling set by the Supreme Court in Worcester vs. Georgia Led to forced removal of Native-American tribes and “Trail of Tears” Spoils System Jackson claimed that to the victor of an election went the ability to fill offices with whomever he wished fired people from certain positions to introduce inexperienced individuals to the position often close friends of Jackson that did not deserve the position they attained. Bank of the U.S. removed federal funds from BUS issued “Specie Circular” declared coins as the only government noted form of money depreciated bank notes which led to economic depression 83

84 32. I can compare and contrast Andrew Jackson’s views and John Burnett’s view of the Indian Removal Act. Andrew Jackson “enable them to pursue happiness in their own way and under their own rude institutions” “cast off their savage habits and become an interesting, civilized, and Christian community.” “And is it supposed that the wandering savage has a stronger attachment to his home than the settled, civilized Christian?” “… policy of the General Government toward the red man is not only liberal, but generous.” 84

85 32. I can compare and contrast Andrew Jackson’s views and John Burnett’s view of the Indian Removal Act. Andrew Jackson believed ethnocentrically, that Native-Americans were uncivilized “savages” is closed-minded to their way of life, believing they should abandon it in favor of a “civilized, Christian” manner of living disregarded the fact that many Natives “assimilated” the ways of whites farmed, created a constitution, bicameral legislature, court system, newspaper, alphabet, and owned slaves! 85

86 32. I can compare and contrast Andrew Jackson’s views and John Burnett’s view of the Indian Removal Act. John G. Burnett intimately associated with the Cherokee hunted, slept around their fires, spoke their language, etc… as interpreter, witnessed the Trail of Tears death of women, children, etc… 4,000 silent graves knew women as kind, tender not prostitutes saw hunger for gold led to shooting in cold blood, homes burned, lands confiscated, inhabitants driven out 86

87 32. I can compare and contrast Andrew Jackson’s views and John Burnett’s view of the Indian Removal Act. John G. Burnett saw men arrested, women dragged, children separated from parents, prodded with bayonets, a mother die with a baby on her back and holding her children’s hands concerned children of today (1890) are not learning the truth referred to as “the soldier that was good to us” by Cherokees in Confederate uniform attests to truthfully stating neither his rifle or knife are stained with Cherokee blood 87

88 33. I can draw conclusions regarding the validity of Jackson and Burnett’s accounts of Indian Removal. Jackson did not see effects of Indian Removal Act on tribes only concerned with benefits whites would receive benefitted from acquisition of Native-American lands Burnett came to know the Native-Americans by living with them witnessed the injustices the Natives suffered first-hand viewed through “egalitarian” lens of the revolution era recognized the common humanity shared by Natives and whites 88

89 34. I can evaluate the impact of the cotton gin on slavery and sectionalism in our nation. Eli Whitney developed cotton gin (engine), 1793 cleaned seeds from cotton with the turn of a crank tremendously increased demand for cotton in land between the Appalachians and Mississippi River small farmers and large plantation owners rush in to grow cotton bring slaves as labor force by 1820, had transformed cotton farming in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama “Cotton Kingdom” greatly accelerated the expansion of slavery 89

90 90

91 34. I can evaluate the impact of the cotton gin on slavery and sectionalism in our nation. Sectionalism South mostly rural society plantations, small farms rely on cotton production and slave labor force to produce it South produces only 10% of nation’s manufactured goods population growth much slower in South few immigrants (slave labor) slow to embrace technological advances use of rivers to transport rather than railroads less wealth generated through production of agricultural products compared to manufactured products of the North 91

92 34. I can evaluate the impact of the cotton gin on slavery and sectionalism in our nation. Sectionalism North Industrialization occurs rapidly factories produce textiles, sewing machines, farm equipment, etc.. 20,000 miles of railroad track laid in 1850’s carried wheat, iron ore, raw materials eastward to factories manufactured goods, settlers westward small towns become large cities telegraph links cities and regions with instant communication immigrants become factory workers or move west to farm, mine, ranch become voters, opposed to slavery slave labor competes with free labor reduce status of white workers who couldn’t compete with slaves 92


Download ppt "Learning Targets 1-34 1. 1. I can name key members of our government’s first administration. George Washington President 1789-1797 Commander-in-Chief."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google