Presentation on theme: "Unit 4: Young Nation & Its Evolution"— Presentation transcript:
1 Unit 4: Young Nation & Its Evolution Learning Targets 1-34
2 1. I can name key members of our government’s first administration. George WashingtonPresidentCommander-in-Chiefonly unanimously elected Presidentfrom Electoral Collegeestablished two-term precedent
3 1. I can name key members of our government’s first administration. John AdamsVice-PresidentPresident of the Senate
4 1. I can name key members of our government’s first administration. Thomas JeffersonSecretary of Stateleader of Democratic-Republicansalso known as “Jeffersonians”previously, “antifederalists”
5 1. I can name key members of our government’s first administration. Alexander HamiltonSecretary of the Treasuryleader of Federalistsproposed “Report on the Public Credit”B.U.S.“funding at par”Assumption Actprotective tariff
6 1. I can name key members of our government’s first administration. Henry KnoxSecretary of Warchanged to Department of Defense1947
7 1. I can name key members of our government’s first administration. Edmund RandolphAttorney GeneralDepartment of Justice
8 2. I can identify the purpose of the Cabinet. A dual capacityadminister government activitiesadvise the Presidentregarding department related decisionson other general mattersChosen by President w/ consent of Senate (50% + 1)They serve at the pleasure of the PresidentCongress creates new Cabinet positions4 in first Cabinet14 today
9 3. I can explain the purpose of and controversy over the National Bank Organization20 year charter (1791 – 1811)10 million operating capital1/5 funded by gov’t. (taxpayer dollars) (20%)4/5 funded through sale of stock (80%)$ per shareServicesissue national currencyhold federal funds/taxescollect taxes (what today?)grant loansact as central bank for smaller state banks
10 3. I can explain the purpose of and controversy over the National Bank ArgumentsFavors wealthy, moneyed interestsWho can afford shares at $ per?Constitutional question?“strict constructionist” viewnot “enumerated” in constitution, not a delegated powera “narrow” interpretationThomas Jefferson“loose constructionist” viewa “broad” interpretationan “implied” power, derived from delegated power to taxuse of “elastic clause”, it is “necessary and proper” to have a bankAlexander Hamilton
11 4. I can explain how sectionalism impacted the location of our nation’s capital. placing the interests of one region or section of the nation over the interests of other regionsNortheastShipping, trade, manufacturingSouthCash crop agriculture, low tariffsWestRoads, canals,
12 4. I can explain how sectionalism impacted the location of our nation’s capital. Assumption Act1791moved the Capitol from New York to Washington D.C.along the Potomac Riverin land set aside by the state of Marylandto placate Southern leaders for passage of Alexander Hamilton’s Financial program:funding at “par” of the state/national debtface valuelow “revenue tariff”“excise” tax on goods produced within nation (Whiskey Rebellion)Bank of the United States
13 “strict construction” 5. I can distinguish between a strict and loose interpretation of the Constitution“strict construction”not “enumerated” (named or, listed) in constitutionnot a delegated power“If it isn’t stated in the Constitution, it is forbidden.”Thomas Jefferson’s view of the Bank of the United States“loose construction”an “implied” power, derived from delegated power to taxuse of “elastic clause”, it is “necessary and proper” to have a bankAlexander Hamilton’s view of the Bank of the United States
14 6. I can compare and contrast the political ideologies of the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans national government should be a powerful central governmentcontrolled by the “upper class”, who were aristocratic, wealthy, and well educatedtoo much democracy was to be fearedcommon man untrustworthy and ignorantmain aim of government to safeguard property and preserve law and ordergovernment should encourage and support industry
15 6. I can compare and contrast the political ideologies of the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans Leaders:Alexander Hamilton, John AdamsSupporters:manufacturers, merchants, bankers, holders of large estates; strong in Northeast, Middle StatesInterpretation of Constitution:“loose construction”, implied powers, strong central government
16 6. I can compare and contrast the political ideologies of the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans Views on democracy:opposed extension of democracy, distrusted the “masses”, favored rule by the “best” peopleViews on specific issues:supported Hamilton’s program, a strong central bank, a “protective” tariff, and funding the national debt.Foreign Affairs:friendly to Great Britain, in sympathy with conservatism of the British government
17 6. I can compare and contrast the political ideologies of the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans national government should be weak, with limited powerto prevent tyrannystrong state governmentsgovernment run in the interests of all people by well-informed leadersregardless of class backgroundpeople were to be trusted and given opportunity for educationmain aim of government was protection of libertycountry better if population of independent, land-owning farmers
18 Democratic-Republicans: 6. I can compare and contrast the political ideologies of the Federalists and Democratic-RepublicansDemocratic-Republicans:Leaders:Thomas Jefferson, James MadisonSupporters:Small farmers, plantation owners, laborers, small shopkeepers, (the non-propertied classes); strong in South, WestInterpretation of Constitution:“strict interpretation”, “states’ rights”, weak central government
19 Democratic-Republicans: 6. I can compare and contrast the political ideologies of the Federalists and Democratic-RepublicansDemocratic-Republicans:Views on democracy:favored expansion of democracy, desired rule for the masses by educated leaders, opposed privileged, aristocratic ruleViews on specific issues:opposed Hamilton’s program, favored state rather than central banking, against favors to industry (opposed protective tariff)Foreign Affairs:friendly to France and the revolutionary traditions
20 7. I can identify the influence of sectionalism on the election of 1796.
21 Alien and Sedition Acts 8. I can identify the president responsible for the Alien and Sedition Acts.Alien and Sedition Actspassed by Congress in 1798signed into law in 1798John AdamsPresident from 1797 – 1801Extra Credit: Find a primary source revealing John Adams’ personal feelings on the ideas behind the Alien and Sedition Acts!
22 9. I can define the Alien and Sedition Acts. Alien ActAllowed the President to deport or jail any alien considered undesirableNaturalization ActRaised from 5 to 14 years the residency requirement for immigrants to become U.S. citizensSedition ActSet fines/jail terms for anyone expressing opinions considered damaging to the government
23 10. I can articulate the problems with the Alien and Sedition Acts. Alien Actseemed politically motivated to target pro-French sentiments of Democratic-Republican PartyGenet AffairNaturalization Actseemed politically motivated to target immigrants more inclined to vote for candidates of Democratic-Republican Partymust be a citizen to voteSedition Actseemed politically motivated to target editors, publishers, and politicians of the Democratic-Republican Partywere critical of government pro-British policiesviolate the free speech/press provisions of the 1st Amendment
24 11. I can recognize the use of states’ rights in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions. the idea that since the states created the national government, they have the right to determine the constitutionality of federal laws!
25 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions 11. I can recognize the use of states’ rights in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions.Virginia and Kentucky ResolutionsArgue the “states’ rights theory”that the “states” created the national governmenttherefore, Virginia and Kentucky claim the right to declare the Alien and Sedition Acts unconstitutional in those statesbecause they violated the Bill of Rights.synonymous with “Nullification” theorythe states declare “null and void” any federal law going beyond the powers granted by the Constitution to the central government.synonymous with the “compact theory”the “states” created the national governmenttherefore they have the authority to declare laws unconstitutional!
26 “States Rights” theory … 11. I can recognize the use of states’ rights in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions.“States Rights” theory …… just an “idea”, argued at the timeraised the question, who/what declares laws unconstitutional?answered with the case of Marbury vs. Madisonthe federal courts determine constitutionality of laws!“states rights” in general, destroyed by Civil War!
27 12. I can explain how Marbury v. Madison resulted in judicial review. Election of 1800Democratic-Republicans win Presidency!Democratic-Republicans win majorities in each House of Congress!for first time in short history in the Senate!Hence,Judiciary Act of 1801Adams appoints several judges on his last day in office“midnight judges”seen as effort to hold on to Judicial Branch as Federalist stronghold
28 12. I can explain how Marbury v. Madison resulted in judicial review. James MadisonJefferson’s Secretary of Stateordered by Jefferson NOT todeliver “commissions”keep Federalist judges from becomingjudgesWilliam Marburyone of “midnight judges”a Federalistsues Madison for “commission”“Marbury vs. Madison”
29 12. I can explain how Marbury v. Madison resulted in judicial review. John Marshall4th Chief JusticeSCOTUSrepeatedly confirmedthe supremacy of federallaw over state law
30 12. I can explain how Marbury v. Madison resulted in judicial review. John MarshallFederalist perspective on economics and politicsChief Justice for 34 yearsasserts notion of “supremacy of national government” over the states!establishes principle of “judicial review”declares part of Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutionalmaking mute Marbury’s claimextracting himself from unenforceable decisionearning for Supreme Court the power of “judicial review”
31 13. I can explain the sequence of events that lead to Hamilton’s death.
32 Thomas Jefferson President 14. I can describe the accomplishments of Thomas Jefferson as president.Thomas JeffersonPresidentelection constitutes the:Revolution of 1800describes the peaceful transition ofpower from the Federalist to theDemocratic-Republicansleader of Democratic-RepublicanParty
33 14. I can describe the accomplishments of Thomas Jefferson as president.
34 14. I can describe the accomplishments of Thomas Jefferson as president. Revolution of 1800peaceful transfer of power from Federalist Party to Democratic-Republican Partyre-establish revolutionary era principlesLouisiana Purchasedoubled size of U.S. territoryreduce threat of war w/ Britain & Francecomplete control of Mississippi River“right of deposit” at New Orleans aids western farmerspromotes “western” expansionLewis & Clark Expeditionbecomes “loose constructionist”no constitutional provision for purchase of landuses treaty-making powers of Constitution
35 14. I can describe the accomplishments of Thomas Jefferson as president. Early policiesfollows policy of “moderation”keeps Bank of the United Statespays off debtfollows policy of neutralityrepeals “excise” tax on whiskeyrepeals Naturalization ActAlien & Sedition Acts expireCuts federal expendituresreduces military spendingfunding for army/navy to bare minimum“Jeff’s”, “mosquito fleet”Embargo Act – 1807avoids war with Britain & France
36 15. I can point out the ways in which Jefferson’s political views are represented in his accomplishments.Inaugural Address“equal & exact justice to all men”“peace, trade, friendship w/ all nations”pledges support of state governmentsfavors militia over “regular” armyreinforces civilian over military authorityencourages agriculture & commerceurges simplicity in governmentdeclares “freedom of speech & press”Louisiana Purchase
37 15. I can point out the ways in which Jefferson’s political views are represented in his accomplishments.Inaugural Address“equal & exact justice to all men”repeals Naturalization Actallows Alien/Sedition Acts to expire“peace, trade, friendship w/ all nations”follows policy of neutralityavoids war with Britain & FranceEmbargo Actpledges support of state governments“Revolution of 1800”repeals “excise” tax on whiskeyfavors militia over “regular” armyfunding for army/navy to bare minimum“mosquito fleet”, Jeff’s”reinforces civilian over military authoritycuts military spendingrepeals excise tax
38 15. I can point out the ways in which Jefferson’s political views are represented in his accomplishments.encourages agriculture & commercekeeps Bank of the United Statespays off debtrepeals excise taxpromotes westward expansionLouisiana Purchaseurges simplicity in governmentcuts federal expenditures“Revolution of 1800”peaceful transfer of power from one political party to anotherdeclares “freedom of speech & press”allows Alien/Sedition Acts to expirerepeals Naturalization Actkeeps strict construction by use of treaty-making powers
39 16. I can predict the impact that the Louisiana Purchase will have on the development of the U.S. doubled size of U.S. territoryacquisition of “natural resources”reduce threat of war w/ Britain & FranceU.S. will dominate North Americacomplete control of Mississippi Riveraids trade, commercial growthpromotes “western” expansionleads to “Manifest Destiny”war w/ Mexico, threatened war with Britainacquisition of Texas, Oregonclaims of Lewis & Clark Expedition
40 17. I can describe the relationship that Lewis and Clark had with the Native Americans, specifically Sacagawea.
41 18. I can summarize George Washington’s views on governing our nation.
42 18. I can summarize George Washington’s views on governing our nation. "The Address of General Washington To The People of The United States on his declining of the Presidency of the United States,“ – 1796known as Washington’s Farewell Addresswarns that independence, peace at home and abroad, safety, prosperity, and liberty are all dependent upon the unity between the statessupports the Constitutionbe wary of those wishing to secederight to alter/abolish governmentonly through the Amendment processavoid “entangling alliances”avoid political parties
43 19. I can determine whether or not our country follows Washington’s advice today. Washington’s Farewell Addressavoid “entangling alliances”advocates a policy of good faith and justice towards all nationsurges the American people to avoid long-term friendly relations or rivalries with any nationonly lead to unnecessary warsFranco-American Alliance 0f 1778post Battle of Saratogaended by John AdamsConvention of 1800United Nations – 1945N.A.T.O.North Atlantic Treaty Organization – 1947S.E.A.T.O.Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
44 Washington’s Farewell Address 19. I can determine whether or not our country follows Washington’s advice today.Washington’s Farewell Addressavoid political partiesevery government has recognized political parties as an enemy and has sought to repress them because of their tendency to seek more power than other groups and take revenge on political opponents“… is itself a frightful despotism.”thought “disloyal”*felt they would divide the countryFederalists, Democratic-Republicans, National Republicans, Democratic, Whig, Republican, Free-Soil, Liberty, Greenback-Labor, Populist, Green, Republicratic, …
45 20. I can debate the value of having political parties in our nation. Historynot included in original drafting of Constitution!Founding Fathers felt “factions” would divide/destroy nationcame into being over objections to Hamilton’s Financial ProgramFunctionsprovide machinery to avoid deadlocksallow compromise and to settle differences between groups within Partypresent programs and policiesselect candidatesprovide political leadershipprovide choices for voters
46 21. I can predict consequences of having good or bad relationships with other nations.
47 Jefferson to Congress – 1803 22. I can describe the concerns that Native Americans had regarding their future in the early 1800’s.Jefferson to Congress – 1803“Two measures are deemed expedient. First to encourage them to abandon hunting …. Secondly, to Multiply trading houses among them … leading them thus to agriculture, to manufactures, and civilization…”Zinn p. 126AP p. 98Native Americans encouraged to:settle down on smaller tractsfarm
48 22. I can describe the concerns that Native Americans had regarding their future in the early 1800’s.As white settlers began to move west at the start of the nineteenth century, Native Americans became increasingly hostile.loss of land to farmers, miners, etc…loss of culture, ways of life, …many did not wish to adopt the ways of whitesassimilationadopting the culture or, ways of life, of another cultureIndian agents were supposed to instruct Indians on how to plow, raise cotton, spin, weave, care for domestic animals, and become skilled in carpentry or blacksmithingIndians also wanted to keep their lands
49 “Five Civilized Tribes” 22. I can describe the concerns that Native Americans had regarding their future in the early 1800’s.“Five Civilized Tribes”Creek, Choctaw, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Seminoleadopted agriculture, a government with bicameral legislature, a court system, a written constitution, a bilingual newspaper,using an alphabet developed by Sequoyaowned slaves!
50 Tecumseh’s Confederation 22. I can describe the concerns that Native Americans had regarding their future in the early 1800’s.Tecumseh’s ConfederationShawnee leader in Old NorthwestIndiana, Michigan, etc…united Native-American tribes against white encroachment of their lands“The land, belongs to all, for the use of each …”fought against U.S. government in Creek War and War of 1812Confederation dissolved after Tecumseh’s death in 1813Eventually, Indian Removal Act of 1830forced removal of Native-Americans to the west“Trail of Tears”
52 23. I can identify the causes of the War of 1812. violations of “neutral rights”“freedom of the seas”impressment“seizing our ships and impressing our sailors!”national pride at stakeWar Hawks (Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun)defend nation’s “honor”Economic difficultiesEmbargo ActClosure of European portsSouth and West blame New England for depression
53 23. I can identify the causes of the War of 1812. Native-American unrestNorthwestpresence of British fortsbelieve British are inciting Native attacksTecumsehSouthraids into Georgia from FloridaLand Hungerdemands of Southerner’s, Westerner’sexpand into Canada, Florida
55 TecumsehTecumseh (romanticized) Tecumseh & William Henry Harrison
56 23. I can identify the events of the War of 1812. Invasion of Canadapoorly equipped American army easily repulsed by BritishNaval battlessome notable victories“privateers” capture many British merchant shipsBattle of Lake ErieOliver Hazard Perry defeats British forces“We have met the enemy and they are ours.”Thomas McDonoughdefeats British fleet on Lake Champlain NYforces British to abandon plan to invade NY and New England
58 23. I can identify the events of the War of 1812. Chesapeake campaignWashington D.C. captured by British – Spring 1814Presidents (White) House, Capitol, other buildings burnedBaltimore – Spring 1814Fort McHenry holds out after night of bombardmentinspires Francis Scott Key’s wordsSouthern campaignBattle of Horseshoe Bend – March 1814Creek Indians, a British ally, defeated by Andrew JacksonBattle of New Orleans – January 1815keep Mississippi River out of British handsmeaningless Battle as fought weeks after Treaty of Ghent signedmakes Jackson a national hero however
62 24. I can describe the role of Native Americans in the War of 1812 and the Creek War. During the War of 1812, …Native-Americans allied with Spain and England …… against the Americans led by General Andrew Jacksonwhen the Creek War ended in 1814, …… Creeks were forced to sign the Treaty of Fort Jackson …… ceding some 40,000 square miles of land to the United StatesAlthough the Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Cherokee fought for the United States against the Creek …… they, too, were soon pressured to cede their lands
63 24. I can describe the role of Native Americans in the War of 1812 and the Creek War. After the War of 1812,Natives forced to exchange their lands for land in Indian Territorypresent day Oklahomamost Indians fiercely resisted leaving their ancestral homelandsStates passed laws to ensure jurisdiction over Indians living within their bordersPresident Jackson informed the Indians that the federal government was helpless to interfere with state lawsFederal government and Congress actually have jurisdictionhe told them their only option was to comply with removal
64 25. I can summarize the Treaty of Ghent (War of 1812). Ghent, BelgiumDecember 24, 1814news slow to reach America so, Battle of New Orleans fought after Treaty was negotiatedAn “armistice”cease firea negotiated settlementTerms:end fightingreturn prisonersestablish pre-war boundaries between U.S. and Canadano settlement of issues causing the war:violations of neutral rights“impressment”
65 Bonus LT! I can explain the Nullification Crisis concerning the Tariff of Abominations! nation’s first “protective” tariffask about difference between “revenue” & “protective” tariff’stax on importsraises prices of foreign goodsencourages buying of American-manufactured goodsaids American industriessupported by all “sections” of nationespecially the manufacturing Northeasteven the South, a consumer sectionpassed during “Era of Good Feelings”“nationalistic” period
66 Tariff of Abominations – 1828 Bonus LT! I can explain the Nullification Crisis concerning the Tariff of Abominations!Tariff of 1824tariff rates increaseSouth begins to objectJohn C. Calhoun of South Carolina is spokespersonas imported prices rise, what do you think happens to prices of domestic goods?Tariff of Abominations – 1828higher rates still“South Carolina Exposition and Protest”anonymously written by John C. Calhounargues “nullification”“states’ rights” to declare “null and void” tariff law in South Carolina
67 Bonus LT! I can explain the Nullification Crisis concerning the Tariff of Abominations! a slight reduction of ratesSouth Carolina Ordinance of Nullificationnullifies tariff, threatens to secede!Force BillAndrew Jackson threatens force if tariff not collected in South CarolinaCompromise Tariff of 1833Henry ClayGreat Compromiserreduction of tariff rates over period of 10 yearsto 1816 levels
68 In the Treaty the British promised … 26. I can predict the long-term effect of the Treaty of Ghent on Native Americans.A key reason that American frontiersmen were so much in favor of the war in the first place was …… the threat by various Native American tribes, which they blamed on intervention by British agents in CanadaIn the Treaty the British promised …… not to arm the Native Americans in the U.S. from Canadanor even trade with themthe U.S.-Canada border was largely pacifiedWith the death of Tecumseh in battle in 1813, …… the natives became the main losers in the war, losing British protection, and never regained their influence
69 26. I can predict the long-term effect of the Treaty of Ghent on Native Americans. In the Southeast,Andrew Jackson’s destruction of Britain's allies, the Creek Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814, ended the threat of Native American hostilities in that regionIt opened vast areas in Georgia and Alabama for settlement as plantations and farmlandsthe U.S. occupied all of West Florida during the war and in 1819 purchased the rest of Florida from Spain, thus closing the base of weapons for hostile tribesCreek Indians who escaped to Spanish Florida joined the Seminoles there, and …… put up a long resistance known as the Seminole Wars
70 Perceived as “common man” 27. I can describe ways in which Andrew Jackson helped break down social class barriers.Perceived as “common man”from poor backgroundparents were Scots-Irish immigrantsactually a wealthy land speculator and slaveholder by time of electionLost Presidency after winning majority of popular vote“corrupt bargain” of 1824helped propel him to win Presidency in 1828Inaugurationopen to public, behaved badlyKing MobFought politically against what he denounced as a closed, undemocratic aristocracyelites in government, business, banking, etc …
71 Implemented the Spoils System 27. I can describe ways in which Andrew Jackson helped break down social class barriers.Killed the “monster”Bank of the United States IIsaw as tool for the rich, elites …vetoed re-charter billremoved federal fundsplaced into state “pet banks”Implemented the Spoils Systemrewarded friends with political jobsBelieved in “rotation in office”all citizens capable of serving in government positions
72 Battle of Horseshoe Bend 28. I can compare and contrast the relationship of Andrew Jackson and the Cherokee during the Creek War and during the Indian Removal Act.Creek WarBattle of Horseshoe BendJackson killed 800 of 1,000 Creeksassisted by Cherokeepromised government friendship if they joined the warswam a river to sneak up behind the Creekwon the Battle for Jackson!ZinnAP – p. 99Regular – p. 127“He got himself appointed treaty commissioner and dictated a treaty in 1814 which took away half the land of the Creek nation.” (Zinn)
73 28. I can compare and contrast the relationship of Andrew Jackson and the Cherokee during the Creek War and during the Indian Removal Act.Indian Removal ActJackson informed Natives they were beyond the protection of the government and subject to the laws of the states“I informed the Indians … that their attempt to establish an independent government would not be countenanced by the Executive of the United States, and advised them to emigrate beyond the Mississippi or submit to the laws of those states.”
74 Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi 28. I can compare and contrast the relationship of Andrew Jackson and the Cherokee during the Creek War and during the Indian Removal Act.Georgia, Alabama, Mississippipass laws to extend states’ rule over Indiansalthough federal treaties and laws gave Congress authority over the tribes, Jackson as President supported state action against themencouraging them to relocate WestWorcester vs. GeorgiaJackson refuses to abide by SCOTUS decision entitling the Cherokee to their lands!
75 Jackson’s Message to Congress 28. I can compare and contrast the relationship of Andrew Jackson and the Cherokee during the Creek War and during the Indian Removal Act.Jackson’s Message to Congress“benevolent policy…happy consummation…obvious advantages”“enable them to pursue happiness in their own way and under their own rude institutions”“Can it be cruel in this government when, by events which it cannot control, the Indian is made discontented in his ancient home to purchase his lands, to give him a new and extensive territory, to pay the expense of his removal, and support him a year in his new abode?”
76 Jackson’s Message to Congress 28. I can compare and contrast the relationship of Andrew Jackson and the Cherokee during the Creek War and during the Indian Removal Act.Jackson’s Message to Congress“How many thousands of our own people would gladly embrace the opportunity of removing to the West on such conditions! If the offers made to the Indians were extended to them, they would be hailed with gratitude and joy.”“And is it supposed that the wandering savage has a stronger attachment to his home than the settled, civilized Christian?”“Rightly considered, the policy of the General Government toward the red man is not only liberal, but generous.”
77 29. I can describe the role of Chief Justice John Marshall in the Indian Removal Act. refused to rule on a case brought by the CherokeeCherokee had no legal standingnot a foreign nation, nor a state“domestic dependent nation”brought suit with Samuel Worcestera missionary and U.S. citizenWorcester vs. GeorgiaSCOTUSrecognized Cherokee as a distinct political communitystate of Georgia not entitled to regulate by lawlands Georgia not entitled to invadeJackson refuses to abide by ruling“John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it.”
78 30. I can assess the impact of the Indian Removal Act on Native Americans.
80 30. I can assess the impact of the Indian Removal Act on Native Americans.
81 30. I can assess the impact of the Indian Removal Act on Native Americans. On May 28, 1830 The Indian Removal Act was signed into law by President Andrew Jacksonwhile Native-American removal was, in theory, supposed to be voluntary,in practice great pressure was put on Native American leaders to sign removal treatiesmost observers, whether they were in favor of the Indian removal policy or not,realized that the passage of the act meant the inevitable removal of most Indians from the statesAmerican settlers' hunger for Indian land led to violent conflict in many casessucceeding treaties generally compelled tribes to cede large areas to the United States government
82 30. I can assess the impact of the Indian Removal Act on Native Americans. Trail of Tearsmarked by outbreaks of cholera, inadequate supplies, bitter cold, and death from starvation and exhaustionthe Cherokees' march was a forced one under the direction of the United States army, and it came to be known as the "Trail of Tears" or, in their own term, "The Place Where They Cried."resulted in the deaths of an estimated 4,000 Cherokeesremoval was a tragedy as thousands of people were forced to leave behind their homes, livestock, crops, and places that had spiritual significance for them
83 31. I can identify and describe ways in which Andrew Jackson may have abused power as president. Indian RemovalJackson chose to blatantly disobey a ruling set by the Supreme Court in Worcester vs. GeorgiaLed to forced removal of Native-American tribes and “Trail of Tears”Spoils SystemJackson claimed that to the victor of an election went the ability to fill offices with whomever he wishedfired people from certain positions to introduce inexperienced individuals to the positionoften close friends of Jackson that did not deserve the position they attained.Bank of the U.S.removed federal funds from BUSissued “Specie Circular”declared coins as the only government noted form of moneydepreciated bank notes which led to economic depression
84 32. I can compare and contrast Andrew Jackson’s views and John Burnett’s view of the Indian Removal Act.Andrew Jackson“enable them to pursue happiness in their own way and under their own rude institutions”“cast off their savage habits and become an interesting, civilized, and Christian community.”“And is it supposed that the wandering savage has a stronger attachment to his home than the settled, civilized Christian?”“… policy of the General Government toward the red man is not only liberal, but generous.”
85 32. I can compare and contrast Andrew Jackson’s views and John Burnett’s view of the Indian Removal Act.Andrew Jacksonbelieved ethnocentrically, that Native-Americans were uncivilized “savages”is closed-minded to their way of life, believing they should abandon it in favor of a “civilized, Christian” manner of livingdisregarded the fact that many Natives “assimilated” the ways of whitesfarmed, created a constitution, bicameral legislature, court system, newspaper, alphabet, and owned slaves!
86 32. I can compare and contrast Andrew Jackson’s views and John Burnett’s view of the Indian Removal Act.John G. Burnettintimately associated with the Cherokeehunted, slept around their fires, spoke their language, etc…as interpreter, witnessed the Trail of Tearsdeath of women, children, etc…4,000 silent gravesknew women as kind, tendernot prostitutessaw hunger for gold led to shooting in cold blood, homes burned, lands confiscated, inhabitants driven out
87 32. I can compare and contrast Andrew Jackson’s views and John Burnett’s view of the Indian Removal Act.John G. Burnettsaw men arrested, women dragged, children separated from parents, prodded with bayonets, a mother die with a baby on her back and holding her children’s handsconcerned children of today (1890) are not learning the truthreferred to as “the soldier that was good to us” by Cherokees in Confederate uniformattests to truthfully stating neither his rifle or knife are stained with Cherokee blood
88 33. I can draw conclusions regarding the validity of Jackson and Burnett’s accounts of Indian Removal.Jacksondid not see effects of Indian Removal Act on tribesonly concerned with benefits whites would receivebenefitted from acquisition of Native-American landsBurnettcame to know the Native-Americans by living with themwitnessed the injustices the Natives suffered first-handviewed through “egalitarian” lens of the revolution erarecognized the common humanity shared by Natives and whites
89 34. I can evaluate the impact of the cotton gin on slavery and sectionalism in our nation. Eli Whitneydeveloped cotton gin (engine), 1793cleaned seeds from cotton with the turn of a cranktremendously increased demand for cottonin land between the Appalachians and Mississippi Riversmall farmers and large plantation owners rush in to grow cottonbring slaves as labor forceby 1820, had transformed cotton farming in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama“Cotton Kingdom”greatly accelerated the expansion of slavery
91 34. I can evaluate the impact of the cotton gin on slavery and sectionalism in our nation. Southmostly rural societyplantations, small farmsrely on cotton productionand slave labor force to produce itSouth produces only 10% of nation’s manufactured goodspopulation growth much slower in Southfew immigrants (slave labor)slow to embrace technological advancesuse of rivers to transport rather than railroadsless wealth generated through production of agricultural productscompared to manufactured products of the North
92 34. I can evaluate the impact of the cotton gin on slavery and sectionalism in our nation. NorthIndustrialization occurs rapidlyfactories produce textiles, sewing machines, farm equipment, etc..20,000 miles of railroad track laid in 1850’scarried wheat, iron ore, raw materials eastward to factoriesmanufactured goods, settlers westwardsmall towns become large citiestelegraph links cities and regions with instant communicationimmigrants become factory workers or move west to farm, mine, ranchbecome voters, opposed to slaveryslave labor competes with free laborreduce status of white workers who couldn’t compete with slaves