Presentation on theme: "Imperialism and Nation-State Formation"— Presentation transcript:
1Imperialism and Nation-State Formation The Age of Imperialism was a time period beginning around 1870 when modern, relatively developed nations were taking over less developed areas, colonizing them, or influencing them in order to expand their own power.
2ImperialismThe creation and/or maintenance of an unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationship, usually between states and often in the form of an empire based on domination and subordination
3NationalismMotivated European nations to compete for colonial possessionsEuropean economic, military, and political power forced colonized countries to trade on European termsIndustrially produced goods flooded colonial markets and displaced traditional industriesColonized peoples resisted European domination and responded in diverse ways to Western influence
12Europeans: Carving up a Continent Who is missing from this picture???
13“We have been engaged in drawing lines upon maps where no white man’s foot has ever trod. We have been giving away mountains and rivers and lakes to each other, only hindered by the small impediment that we never knew exactly where the mountains and rivers were.”-British Official
17Which one do you think is more accurate? Remember “The White Man’s Burden”???Which one do you think is more accurate?
18Where Is Dr. Livingstone? Doctor Livingstone, I Presume?Sir Henry Morton StanleyDr. David Livingstone
19David Livingstone Link Went to Africa as a missionary but was a combination of missionary, doctor, explorer, scientist and anti-slavery activist.Reached and named Victoria Falls in 1855.In 1871 journalist Henry Stanley found him at Lake Tanganyika, greeting him with the famous words "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?"Link
20European Explorations in mid-19c: “The Scramble for Africa”
21What is the Source of the Nile? Sir Richard BurtonJohn Speke
22The Colonization Of The Congo Pt. 1 The Belgian Congo:"King Leopold'sGhost“The Colonization Of The Congo Pt. 1
26Africa: the CongoIn the 1870s King Leopold II of Belgium employed Henry Stanley to help develop commercial ventures and establish a colony called Congo Free State in the basin of the Congo RiverLeopold said the Congo Free State would be a free-trade zone open to all European merchants in order to forestall competition from his more powerful European neighborsLeopold II
27Africa: the CongoIn reality, Leopold ran the Congo Free State as a personal colony and filled it with lucrative rubber plantations run under brutal conditionsHumanitarians protested Leopold’s colonial regimeIn 1908 the Belgium government took control of the colony and it became known as Belgian CongoClearing tropical forests ate away at Leopold’s profit margins so Congolese farming villages such as this one were leveled to make way for rubber tree plantations
305-8 Million Victims! (50% of Popul.) It is blood-curdling to see them (the soldiers) returning with the hands of the slain, and to find the hands of young children amongst the bigger ones evidencing their bravery...The rubber from this district has cost hundreds of lives, and the scenes I have witnessed, while unable to help the oppressed, have been almost enough to make me wish I were dead... This rubber traffic is steeped in blood, and if the natives were to rise and sweep every white person on the Upper Congo into eternity, there would still be left a fearful balance to their credit Belgian Official
33Leopold Defends Himself in Paris, 1903 King Leopold (to Loubert) : How about that! John Bull claims that I tortured, robbed and murdered more than he did Loubert : No, your Majesty, that's impossible .
40Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902) De Beer “The Colossus of Rhodes”
41Cecil RhodesWent to south Africa in 1871 and by 1889 he controlled 90% of the world’s diamond productionAlso gained a healthy stake in the gold marketServed as prime minister of the British Cape Colony from and saw the Cape Colony as a base of operations for the extension of British control to all of Africa
42South Africa and the Boer War (1899-1902) Principal sponsor of the Cape-to-Cairo dream where Britain would dominate the continent. Diamonds and gold were discovered in the Transvaal and Rhodes wanted to extend his influence there but region controlled by Boers (descendents of Dutch settlers)
43Boer-British Tensions Increase 1877 – Britain annexed the Transvaal.1883 – Boers fought British in the Transvaal and regained its independence Paul Kruger becomes President.1880s – Gold discovered in the Transvaal
44Paul Kruger ( )Kruger Telegram (1902): Kaiser Wilhelm II, dispatched telegram to Boers congratulating them on defeating British invaders without need of German assistanceAnger swept through Britain aimed at Germany.
46South Africa and the Boer War (1899-1902) Massive British force eventually defeated Boers and in 1910 the Transvaal, Orange Free State, Cape Colony, & Natal combined to form the Union of South Africa.
47A Future British Prime Minister British Boer War Correspondent, Winston Churchill
49Many Africans fought back: “I have listened to your words but can find no reason why I should obey you – I would rather die first… If you desire friendship, then I am ready for it, today and always. But I cannot be your subject. If you desire war, then I am ready.” -Chief Machemba (1890)What do you think happened?
50As states industrialized during this period, they also expanded their existing overseas colonies and established new types of colonies and transoceanic empires.Regional warfare and diplomacy both resulted in and were affected by this process of modern empire building.
51The process was led mostly by Europe, although not all states were affected equally, which led to an increase of European influence around the world.The United States and Japan also participated in this process.
52The growth of new empires challenged the power of existing land-based empires of Eurasia. New ideas about nationalism, race, gender, class, and culture also developed that facilitated the spread of transoceanic empires, as well as justified anti-imperial resistance and the formation of new national identities.
54Industrializing powers established transoceanic empires
55Transoceanic EmpiresStates with existing colonies strengthened their control over those coloniesBritish in IndiaDutch in IndonesiaBritish, Dutch, French, German, Russian, as well as the Americans and the Japanese, established empires throughout Asia and the PacificSpanish and Portuguese influence declined.
56Methods of Colonization Many European states used both warfare and diplomacy to establish empires in AfricaBerlin ConferenceBritain in West AfricaBelgians in the CongoOpen Door Policy in China
57Settler ColoniesIn some parts of their empires Europeans established settler coloniesThe British in Southern Africa, Australia, Canada, and New ZealandThe French in Algeria
58Economic ImperialismIn other parts of the world, industrialized states practiced economic imperialismBritish and French expanding their influence in China through the Opium WarThe British and the United States investing heavily in Latin America
60Imperialism in Africa and Asia European dominationEuropean conflicts carried to the coloniesChristian missionary effortsSpheres of influence in ChinaSuez CanalEast India Company’s domination of Indian statesAmerican opening of Japan to trade
68Anti-imperial Resistance Led to the contraction of the Ottoman EmpireEstablishment of Independent states in the BalkansSemi-independence in Egypt, French and Italian Colonies in North AfricaLater British Influence in Egypt
69EUROPEANS IN EGYPT1870s – with the Egyptian government bankrupt, the British and French took over financial control of the countryEgyptian monarchs (technically Ottoman viceroys) ruled as puppet leaders1882 – Egyptian nationalist rebellionFrance withdrew its troopsGreat Britain left in control of EgyptLord Cromer introduced reformsDe facto British protectorateMade official in 1914Independence came in 1922
70Egypt Seeks to Modernize Muhammad Ali – Governor of Egypt (1805)Known as the “Father of Modern Egypt”Improved tax collection, reorganized the landholding system, and backed large irrigation projectsAlso brought in western military experts to modernize Egypt’s armyDies in 1849Successors build the Suez Canal
71SUDAN Britain took control of Egypt in 1883 Pushed southward and took control of SudanBattle of Omdurman (1898): General Horatio H. Kitchener defeated Sudanese tribesman and killed 11,000 (use of machine gun) while only 28 Britons diedSUDAN
73BRITISH IN NORTHERN AFRICA SudanArea south of EgyptUnder Anglo-Egyptian controlCotton needed for British textile millsEntente Cordiale (1904)Great Britain controlled SudanFrance controlled MoroccoCape-to-Cairo RailroadIdea of Cecil RhodesWould secure Great Britain’s dominance in AfricaNever completed – sections missing through modern Sudan and Uganda
74Cape-to-Cairo Railway: Crossing over Victoria Falls
75Fashoda Incident (1898): France & Britain nearly went to war over Sudan; France backed down in the face of the Dreyfus Affair
76AFRICANS IN AFRICA By the time of the First World War (1914) Only 2 independent African countriesAbyssinia (Ethiopia)Ruled by dynasty stretching back to at least the 13th centuryLast emperor was Haile Selassie, deposed in 1974Home to Ethiopian Orthodox Christian Church (strongly tied to Egyptian Coptic Church)LiberiaFormed by freed slaves under auspices of the United States government
77“Whatever happens, we have got the Maxim gun, and they have not.” Remember?“Whatever happens, we have got the Maxim gun, and they have not.”When Africans rebelled, Europeans killed thousands of Yao, Zulu, Asante, Shona, Herero, and Maji-Maji people.Ethiopia was the only exception…
78Many Africans gave up traditional agriculture to work for European companies. Some worked on rubber plantations or in copper mines. Others built railroads to bring these natural resources to ports, where they could be shipped to Europe and used in factories.
79New States developed on the edges of existing empires Cherokee NationSiamHawaiiZulu Kingdom
82Spread of Nationalism An ideology fostered new communal identities German NationFilipino nationalismLiberian nationalism
83AFRICANS IN AFRICA By the time of the First World War (1914) Only 2 independent African countriesAbyssinia (Ethiopia)Ruled by dynasty stretching back to at least the 13th centuryLast emperor was Haile Selassie, deposed in 1974Home to Ethiopian Orthodox Christian Church (strongly tied to Egyptian Coptic Church)LiberiaFormed by freed slaves under auspices of the United States government
84Emperor Haile Selassie I “Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, King of Kings of Ethiopia and Elect of God”“Ras Tafari”
85Bob Marley used his speech as lyrics to a song, “War” When Italy invaded again in 1935, Haile Selassie I made a famous speech to the League of Nations.Bob Marley used his speech as lyrics to a song, “War”
86“That until the philosophy which holds one race superior and another inferior is finally and permanently discredited and abandoned:That until there are no longer first-class and second class citizens of any nation;That until the color of a man's skin is of no more significance than the color of his eyes;That until the basic human rights are equally guaranteed to all without regard to race;That until that day, the dream of lasting peace and world citizenship and the rule of international morality will remain but a fleeting illusion, to be pursued but never attained…”
87“And until the ignoble and unhappy regimes that hold our brothers in Angola, in Mozambique and in South Africa in subhuman bondage have been toppled and destroyed…Until that day, the African continent will not know peace.We Africans will fight, if necessary, and we know that we shall win, as we are confident in the victory of good over evil.”
88Impact of Imperialism in Africa POSITIVELocal warfare reducedImproved sanitationHospitals led to increased lifespanSchools led to increased literacyEconomic growthNEGATIVELoss of land and independenceMen forced to work in European owned mines and on European owned farmsContempt for traditional culture and admiration of European culture = identity problemsDividing up of Africa = artificial boundaries divided kinship groups and united rivals
89New racial ideologies, especially Social Darwinism, facilitated and justified imperialism
91Identify major developments of African history in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Africa’s interaction with imperialismAgricultural changes and new patterns of employmentThe origins of African nationalismUse your notes, and the lyrics to Bob Marley’s “War” to explain how European imperialism affected Africans and their desire for Nationalism.