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Imperialism and Nation-State Formation

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1 Imperialism and Nation-State Formation
The Age of Imperialism was a time period beginning around 1870 when modern, relatively developed nations were taking over less developed areas, colonizing them, or influencing them in order to expand their own power.

2 Imperialism The creation and/or maintenance of an unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationship, usually between states and often in the form of an empire based on domination and subordination

3 Nationalism Motivated European nations to compete for colonial possessions European economic, military, and political power forced colonized countries to trade on European terms Industrially produced goods flooded colonial markets and displaced traditional industries Colonized peoples resisted European domination and responded in diverse ways to Western influence


5 The Excuses of Imperialism

6 Forms of Imperialism Colonies Protectorates Spheres of influence


8 Forces Enabling Imperialism
How was a relatively small portion of the earth’s surface (that today has 14% of Africa/Asia’s population) able to conquer Earth’s largest continents?


10 European Motives For Colonization European Nationalism
Source for Raw Materials Missionary Activity Industrial Revolution European Motives For Colonization Markets for Finished Goods Military & Naval Bases Social Darwinism European Racism Places to Dump Unwanted/ Excess Popul. Humanitarian Reasons Soc. & Eco. Opportunities “White Man’s Burden”

11 Berlin Conference of Another point of view? 

12 Europeans: Carving up a Continent
Who is missing from this picture???

13 “We have been engaged in drawing lines upon maps where no white man’s foot has ever trod.
We have been giving away mountains and rivers and lakes to each other, only hindered by the small impediment that we never knew exactly where the mountains and rivers were.” -British Official

14 Social Darwinism

15 The “White Man’s Burden”
Rudyard Kipling

16 The “White Man’s Burden”?

17 Which one do you think is more accurate?
Remember “The White Man’s Burden”??? Which one do you think is more accurate?

18 Where Is Dr. Livingstone?
Doctor Livingstone, I Presume? Sir Henry Morton Stanley Dr. David Livingstone

19 David Livingstone Link
Went to Africa as a missionary but was a combination of missionary, doctor, explorer, scientist and anti-slavery activist. Reached and named Victoria Falls in 1855. In 1871 journalist Henry Stanley found him at Lake Tanganyika, greeting him with the famous words "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" Link

20 European Explorations in mid-19c: “The Scramble for Africa”

21 What is the Source of the Nile?
Sir Richard Burton John Speke

22 The Colonization Of The Congo Pt. 1
The Belgian Congo: "King Leopold's Ghost“ The Colonization Of The Congo Pt. 1

23 The Congo Free State or The Belgian Congo


25 King Leopold II: (r – 1909)

26 Africa: the Congo In the 1870s King Leopold II of Belgium employed Henry Stanley to help develop commercial ventures and establish a colony called Congo Free State in the basin of the Congo River Leopold said the Congo Free State would be a free-trade zone open to all European merchants in order to forestall competition from his more powerful European neighbors Leopold II

27 Africa: the Congo In reality, Leopold ran the Congo Free State as a personal colony and filled it with lucrative rubber plantations run under brutal conditions Humanitarians protested Leopold’s colonial regime In 1908 the Belgium government took control of the colony and it became known as Belgian Congo Clearing tropical forests ate away at Leopold’s profit margins so Congolese farming villages such as this one were leveled to make way for rubber tree plantations

28 Harvesting Rubber

29 Punishing “Lazy” Workers

30 5-8 Million Victims! (50% of Popul.)
It is blood-curdling to see them (the soldiers) returning with the hands of the slain, and to find the hands of young children amongst the bigger ones evidencing their bravery...The rubber from this district has cost hundreds of lives, and the scenes I have witnessed, while unable to help the oppressed, have been almost enough to make me wish I were dead... This rubber traffic is steeped in blood, and if the natives were to rise and sweep every white person on the Upper Congo into eternity, there would still be left a fearful balance to their credit Belgian Official

31 Belgium’s Stranglehold on the Congo

32 Leopold’s Conscience??

33 Leopold Defends Himself in Paris, 1903
King Leopold (to Loubert) : How about that!  John Bull claims that I tortured, robbed and murdered more than he did Loubert : No, your Majesty, that's impossible .

34 Dutch Landing in 1652

35 Shaka Zulu (1785 – 1828)

36 Boers Clash With the Xhosa Tribes
Boer Farmer

37 The Great Trek, Afrikaners

38 Diamond Mines Raw Diamonds

39 The Struggle for South Africa

40 Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902) De Beer “The Colossus of Rhodes”

41 Cecil Rhodes Went to south Africa in 1871 and by 1889 he controlled 90% of the world’s diamond production Also gained a healthy stake in the gold market Served as prime minister of the British Cape Colony from and saw the Cape Colony as a base of operations for the extension of British control to all of Africa

42 South Africa and the Boer War (1899-1902)
Principal sponsor of the Cape-to-Cairo dream where Britain would dominate the continent. Diamonds and gold were discovered in the Transvaal and Rhodes wanted to extend his influence there but region controlled by Boers (descendents of Dutch settlers)

43 Boer-British Tensions Increase
1877 – Britain annexed the Transvaal. 1883 – Boers fought British in the Transvaal and regained its independence Paul Kruger becomes President. 1880s – Gold discovered in the Transvaal

44 Paul Kruger ( ) Kruger Telegram (1902): Kaiser Wilhelm II, dispatched telegram to Boers congratulating them on defeating British invaders without need of German assistance Anger swept through Britain aimed at Germany.

45 The Boer War: The British The Boers

46 South Africa and the Boer War (1899-1902)
Massive British force eventually defeated Boers and in 1910 the Transvaal, Orange Free State, Cape Colony, & Natal combined to form the Union of South Africa.

47 A Future British Prime Minister
British Boer War Correspondent, Winston Churchill

48 The Struggle for South Africa

49 Many Africans fought back:
“I have listened to your words but can find no reason why I should obey you – I would rather die first… If you desire friendship, then I am ready for it, today and always. But I cannot be your subject. If you desire war, then I am ready.” -Chief Machemba (1890) What do you think happened?

50 As states industrialized during this period, they also expanded their existing overseas colonies and established new types of colonies and transoceanic empires. Regional warfare and diplomacy both resulted in and were affected by this process of modern empire building.

51 The process was led mostly by Europe, although not all states were affected equally, which led to an increase of European influence around the world. The United States and Japan also participated in this process.

52 The growth of new empires challenged the power of existing land-based empires of Eurasia.
New ideas about nationalism, race, gender, class, and culture also developed that facilitated the spread of transoceanic empires, as well as justified anti-imperial resistance and the formation of new national identities.


54 Industrializing powers established transoceanic empires

55 Transoceanic Empires States with existing colonies strengthened their control over those colonies British in India Dutch in Indonesia British, Dutch, French, German, Russian, as well as the Americans and the Japanese, established empires throughout Asia and the Pacific Spanish and Portuguese influence declined.

56 Methods of Colonization
Many European states used both warfare and diplomacy to establish empires in Africa Berlin Conference Britain in West Africa Belgians in the Congo Open Door Policy in China

57 Settler Colonies In some parts of their empires Europeans established settler colonies The British in Southern Africa, Australia, Canada, and New Zealand The French in Algeria

58 Economic Imperialism In other parts of the world, industrialized states practiced economic imperialism British and French expanding their influence in China through the Opium War The British and the United States investing heavily in Latin America


60 Imperialism in Africa and Asia
European domination European conflicts carried to the colonies Christian missionary efforts Spheres of influence in China Suez Canal East India Company’s domination of Indian states American opening of Japan to trade


62 Imperialism influenced state formation and contraction around the world

63 The United States and Russia emulated European transoceanic imperialism by expanding their land borders and conquering neighboring territories


65 The expansion of U.S. and European influence over Tokugawa Japan led to the emergence of Meiji Japan
Arrival of Matthew Perry and his kurofune or "Black Ships" in Japan in 1854

66 Rise of Nationalism First Indian nationalist party founded in the mid-1800s - Indian National Congress


68 Anti-imperial Resistance
Led to the contraction of the Ottoman Empire Establishment of Independent states in the Balkans Semi-independence in Egypt, French and Italian Colonies in North Africa Later British Influence in Egypt

69 EUROPEANS IN EGYPT 1870s – with the Egyptian government bankrupt, the British and French took over financial control of the country Egyptian monarchs (technically Ottoman viceroys) ruled as puppet leaders 1882 – Egyptian nationalist rebellion France withdrew its troops Great Britain left in control of Egypt Lord Cromer introduced reforms De facto British protectorate Made official in 1914 Independence came in 1922

70 Egypt Seeks to Modernize
Muhammad Ali – Governor of Egypt (1805) Known as the “Father of Modern Egypt” Improved tax collection, reorganized the landholding system, and backed large irrigation projects Also brought in western military experts to modernize Egypt’s army Dies in 1849 Successors build the Suez Canal

71 SUDAN Britain took control of Egypt in 1883
Pushed southward and took control of Sudan Battle of Omdurman (1898): General Horatio H. Kitchener defeated Sudanese tribesman and killed 11,000 (use of machine gun) while only 28 Britons died SUDAN


Sudan Area south of Egypt Under Anglo-Egyptian control Cotton needed for British textile mills Entente Cordiale (1904) Great Britain controlled Sudan France controlled Morocco Cape-to-Cairo Railroad Idea of Cecil Rhodes Would secure Great Britain’s dominance in Africa Never completed – sections missing through modern Sudan and Uganda

74 Cape-to-Cairo Railway: Crossing over Victoria Falls

75 Fashoda Incident (1898): France & Britain nearly went to war over Sudan; France backed down in the face of the Dreyfus Affair

76 AFRICANS IN AFRICA By the time of the First World War (1914)
Only 2 independent African countries Abyssinia (Ethiopia) Ruled by dynasty stretching back to at least the 13th century Last emperor was Haile Selassie, deposed in 1974 Home to Ethiopian Orthodox Christian Church (strongly tied to Egyptian Coptic Church) Liberia Formed by freed slaves under auspices of the United States government

77 “Whatever happens, we have got the Maxim gun, and they have not.”
Remember? “Whatever happens, we have got the Maxim gun, and they have not.” When Africans rebelled, Europeans killed thousands of Yao, Zulu, Asante, Shona, Herero, and Maji-Maji people. Ethiopia was the only exception…

78 Many Africans gave up traditional agriculture to work for European companies. Some worked on rubber plantations or in copper mines. Others built railroads to bring these natural resources to ports, where they could be shipped to Europe and used in factories.

79 New States developed on the edges of existing empires
Cherokee Nation Siam Hawaii Zulu Kingdom



82 Spread of Nationalism An ideology fostered new communal identities
German Nation Filipino nationalism Liberian nationalism

83 AFRICANS IN AFRICA By the time of the First World War (1914)
Only 2 independent African countries Abyssinia (Ethiopia) Ruled by dynasty stretching back to at least the 13th century Last emperor was Haile Selassie, deposed in 1974 Home to Ethiopian Orthodox Christian Church (strongly tied to Egyptian Coptic Church) Liberia Formed by freed slaves under auspices of the United States government

84 Emperor Haile Selassie I
“Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, King of Kings of Ethiopia and Elect of God” “Ras Tafari”

85 Bob Marley used his speech as lyrics to a song, “War”
When Italy invaded again in 1935, Haile Selassie I made a famous speech to the League of Nations. Bob Marley used his speech as lyrics to a song, “War”

86 “That until the philosophy which holds one race superior and another inferior is finally and permanently discredited and abandoned: That until there are no longer first-class and second class citizens of any nation; That until the color of a man's skin is of no more significance than the color of his eyes; That until the basic human rights are equally guaranteed to all without regard to race; That until that day, the dream of lasting peace and world citizenship and the rule of international morality will remain but a fleeting illusion, to be pursued but never attained…”

87 “And until the ignoble and unhappy regimes that hold our brothers in Angola, in Mozambique and in South Africa in subhuman bondage have been toppled and destroyed… Until that day, the African continent will not know peace. We Africans will fight, if necessary, and we know that we shall win, as we are confident in the victory of good over evil.”

88 Impact of Imperialism in Africa
POSITIVE Local warfare reduced Improved sanitation Hospitals led to increased lifespan Schools led to increased literacy Economic growth NEGATIVE Loss of land and independence Men forced to work in European owned mines and on European owned farms Contempt for traditional culture and admiration of European culture = identity problems Dividing up of Africa = artificial boundaries divided kinship groups and united rivals

89 New racial ideologies, especially Social Darwinism, facilitated and justified imperialism


91 Identify major developments of African history in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Africa’s interaction with imperialism Agricultural changes and new patterns of employment The origins of African nationalism Use your notes, and the lyrics to Bob Marley’s “War” to explain how European imperialism affected Africans and their desire for Nationalism.

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