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 The Nez Perce territory at the time of Lewis and Clark (1804-1806) was approximately 17,000,000 acres (69,000 km 2 ). It covered parts of present-day.

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Presentation on theme: " The Nez Perce territory at the time of Lewis and Clark (1804-1806) was approximately 17,000,000 acres (69,000 km 2 ). It covered parts of present-day."— Presentation transcript:


2  The Nez Perce territory at the time of Lewis and Clark (1804-1806) was approximately 17,000,000 acres (69,000 km 2 ). It covered parts of present-day Washington, Oregon, Montana, and Idaho, in an area surrounding the Snake, Salmon and the Clearwater rivers. The tribal area extended from the Bitterroots in the east to the Blue Mountains in the west between latitudes 45°N and 47°N. [8] WashingtonOregonMontana IdahoSnakeSalmonClearwaterBitterrootsBlue Mountainslatitudes [8]  In 1800, the Nez Perce had more than 100 permanent villages, ranging from 50 to 600 individuals, depending on the season and social grouping. Archeologists have identified a total of about 300 related sites, mostly in the Salmon River Canyon, including both camps and villages. In 1805 the Nez Perce were the largest tribe on the Columbia River Plateau, with a population of about 12,000. By the beginning of the 20th century, the Nez Perce had declined to about 1,900 because of epidemics, conflicts with non-Indians, and other factors. [9] A total of 3499 Nez Perce were counted in the 2010 Census. [1] Columbia River Plateauepidemics [9] [1]

3  Hin-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt, Hinmatóowyalahtq ̓ it in Americanist orthography, popularly known as Chief Joseph, or Young Joseph, succeeded his father Tuekakas as the leader of the Wal-lam-wat- kain band of Nez Perce, a Native American tribe indigenous to the Wallowa Valley in northeastern Oregon, in the interior Pacific Northwest region of the United States.  1871: Joseph the Younger succeeded his father as leader of the Wallowa band in 1871.  1879: In 1879, Chief Joseph went to Washington, D.C. to meet with President Rutherford B. Hayes and plead the case of his people.  1885: Finally, in 1885, Chief Joseph and his followers were allowed to return to the Pacific Northwest to settle on the reservation around Kooskia, Idaho.  1897: In 1897, he visited Washington again to plead his case.  1903: In 1903, Chief Joseph visited Seattle, a booming young town, where he stayed in the Lincoln Hotel as guest to Edmond Meany, a history professor at the University of Washington.  1904: Chief Joseph died on September 21, 1904 in Colville Indian Reservation, United States.

4  Ollokot was the son of Tuekakas or Old Joseph and the younger brother of Chief Joseph. His father and brother were advocates of peace and passive resistance to encroachments by White settlers and miners on the land of the Nez Perce. Ollokot, described as tall, graceful, intelligent, fun-loving and daring, was a hunter and warrior but also experienced in diplomacy, accompanying his father and older brother to treaty negotiations between the U.S. and Nez Perce in 1855 and 1863. [1] In early 1877, Ollokot participated with Chief Joseph in negotiations with General O. O. Howard. Howard demanded that Joseph’s and Ollokot’s people move from their traditional lands in the Wallowa Valley of Oregon to a reservation established for them in Idaho. Although Ollokot supported the peace initiatives of his brother in council, Howard believed that behind the scenes Ollokot was on the side of the “reckless young men, who would rather than not have a fight with the white men.” [2]Chief Joseph [1]General O. O. HowardOregonIdaho [2]

5  Looking Glass ( Allalimya Takanin born c. 1832- d. 1877) was a principal Nez Perce architect of many of the military strategies employed by the Nez Perce during the Nez Perce War of 1877. He, along with Chief Joseph, directed the 1877 retreat from eastern Oregon into Montana and onward toward the Canadian border during the Nez Perce War. [1] He led the Alpowai band of the Nez Perce, which included the communities of Asotin, Alpowa, and Sapachesap along the Clearwater River in Idaho. He inherited his name from his father, the prominent Nez Percé chief Apash Wyakaikt (“Flint Necklace”) or Ippakness Wayhayken (“Looking Glass Around Neck”) and was therefore called by the whites Looking Glass. Nez PerceNez Perce WarChief JosephOregonMontanaCanadianNez Perce War [1]Clearwater River Nez PerceNez Perce WarChief JosephOregonMontanaCanadianNez Perce War [1]Clearwater River

6  White Bird ( Peo-peo-hix-hiix, piyóopiyo x ̣ ayx ̣ áyx ̣ or more correctly Peopeo Kiskiok Hihih - “White Goose”), also referred to as White Pelican (died 1892), was leader, war chief and tooat (Shaman or Prophet) of the Lamátta or Lamtáama band of the Nez Perce tribe with the Lamata village along the Salmon River. [1] His band and the village took its name from Lahmatta (“area with little snow”), by which White Bird Canyon was known to the Nez Perce.Nez Perce tribe Salmon River [1]White Bird Canyon

7  Toohoolhoolzote (born c. 1820s, died 1877) was a Nez Perce leader who fought in the Nez Perce War, after first advocating peace, and died at the Battle of Bear Paw. [1][2]Nez PerceNez Perce WarBattle of Bear Paw [1][2] Tribe Nez Perce [1] Pikunan band [2] Nez Perce [1] [2] Born c. 1820s [2] [2] Died September 30, 1877 [2][3][4] Bear Paw Mountains, Montana [2][3][4] Native name Toohoolhoozote (Sound made when striking any vibrant timber or metal with a hard substance) [1] [1] Known for Nez Perce War Cause of death died in Battle of Bear Paw [2]Battle of Bear Paw [2] Religious beliefs Dreamer Faith

8  The Nez Perce War was an armed conflict between several bands of the Nez Perce tribe of Native Americans and their allies, a small band of the Palouse tribe led by Red Echo ( Hahtalekin ) and Bald Head ( Husishusis Kute ), against the United States Army. The conflict, fought between June–October 1877, stemmed from the refusal of several bands of the Nez Perce, dubbed "non-treaty Indians", to give up their ancestral lands in the Pacific Northwest and move to an Indian reservation in Idaho. This forced removal was in violation of the 1855 Treaty of Walla Walla, which granted the tribe 7.5 million acres in their ancestral lands and the right to hunt and fish in lands ceded to the governmentarmed conflictNez Perce Native Americans PalouseUnited States ArmyPacific NorthwestIndian reservationIdaho Joseph and White Bird were joined by Looking Glass's band and, after several battles and skirmishes in Idaho during the next month, approximately 250 Nez Perce warriors, and 500 women and children, along with more than 2000 head of horses and other livestock, began a remarkable fighting retreat. They crossed from Idaho over Lolo Pass into Montana Territory, traveling southeast, dipping into Yellowstone National Park and then back north into Montana,roughly 1,170 miles (1,880 km ). They attempted to seek refuge with the Crow Nation, but, rebuffed by the Crow, ultimately decided to try to reach safety in Canada. IdahoLolo PassMontana Territory Yellowstone National ParkCrow Nation

9  The Battle of White Bird Canyon was fought on June 17, 1877 in Idaho Territory. White Bird Canyon was the opening battle of the Nez Perce War between the Nez Perce Indians and the United States. The battle was a significant defeat of the U.S. Army. It took place in the western part of present- day Idaho County, southwest of the city of Grangeville.Idaho TerritoryNez Perce WarNez PerceU.S. ArmyIdaho CountyGrangeville

10  The Battle of Cottonwood was a series of engagements July 3–5, 1877 in the Nez Perce War between the native American Nez Perce people, and U.S. Army soldiers and civilian volunteers. Near Cottonwood, Idaho the Nez Perce, led by Chief Joseph, brushed aside the soldiers and continued their 1,170 miles (1,880 km) fighting retreat to cross the Rocky Mountains in an attempt to reach safety in Canada.Nez Perce Warnative AmericanNez Perce peopleU.S. ArmyCottonwood, IdahoChief JosephRocky Mountains Date 3–5 July June 1877 Location Near Cottonwood, Idaho, United StatesCottonwood, Idaho Result Nez Perce Victory

11  The Battle of the Clearwater (July 11–12, 1877) was a battle between the Nez Perce under Chief Joseph and the United States army. The army under General O. O. Howard surprised a Nez Perce village. The Nez Perce counter-attacked and inflicted significant casualties on the soldiers, but they were forced to abandon the village. After the battle, the Nez Perce retreated in good order and undertook to cross the Bitterroot Mountains via Lolo Pass with General Howard in pursuit.Nez PerceChief JosephUnited StatesO. O. HowardBitterroot MountainsLolo Pass  Date  July 11–12, 1877  Location  Idaho County, Idaho Idaho CountyIdaho  Result  U.S. victory; successful Nez Perce withdrawal

12  The battle was costly for both sides. Gibbon’s force was unfit to pursue the Nez Perce. Gibbon suffered 29 dead (23 soldiers and six civilian volunteers) and 40 wounded (36 soldiers and four civilians) of whom two later died. His casualties amounted to more than 30 percent of his force. No precise estimate of Nez Perce casualties exists although their total dead probably amounted to between 70 and 90, of whom less than 33 were warriors. Yellow Wolf claimed that only 12 “real fighters, but our best” died in the battle. [ Chief Joseph and his brother Ollokot’s wives were wounded. The next day, August 10, 20 or 30 Nez Perce sharpshooters kept the soldiers holed up in their fortifications all day. The Nez Perce warriors left that night, leaving Gibbon and his soldiers alone but immobile on the battlefield. General Howard and an advance party of 29 cavalrymen and 17 Bannock scouts, found Gibbon the next morning after a 71-mile ride in a day and a night.Bannock

13  Under the command of Major Sanford, the cavalry companies of Captains Carr, Jackson, and Norwood, numbering about 150 men, set off at dawn in pursuit of the Nez Perce and the stolen mules. The rear guard of the Nez Perce detected them and set up an ambush eight miles north of Camp Callaway. Several warriors continued driving the mules on to camp, and others deployed among hillocks of black lava and broken terrain dotted with Aspen trees and sagebrush. A few Nez Perce deployed in a thin skirmish line in a grassy meadow about a half mile wide. The meadow was bordered on the opposite side by a lava ridge 18 feet high and 500 to 600 feet long. Sanford and his three companies took up positions behind the ridge and dismounted to return long-distance fire from the Nez Perce.Aspen  The distance between these lines was too great for effective marksmanship, but when a shot struck Lt. Benson in the hip the soldiers discovered that the Indians in the meadow were serving as a decoy, while others had been creeping forward on both flanks to enfilade the troops. Hence, Sanford ordered a bugler to call a retreat. The retreat of the cavalrymen whose horses had been taken to the rear was an occasion of excitement and confusion. Captain Randolph Norwood with 50 men, however, declined to obey immediately the order to retreat, but instead backtracked slowly to a strong position where he was forced by the encircling Nez Perce to halt, establish defensive positions, and fight it out. The other two companies had abandoned him. For the next two to four hours the two sides sniped at each other.decoy  Meanwhile, Howard received word via messenger that the cavalry companies were in trouble and sallied forth from Camp Callaway with reinforcements. He found the two retreating cavalry companies. Captain Sanford professed ignorance as to the location and fate of Captain Norwood. Howard pushed forward and, mid-afternoon, came upon Norwood and his men crouching in their lava rock rifle pits located a few rods apart along the top and on the edges of a series of ridges that enclosed a protected area for their horses. The Indians melted away and the battle was over.  Norwood had one man dead, two mortally wounded and six to nine wounded. Yellow Wolf stated that "no Indian was badly hurt, only one or two just grazed by bullets". Wottolen was wounded in the side, and Tholekt's head was creased. Wolf

14  The Nez Perce in Yellowstone Park was the flight of the Nez Perce Indians through Yellowstone National Park between August 20 and Sept 7, during the Nez Perce War in 1877. As the U.S. army pursued the Nez Perce through the park, a number of hostile and sometimes deadly encounters between park visitors and the Indians occurred. Eventually, the army's pursuit forced the Nez Perce off the Yellowstone plateau and into forces arrayed to capture or destroy them when they emerged from the mountains of Yellowstone onto the valley of the Yellowstone River.Nez PerceYellowstone National ParkNez Perce WarYellowstone plateau

15  The Battle of Canyon Creek was a military engagement between the Nez Perce Indians and the United States 7th Cavalry. The battle was part of the larger Indian Wars of the latter 19th century and the immediate Nez Perce War. It took place on September 13, 1877, west of present day Billings, Montana in the canyons and benches around Canyon Creek.Nez Perce IndiansUnited States7th CavalryIndian WarsNez Perce War Billings, Montana Aftermath Without much difficulty the Nez Perce held off and escaped from a cavalry force outnumbering them at least two to one. However, the loss of about 400 horses to the Crow scouts was a blow as it placed an additional burden on their remaining and increasingly worn-out horses and slowed their flight toward Canada. They had also expended much of their scarce ammunition. The betrayal of them by the Crow was a psychological blow and after three months of a fighting retreat they were physically exhausted. Sturgis’ casualties in the long-range battle were three killed and eleven wounded, one of them mortally. Martha Jane Cannary, better known as “Calamity Jane,” accompanied the wounded by boat down the Yellowstone River as a nurse. Sturgis claimed to have killed sixteen Nez Perce, but Yellow Wolf said that the Nez Perce had only one warrior and two old men killed, and those by the Crow. He said that three Nez Perce were wounded by the soldiers.Calamity Jane

16 After crossing the river, the main body of the Nez Perce went past the soldiers without incident, and camped about two miles up Cow Creek. A small group of Nez Perce rode to the entrenchment. They indicated friendly intentions and asked for some of the stockpiled food. The army sergeant in charge at first ignored their request which reduced the Nez Perce to begging. Finally the sergeant gave them one bag of hardtack and one side of bacon from the soldier's own stores. At sundown gunfire broke from Indians in the breaks, who had located themselves so they could fire down into the entrenchment. Two civilians were wounded and the soldiers, though able to return fire, were now pinned down. The supplies were far enough from the entrenchment so that, as night fell, the Indians could filter out of the steep eroded breaks and get to the supplies without coming under effective fire. After dark the Indians broke into the supplies, and took what they found desirable in the dark. The supplies were set on fire. A large stockpile of bacon burned brightly for most of the night. The soldiers attributed the illumination from this blaze with preventing a concerted attack, but it is more likely that the Nez Perce only wanted the supplies and not a pitched battle with the soldiers. The Indians and the soldiers exchanged sporadic gunfire through the night until about 10:00 in the morning, after which the Nez Perce moved off up Cow Creek. Two civilians and one Nez Perce warrior were wounded The squad of soldiers at Cow Island Landing on September 23, 1877 had been sent to guard the stockpiled supplies, which had been offloaded from steamboats. Upon the arrival of the Nez Perce, the soldiers and the clerks retreated into an earthen entrenchment which had been built around their tents to divert rain water. The entrenchment was a few hundred yards from the ford. Significantly the entrenchment was also a few hundred yards from the stacked supplies.

17  The Battle of Bear Paw (also written as Battle of the Bears Paw or Battle of the Bears Paw Mountains ) was the final engagement of the Nez Perce War. Some of the Nez Perce were able to escape to Canada, but Chief Joseph was forced to surrender the majority of his followers to General Oliver O. Howard and Colonel Nelson A. Miles. The battlefield today is part of the Nez Perce National Historical Park and the Nez Perce National Historic Trail.Nez Perce War CanadaChief JosephOliver O. HowardNelson A. MilesNez Perce National Historical ParkNez Perce National Historic Trail During the cold and snowy night following the battle both the Nez Perce and the soldiers fortified their positions. Some Nez Perce crept out between the lines to collect ammunition from wounded and dead soldiers. [10] The Nez Perce dug large and deep shelter pits for women and children and rifle pits for the warriors covering all approaches to their camp which was a square about 250 yards (220 mts) on each side. About 100 warriors manned the defenses, each armed with three guns including a repeating rifle. [1][20] In the words of a soldier: “to charge them would be madness. [21] [10] [1][20] [21] Miles greatest fear – and the Nez Perce’s greatest hope – was that Sitting Bull might send Lakota warriors south from Canada to rescue the Nez Perce. The next morning, the soldiers saw what they thought were mounted columns of Indians on the horizon, but they turned out to be herds of bison. Looking Glass was killed at some point during the siege, when he thought he saw an approaching Lakota and raised his head above a rock to see better and was hit and killed instantly by a sniper’s bullet.bison

18  T ell General Howard I know his Heart. What He told me before I have in my heart. I am tired of fighting, Looking Glass is dead. too-Hul-hul- sote is dead. The old men are all dead. It is the young men who say yes or no. He who led on the young men is dead. It is cold and we have no blankets. The little children are freezing to death. My people, some of them have run away to the hills, and have no blankets, no food; no one knows where they are--perhpas freezing to death. I want to have time to look for my children and see how many of them I can find. Maybe I shall find them among the dead. Hear me, my chiefs. I am tired; my heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever." 1



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