Presentation on theme: "Launching A New Nation In 1789 George Washington became the first president of the United States. Americans saw George Washington as an honest man and."— Presentation transcript:
Launching A New Nation
In 1789 George Washington became the first president of the United States. Americans saw George Washington as an honest man and a hero of the Revolution. –Many Americans wanted him to be president.
Electors from the 11 states that had passed the Constitution met in January 1789 to vote. –They formed a group called the electoral college: a body of electors who represent the people’s vote in choosing the president. –They selected Washington unanimously and picked John Adams to be vice president.
The Reluctant President
His Response…. “While I realize the arduous (difficult) nature of the task which is confer (given) on me and feel my inability to perform it, I wish there may not be reason for regretting the choice. All I can promise is only that which can be accomplished by an honest zeal (enthusiasm).”
First Lady Martha Washington entertained at social events.
Martha was a young widow, who had been married to Daniel Parke Custis, son of the King's Council for Virginia. She had two children, and a considerable estate from her former husband. Upon marriage, the family moved to, and remained at Mount Vernon.
Executive Branch #1.The new government would set precedents, or examples, for future action. Congress created executive departments. The president’s cabinet served as his advisers. Alexander Hamilton was chosen Secretary of the Treasury, and Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of state. Congress and the president organized the executive and judicial branches of government.
Organizing the Federal Court System #2 Judicial Branch Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1789 to set up the federal court system. The act created 3 levels of federal courts and defined powers. It set up federal district courts and circuit courts of appeal. The president nominated federal judges.
In 1790 the US had 4 million people Farmers wanted fair tax laws and the right to settle western lands. Merchants, laborers, and craftspeople wanted help with their businesses. The 1st capital was New York City—a trade center and economic hub of the nation, that had 33,000 people and was growing rapidly. Main Idea #3: Americans had high expectations of their new government.
Alexander Hamilton The powers contained in a constitution…ought to be construed liberally in advancement of the public good.” —Alexander Hamilton
Financial Problems of the Nation 1.Biggest problem: Huge national debt. (money owed by the United States)- 2.$11.7 million to foreign countries, $40 million to U.S. citizens from purchased bonds. Bonds=certificates of debt that carry a promise to buy back the bonds at a higher price. 3. Bondholders who needed money sold their bonds at a lesser price to speculators, who wait for bond value to rise and then sell at a profit.
Hamilton’s Plan 1.Deal with the Debt: Pay back foreign debt and then repay value of bonds. Federal Government would pay state’s debt. 2.Gain Revenue: Increase business and put a tariff (tax)on trade items to bring money in. 3.Stabilize the Banking System: Create a national bank. Create a national mint.
Opposition Thomas Jefferson opposed Hamilton’s ideas. He thought the idea cheated bondholders who had sold their bonds at low prices. Southern states did not want to help with national debt-Virginia and N. Carolina did not have war debt. Hamilton needed the South’s support to pay debt off.
What to do? Hamilton knew South wanted nation’s capitol moved from NY. The compromise worked. In 1791 the nation’s capital moved to Philadelphia for 10 years. Washington then chose a place on the Potomac that included part of Maryland and Virginia.
Section 3 Challenges 1.French Revolution: On July 14, 1789 citizens rebelled against the French King by storming a French Bastille. (prison) French were inspired by U.S. Revolution. 2.Some Americans supported the French Citizens actions 3. Some Americans were appalled by the violent attacks on the authority. (Beheadings) 4. War between France and Britain started again-U.S. citizens were split in their support.
The Beheading of King Louis and Queen Marie Antoinette
The Neutrality Proclamation Washington believed neutrality was the best action for the U.S. to take. The Neutrality Proclamation (not taking sides) stated the U.S. would not take sides with any European countries that were at war. “ The duty and interest of the United States require that they should with sincerity and good faith adopt and pursue a conduct friendly and impartial towards the belligerent powers. “ -George Washington
Help the French? France asked for help with their war against Britain. They wanted to use American sailors as privateers (private ships hired to attack its enemies) Washington said NO! It would violate the Neutrality act. Jefferson believed the U.S. should help the French. Hamilton was pro-British because of needed trade ties. Jefferson thought Hamilton was too involved in state business and resigned!
Hamilton, You want the government to rule like the King once ruled us! I will not help you achieve your goal…. I Quit!
Jay’s Treaty Other threats to U. S. Neutrality 1.U.S. ships carrying food to the French West Indies was seized by British ships. 2.To avoid another war with Britain Washington sent John Jay to work out a compromise. 3.Jay’s Treaty settled disputes since the 1790’s: the U.S. agreed to pay debts, British promised to pay damages to ships and abandon forts on northwestern frontier.
Response to Jay’s Treaty The treaty sparked riots. Some believed the treaty hurt trade and did not punish British enough for their actions. South angry because Britain did not pay for slaves they had freed in the Revolutionary War.
Problems in the Northwest Americans settled in the Northwest Territory despite Native Americans’ protests. Native Americans went to war ready with weapons provided by British traders. Early Native American victories came under Miami Chief Little Turtle.
Little Turtle Frustrated by Native Americans actions, Washington gave General Anthony Wayne the task of fighting the Indians. In 1793 Wayne arrived in Ohio to find soldiers with smallpox and influenza. Wayne built Fort Grenville and remained there during the winter. In the summer of 1794 Little Turtle’s men attacked supply trains. Wayne responded by attacking Native American towns and burning their crops.
The End of Conflict The British lost faith in Little Turtle and stopped aide. Turtle realized without help he was outmatched and urged for peace. (It was not to be) On August 20, 1794 Native Americans fought Wayne’s troops at the Battle of Fallen Timbers and were defeated. Wayne’s armies then burned Indian villages and fields. Defeated, Native American leaders signed the Treaty of Greenville-which gave the US claim to most Indian lands in the Northwest territory.
What did Little Turtle get? Native Americans had to promise US citizens would be safe in the territory. They received $20,000 worth of goods and an acknowledgement of land they still owned.
Whiskey Rebellion In 1791, Congress taxed all liquor made and sold in the U.S.
Thousands of farmers rebelled against the tax. "Famous whiskey insurrection in Pennsylvania", an illustration from Our first century: being a popular descriptive portraiture of the one hundred great and memorable events of perpetual interest in the history of our country by R. M. Devens (Springfield, Mass, 1882).
Pres. Washington sent about 13,000 members of state militias to restore order. The painting depicts George Washington and his troops near Fort Cumberland, Maryland, before their march to suppress the Whiskey Rebellion in western Pennsylvania.
* The Whiskey Rebellion proved to Americans that the new government would act firmly in times of crisis. "...if the laws are to be so trampled upon with impunity, and a minority...is to dictate to the majority, there is an end put at one stroke to republican government...for some other man or society may dislike another law and oppose it with equal propriety until all laws are prostrate, and everyone will carve for himself." - George Washington's observation about the Whiskey Rebellion - George Washington's observation about the Whiskey Rebellion
support the Democratic Republicans and oppose Federalists.
Washington's Farewell address Washington decided not to run for a third term. He wanted retirement more than anything!