Presentation on theme: "1) IMPERIALISM… defined: → “Policy in which one country seeks to extend its authority by conquering other countries, or by establishing economic and political."— Presentation transcript:
1) IMPERIALISM… defined: → “Policy in which one country seeks to extend its authority by conquering other countries, or by establishing economic and political dominance over other countries.” [text] → A nation controlling another nation for economic, political, and/or military gain. [Unit 1] → The exploitation of a weak or less developed nation by a strong (usually industrial) nation, by taking economic and/or political control of a foreign people in their native land. → Can be done directly or indirectly, but in ALL cases, involves a loss of sovereignty by the nation being imperialized.
FORMS OF IMPERIALISM I. Colonies (Colonialism): - “a country or territory governed internally by a foreign power” [text] - Imperial nation’s government administers directly, within the conquered territory - Usually involves a simultaneous stronger military presence by the imperial nation (or, sometimes use of native conscripts) - Often (but not always) involves migration and settlement of citizens from the imperial nation in the conquered territory. - DIRECT imperialism
FORMS OF IMPERIALISM II. Protectorate: - “a country or territory with its own internal [native] government, but under the control of an outside [foreign] power” [text] - Also known as a PUPPET GOVERNMENT: Imperial nation selects or approves “leaders” of the nation being controlled Imperial nation directs the foreign policies of the nation under control Imperial nation “protects” the nation under control (either with their own troops, or by training & supplying the military of the nation under control) - INDIRECT imperialism
FORMS OF IMPERIALISM III. Sphere of Influence: - “an area in which an outside power claims exclusive economic privileges” [text] - Any region under the political, economic, or military influence of a more powerful nation, compelled to serve the interests of that nation (usually under threat of direct intervention) - Uses coercive, unequal treaties - Nation under control keeps native government - INDIRECT imperialism
FORMS OF IMPERIALISM IV. Economic Imperialism: - an “independent” but less-developed country controlled by [FOREIGN] private business interests [text] - Foreign business investments may occur under the encouragement and protection of the foreign business’s home government! - Troops are not always necessary (unless foreign investments are threatened by angry natives - labor strikes, revolutions, etc.) - Uses CAPITAL as a weapon! - INDIRECT imperialism
FORMS OF IMPERIALISM MOST DIRECT Colonialism Protectorate Sphere of Influence Economic Imperialism LEAST DIRECT (most indirect)
3) Methods of imperial control (HOW?): 1. INDIRECT control: - Local (native) government officials used - Limited self-rule (NOT fully sovereign!) - “develop future leaders”… TRANSLATION: bribe / support corrupt & undemocratic leaders to serve the imperial nation’s interests = establish PUPPET GOVERNMENTS - Government institutions (services & organization) intermix with local (native) ones. - Does NOT always use troops to control - Rather, uses CAPITAL INVESTMENT and PROTECTION as tools of control (and access to resources) - MODERN IMPERIALISM!
3) Methods of imperial control (HOW?): 2. DIRECT control: - Foreign officials brought in to rule (no self-rule) - Often involves FORCED ASSIMILATION of native population (might include settlement of imperial nation’s citizens in the conquered land) - Conquering nation’s rules apply to political, economic, and social institutions - Often involves use of superior MILITARY strength to control (send troops, or conscript native troops) - a.k.a. TRADITIONAL IMPERIALISM
FORMS OF IMPERIALISM Economic Imperialism (further explained): POSITIVE aspects: + promotes foreign CAPITAL INVESTMENT + encourages TRADE + creates JOBS + develops a poor nation’s economy & infrastructure + foreign company may invest in some health & education services for its native labor force
FORMS OF IMPERIALISM Economic Imperialism (further explained): NEGATIVE aspects: - Profits from a nation’s labor, resources, or markets disproportionately benefit the imperial/industrial nation - Imposes unfair trading terms (resources at undervalued prices; labor w/ low wages & outlawed unions) - Often involves bribing & supporting dictators (and corrupt “presidents”) of underdeveloped nations (economically & militarily) for access to resources - Some development occurs (infrastructure, health, education), but NO MIDDLE CLASS GROWTH occurs over time (nation STAYS POOR b/c profits flow OUT of country, instead of being re-invested in the country). - Though unfair, is a LEGAL AGREEMENT signed w/ a “sovereign” government.