3 The Second Industrial Revolution Steel drives industrialization in the late 1800sDevelop an easier and cheaper way to produce steel- The Bessemer ProcessEncourages railroads to expandTrunk lines (major railroads) cross from the Great Plains to the Pacific CoastWilliam KellyHenry Bessemer
4 The Impact of the Railroad Railway companies= country’s major employersSpur the growth of other industriesIncreased need to communicate across long distancesNeed lots of power
5 New sources of powerElectricity: Work hard to find practical applications for this natural phenomenonThe dynamo: electric generatorThomas Alva EdisonGasolineOriginally just seen as having medicinal purposesFinally in 1850 it is found that it can be refined to produce kerosene, which could be turned into lamps to produce light
6 Which of the following did Edison NOT invent? LightbulbThe dynamoThe bicycleThe phonograph10123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
7 Which of the following was NOT an impact of railroads? Increased westward expansionIncreased growth of other industries, such as the steel industryMore jobsIt caused more people to move to rural areas10123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
8 Which of these encouraged industrialization to move from the east to the west? RailroadsSubwaysLabor UnionsMuckakers10123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
9 Big BusinessThe corporation: new form of business organization that capable of managing the growing industries during this timeHow do corporations raise capital?Some corporations join together to form a trust, where companies turn control over to a Board of Directors which run all the companies as oneWhat happens when a trust gains exclusive control over an industry?Government Involvement: Age of laissez faire capitalism
10 Horizontal Integration Andrew Carnegie Steel Industry John D. RockefellerStandard OilHorizontal IntegrationOwns companies involved in the same business (ie. Oil refining)Buy out competition or drive out of business by lowering pricesAndrew CarnegieSteel IndustryEconomies of scaleVertical IntegrationAcquired companies that provided materials and services upon which his enterprises dependedControls steel at each stage of production= sell at a much lower price than his competitors
12 A New Social OrderNew Urban Upper Class: Make their $$$ in new industriesNew Middle Class: Modern corporations swell the middle class with managers, engineers, accountants, clerks, and salespeople; new jobs createdIndustrial workers: Hundreds of thousands move into cities in search of jobs1890: 50% of industrial workers live below the poverty line--- What does this cause?Great demand in labor met by immigrants
13 10 Corporations Unionization Proprietorships Monopolies 1. The Ability to sell stock 2. Limited liability for the owners 3. Improved ability to raise large sums of money Industrialization changed the structure of business in America. The items listed above are all benefits of-CorporationsUnionizationProprietorshipsMonopolies10123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
14 By eliminating the tariff on foreign goods How did the government encourage the growth of big business after the Civil War?By eliminating the tariff on foreign goodsBy extending massive loans to business ownersBy limiting immigration into the U.S.By using laissez faire10123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
15 Immigrants Prior to 1880: Protestants from northwestern Europe After 1880: New wave70% from Southern/Eastern EuropeCatholic, Jewish, Greek Orthodox, French Canadiens, Armenians, Arabs, Chinese, Japanese
17 Nativists View immigration as a threat Restrictions on immigration “Too different to fit in”Blame immigrants for the ills of societyImmigrants take all the jobs from AmericansRestrictions on immigrationChinese Exclusion Act, 1882Denies citizenship to people born in ChinaProhibits immigration of Chinese laborersImmigration Restriction League,1894Sought to make literacy a requirement for admission into the United StatesPresident Grover Cleveland vetoes the Act passed by Congress
18 Urban Life People flock to cities to find work Skyscrapers dominate the landscapeWhy no skyscrapers before?Mass transitTenementsWhat were tenements like?
19 The Drive for Reform The Settlement Houses: Community service centers Hull House and Jane AddamsAids the poorSocial GospelApply Christian principles to address social problemsThe Salvation ArmySome support Social Darwinism.What is social Darwinism?
20 Socialists Social Darwinists Transcendentalists Union Leaders _____________ believed society was a competition in which the fittest came out on topSocialistsSocial DarwinistsTranscendentalistsUnion LeadersVOTE123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
21 Hull House was founded in Chicago by Jane Addams to… Help persecuted Jewish AmericansProvide lodging for child laborersHelp the urban poor living in slumsServe as a meeting place for suffragists10123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
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