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The Nation Transformed The Second Industrial Revolution: Industrialization and Immigration in America from 1865-1910.

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Presentation on theme: "The Nation Transformed The Second Industrial Revolution: Industrialization and Immigration in America from 1865-1910."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Nation Transformed The Second Industrial Revolution: Industrialization and Immigration in America from

2 The Industrial Revolution

3 The Second Industrial Revolution Steel drives industrialization in the late 1800s Steel drives industrialization in the late 1800s Develop an easier and cheaper way to produce steel- The Bessemer Process Develop an easier and cheaper way to produce steel- The Bessemer Process Encourages railroads to expand Encourages railroads to expand Trunk lines (major railroads) cross from the Great Plains to the Pacific Coast Trunk lines (major railroads) cross from the Great Plains to the Pacific Coast Henry Bessemer William Kelly

4 The Impact of the Railroad Railway companies= country’s major employers Railway companies= country’s major employers Spur the growth of other industries Spur the growth of other industries Increased need to communicate across long distances Increased need to communicate across long distances Need lots of power Need lots of power

5 New sources of power Electricity: Work hard to find practical applications for this natural phenomenon Electricity: Work hard to find practical applications for this natural phenomenon The dynamo: electric generator The dynamo: electric generator Thomas Alva Edison Thomas Alva Edison Gasoline Gasoline Originally just seen as having medicinal purposes Originally just seen as having medicinal purposes Finally in 1850 it is found that it can be refined to produce kerosene, which could be turned into lamps to produce light Finally in 1850 it is found that it can be refined to produce kerosene, which could be turned into lamps to produce light

6 Which of the following did Edison NOT invent? 1. Lightbulb 2. The dynamo 3. The bicycle 4. The phonograph

7 Which of the following was NOT an impact of railroads? 1. Increased westward expansion 2. Increased growth of other industries, such as the steel industry 3. More jobs 4. It caused more people to move to rural areas

8 Which of these encouraged industrialization to move from the east to the west? Railroads 2. Subways 3. Labor Unions 4. Muckakers

9 Big Business The corporation: new form of business organization that capable of managing the growing industries during this time The corporation: new form of business organization that capable of managing the growing industries during this time How do corporations raise capital? How do corporations raise capital? Some corporations join together to form a trust, where companies turn control over to a Board of Directors which run all the companies as one Some corporations join together to form a trust, where companies turn control over to a Board of Directors which run all the companies as one What happens when a trust gains exclusive control over an industry? What happens when a trust gains exclusive control over an industry? Government Involvement: Age of laissez faire capitalism Government Involvement: Age of laissez faire capitalism

10 Andrew Carnegie - Steel Industry - Economies of scale - Vertical Integration - Acquired companies that provided materials and services upon which his enterprises depended - Controls steel at each stage of production= sell at a much lower price than his competitors John D. Rockefeller - Standard Oil - Horizontal Integration - Owns companies involved in the same business (ie. Oil refining) - Buy out competition or drive out of business by lowering prices

11 John D. Rockefeller

12 A New Social Order New Urban Upper Class: Make their $$$ in new industries New Urban Upper Class: Make their $$$ in new industries New Middle Class: Modern corporations swell the middle class with managers, engineers, accountants, clerks, and salespeople; new jobs created New Middle Class: Modern corporations swell the middle class with managers, engineers, accountants, clerks, and salespeople; new jobs created Industrial workers: Hundreds of thousands move into cities in search of jobs Industrial workers: Hundreds of thousands move into cities in search of jobs 1890: 50% of industrial workers live below the poverty line--- What does this cause? 1890: 50% of industrial workers live below the poverty line--- What does this cause? Great demand in labor met by immigrants Great demand in labor met by immigrants

13 1. The Ability to sell stock 2. Limited liability for the owners 3. Improved ability to raise large sums of money Industrialization changed the structure of business in America. The items listed above are all benefits of- 1. Corporations 2. Unionization 3. Proprietorships 4. Monopolies

14 How did the government encourage the growth of big business after the Civil War? 1. By eliminating the tariff on foreign goods 2. By extending massive loans to business owners 3. By limiting immigration into the U.S. 4. By using laissez faire

15 Immigrants Prior to 1880: Protestants from northwestern Europe Prior to 1880: Protestants from northwestern Europe After 1880: New wave After 1880: New wave 70% from Southern/Eastern Europe 70% from Southern/Eastern Europe Catholic, Jewish, Greek Orthodox, French Canadiens, Armenians, Arabs, Chinese, Japanese Catholic, Jewish, Greek Orthodox, French Canadiens, Armenians, Arabs, Chinese, Japanese

16 New Americans

17 Nativists View immigration as a threat View immigration as a threat “Too different to fit in” “Too different to fit in” Blame immigrants for the ills of society Blame immigrants for the ills of society Immigrants take all the jobs from Americans Immigrants take all the jobs from Americans Restrictions on immigration Restrictions on immigration Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882 Denies citizenship to people born in China Denies citizenship to people born in China Prohibits immigration of Chinese laborers Prohibits immigration of Chinese laborers Immigration Restriction League,1894 Immigration Restriction League,1894 Sought to make literacy a requirement for admission into the United States Sought to make literacy a requirement for admission into the United States President Grover Cleveland vetoes the Act passed by Congress President Grover Cleveland vetoes the Act passed by Congress

18 Urban Life People flock to cities to find work People flock to cities to find work Skyscrapers dominate the landscape Skyscrapers dominate the landscape Why no skyscrapers before? Why no skyscrapers before? Mass transit Mass transit Tenements Tenements What were tenements like? What were tenements like?

19 The Drive for Reform The Settlement Houses: Community service centers The Settlement Houses: Community service centers Hull House and Jane Addams Hull House and Jane Addams Aids the poor Aids the poor Social Gospel Social Gospel Apply Christian principles to address social problems Apply Christian principles to address social problems The Salvation Army The Salvation Army Some support Social Darwinism. Some support Social Darwinism. What is social Darwinism? What is social Darwinism?

20 _____________ believed society was a competition in which the fittest came out on top Socialists Social Darwinists Transcendentalists Union Leaders VOTE

21 Hull House was founded in Chicago by Jane Addams to… Help persecuted Jewish Americans Provide lodging for child laborers Help the urban poor living in slums Serve as a meeting place for suffragists


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