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NATION BUILDING AND NATIONIONALISM America: Past and Present Chapter 9.

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Presentation on theme: "NATION BUILDING AND NATIONIONALISM America: Past and Present Chapter 9."— Presentation transcript:

1 NATION BUILDING AND NATIONIONALISM America: Past and Present Chapter 9

2 Expansion and Migration n American perspective shifts from Europe to West after 1815 n Land perceived as rich, unsettled n Continent held in part by the English, Spanish, and Indians

3 Extending the Boundaries n John Quincy Adams--expansionist secretary of state from 1816 to 1824 n Adams-Onis Treaty secures all Florida, U.S. boundary to Pacific n Settled "West" still mostly east of Mississippi River

4 Settlement to the Mississippi: Indian Removal n Indian Removal policy begins after 1815 n Some Indians retain tribal homelands n Some Southern states claim jurisdiction over the Indians in their borders n Former Indian land sold to speculators

5 Settlement to the Mississippi: Settlers Move In n Speculators sell land parcels to settlers on credit n Settlers immediately enter commercial farming to pay off debt n Access to markets gained by network of market towns, regional centers n By 1840 over 1/3 of U.S. population lives west of the Appalachians

6 The People and Culture of the Frontier n West settled to escape overpopulation, rising land prices, worn-out soil n Settlers bring culture with them n Cooperation, strong community necessary for survival n Land values rise rapidly in a few years n Price rise encourages rootlessness as many sell out and move on

7 Transportation and the Market Economy n Complementary trends after 1815 – Rapid improvement in transportation – Increasing use of money and credit in the economy n Trends stimulate emergence of a national market economy

8 A Revolution in Transportation: Roads n National Road from Cumberland, Maryland to Wheeling, Virginia n Private turnpikes built by entrepreneurs n Roads useful but unprofitable

9 A Revolution in Transportation: Steamboats n Network of rivers encourage economic development n Flatboats transport down river early n Steamboats transport upriver after 1811 n Upriver capabilities reduce costs n Steamboat traffic stimulates Congress to establish safety regulations

10 The Canal Boom n Erie Canal first transportation link between East and West, 1825 n Canal cuts East-West transportation costs dramatically n Canal stimulates commercial growth of New York City

11 Emergence of a Market Economy n Lower transportation costs mean greater income for the farmer n Sale to distant markets involves farmers in a complex system of credit n Market stimulates specialization – Ohio Valley produces wheat – Lower South produces cotton

12 Commerce and Banking n Commercial farming stimulates new system of marketing n Farmers borrow on future crops n Use of credit stimulates banking n State banks increase after 1812 n 1816--Second Bank of the United States created to check state banks n Bank’s easy credit sparks Panic of 1819

13 Early Industrialism n Rise in manufacturing after 1812 n Traditional methods but innovative financing through “putting out” system – “Putting out:” merchants deliver raw materials for farm families, artisans to process n Textile industry leads development of factory system

14 The Politics of Nation-Building After the War of 1812 n Politics a one-party system after 1812 n Interest groups no longer take differences into the political arena n Federal executive, legislature largely irrelevant to domestic economy n Supreme Court exerts influence on economy by deciding crucial cases

15 The Republicans in Power n Republicans begin adopting Federalist measures after War of 1812 – 1815: establish high tariffs – 1816: charter a national bank – federal aid for internal improvements n Federal efforts to stimulate economy falter – Madison, Monroe see Constitutional conflicts – Efforts provoke sectional conflict

16 Monroe as President n James Monroe elected President in 1816, reelected in 1820 n Monroe seeks national harmony n Takes no action in Panic of 1819, believes president above such matters n Provides no leadership controversy over Missouri

17 The Missouri Compromise: The Issues n 1817--Missouri applies for statehood as slave state n Northerners believe South over- represented in House of Representatives n House rejects unless slavery abolished n South wishes to preserve balance between slave states and free states

18 The Missouri Compromise: The Solution n Missouri admitted as slave state n Maine admitted as free state Slavery banned elsewhere in Louisiana Purchase above the latitude of 36E30' n Missouri controversy exposed deep rift between North and South

19 Postwar Nationalism and the Supreme Court n John Marshall chief justice 1801-1835 n Marshall uses position to encourage national growth n Believes Constitution exists to protect the industrious n Protects individual property rights against government interference n Marshall uses court decisions to limit powers of the states

20 Nationalism in Foreign Policy: Circumstances of the Monroe Doctrine n When Latin American nations revolt, U.S. supports new republics n European ruling classes fear rebellion might prove contagious n France was encouraged to squelch Spain's rebellious colonies n Great Britain asks U.S. to cooperate against French in Latin America

21 Nationalism in Foreign Policy: Monroe Doctrine’s Provisions n Monroe persuaded that U.S. alone must protect Latin American independence n 1823--Monroe Doctrine warns European nations out of the Western Hemisphere n Doctrine also promises U.S. will not interfere in European affairs n Refocuses U.S. from worldwide struggles against tyranny to national development

22 Adams and the End of the Era of Good Feelings n James Monroe supports John Quincy Adams to succeed him n Adams intelligent, keen interest in progress, loyal to nation, not sectional n A "gentleman" in an age of rising democracy n Nearly loses election of 1824 n Term of office fails because of fiercely contending sectional interests

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