Presentation on theme: "NATIONALISM, ECONOMIC EXPANSION, AND WESTWARD EXPANSION"— Presentation transcript:
1NATIONALISM, ECONOMIC EXPANSION, AND WESTWARD EXPANSION
2Major Debates as the New Nation grows 1. How do we pay for internal improvements? Should the federal government build roads and canals?2. Do we need a national banking system?3. Should tariffs be raised or lowered to promote economic development?4. How do we regulate and control westward settlement?5. How do we settle disputes and regulate interstate commerce?6. Who has the authority to deal with the Native Americans?
3Expansion and Migration After the War of 1812 there was a surge of American nationalism, pride, and nation building.American perspective shifted from Europe to the American West after 1815
4Reasons for Westward Expansion, 1812-1840 Population of U.S. almost doubled in 20 years and Americans were “pushed” westward to find new landAmerican economy was growingNew transportation systems emergedIndustrialization increasedCrops had depleted the soil along east coast, Americans were seeking new landWar of 1812 weakened the power and size of Native American tribes and Indian removal led to relocation
5Federal government acquired land through treaties with tribes Forts helped secure the regionSettlers flooded into the West and the population grew faster than any other region of the nationWestward movement brought groups into contact and conflict with each other*** This rapid movement impacted the nation’s expanding economy, growing regional tensions, and political divisions that eventually led to Civil War
6North: Early Industrialism Rise in manufacturing after 1812Traditional methods but innovative financing through “putting out” system“putting-out”--merchants deliver raw materials for farm families, artisans to complete the productTextile industry led development of factory system in Lowell, Massachusetts and Americans began producing their own clothNorthern states wanted high tariffs (taxes on imports) to protect American manufacturers. The Southern states wanted lower tariffs to promote international trade and cheap imports.
7A Revolution in Transportation After the War of 1812 political leaders recognized the need the need to improve the country’s transportation network to achieve their goals:national securityeconomic progresspolitical unityPolitical Debate: Should the federal government help finance roads and other “internal improvements”?
8Roads and TurnpikesFederal money used to build a National Road from Cumberland, Maryland to Wheeling, Virginia improved trade and travelPrivate turnpikes built by entrepreneursRoads useful but unprofitable
10Steamboats Network of rivers encouraged economic development Flatboats transported down river earlySteamboats transported upriver after 1811Upriver capabilities reduced costsSteamboats soon carried more cargo on the MS River than all earlier forms of river transportation combined (flatboats, barges, etc)With steamboat traffic Congress to establishes safety regulationsThe first steamships crossed the Atlantic leading to an increase in international exchange of goods and people=global economy expands
15Steam StatsIn 1820 there were 31 steamboats operating on the MS River, 15 years later there were 361.Before steam it cost $5 to move 100 pounds of freight by river from New Orleans to Louisville. In twenty years the price dropped to 25 cents.
16Land Speculation and Westward Settlement West settled to escape overpopulation, rising land prices, worn-out soilCooperation, strong community was necessary for survivalLand values rose rapidly in a few yearsRising prices encouraged settlers to sell out and move on, land speculation drove westward settlement
17Settlement in the Mississippi River Valley: Indian Removal Indian Removal policy begins after 1815Contain themCivilize themRemove themExterminate themSome Indians retained tribal homelandsFormer Indian land sold to LAND speculators
18Settlement to the Mississippi: Settlers Move In By 1840 over 1/3 of U.S. population lived west of the AppalachiansSpeculators sold land parcels to settlers on credit=cycle of debtSettlers immediately engaged in commercial farming to pay off debtAccess to markets gained by network of market towns, regional centers
19The Beginning of Commercial Agriculture Lower transportation costs mean greater income for the farmerSale to distant markets involves farmers in a complex system of creditMarket stimulates specialization in commercial farmingOhio Valley produces wheatLower South produces cotton
20Reasons the South became the World’s Leading Producer of Cotton 1. Textile manufacturing in England drove demand for more cotton2. In 1793, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin =cut labor costs, cheaper product3. Fertile land was available in the Southwest4. Slavery provided the needed labor force5. River systems provided easy transportation
21Commerce and BankingCommercial farming stimulated a new system of marketingFarmers borrowed against future cropsUse of credit stimulated bankingState banks increased after 18121816--Second Bank of the United States created to check state banksBank’s easy credit sparked the Panic of 1819=(Sound like today?)
26Port of New Orleans: Exports 1816=37,000 bales1830=428,000 bales1840=923,000 balesIn the South production tripled from 1817 to 1840 ( 461,000 bales to 1,350,000 bales)
27The Canal BoomErie Canal was first transportation link between East and West, 1825Canal cut East-West transportation costs dramaticallyCanal stimulated commercial growth of New York City and transformed the economy of the northeastern U.S.
28Emergence of a Market Economy Canals cut shipping expenses for western farmers and eastern manufacturersSteamboats on the rivers also reduced shipping costs and stimulated commercial agricultureThe nation was rapidly developing an integrated national economic system
29Erie Canal: 364 miles long, 40 feet wide, 84 locks, opened in 1825