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Alesya Maslyak 2 nd year student. Contents Sociology, nation-states and the international system Classical sociology and social change Universalism and.

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Presentation on theme: "Alesya Maslyak 2 nd year student. Contents Sociology, nation-states and the international system Classical sociology and social change Universalism and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Alesya Maslyak 2 nd year student

2 Contents Sociology, nation-states and the international system Classical sociology and social change Universalism and nationalism Citizenship: entitlements and obligations Political theory and interstate relations The realist perspective explained The realist perspective assessed Putting 'society' back into national and global politics Society and international relations Historical sociology The feminist reassessment Women and the state, Women and nationalism Women, violence and contemporary warfare Does globalization mean the decline of the nation-state? Economic autonomy The antipathy to modernity The continuing need for effective nation-states

3 Framework of analysis  The study of nationalism  The nation-state: its power and role  The idea of citizenship How this is changing in the face of globalization? The era of nation-state may be ended?

4 Definition Nation-states are constituted by governments assuming a legal and moral right to exercise sole jurisdiction, supported by force in the last resort, over a particular territory and its citizens. This involves institutions for managing domestic and foreign affairs

5 Nation-states and the International System  Predated the rise of modernity and industrial capitalism  Acted as a centralizing agency  Controlled trades, aristocrats, religious bodies Driving forces:  Military  Economic rivalry among nations

6 The European Revolutions  "Liberté, égalité, fraternité  the Declaration of the Rights of Man, expanded the arena of human rights  the rise of republics and democracies,  the spread of liberalism and secularism,  the development of modern ideologies

7 Britain’s Industrial Revolution  1) Industrialization  2) Remove any obstacles  3) The process was controlled by elites  “the story of modernity was of a project to extend human control over space, time, nature and society” Albrow  Driving forces:  Capitalist and military organizations

8 The age of nation-state system  Balance Power has shifted as each new nation state wants to expand its sphere of influence  Search for new territories  Colonization

9 Phases of development of Nation States  Treaty of Westphalia 1648  Utrecht Treaty 1713  Congress of Vienna 1815  First World War 1914-1919  Second World War 1939-1945




13 Social consequences of industrial capitalism  The loss of community The relationships are based on contract and mutual interest  Declining social cohesion and moral order Industrialism Urbanism Secularization Moral and social isolation The conscience collective Growing materialism Egotism Individualism

14 The outbreak of the First World War  Reinforced the national learning  Research aimed at amelioration of social conditions  Creation of welfare state  Creation of new form of social bond – citizenship as a nation-building strategy

15 Citizenship alludes to membership of and inclusion in a national community Elements:  Legal equality and justice  The right to be consulted on political matters  Access to a minimum of protection against economic insecurity

16 Principles Uniform rights to which everyone is equally entitled An implicit bargain - Loyalty to nation-state’s objectives - Accept military conscription - Pay taxes - Seek employment - Obey the law Democratization by providing an equality of membership status and the ability to participate in a society

17 Three sets of rights by T.H. Marshall  Civil rights The right to own property Arrange contracts Free assembly, speech and thought Expect justice from impartial legal system  Political rights The ability to participate in national decision-making Voting and elections Establish movements  Social rights Access to welfare provisions Old age, disability, family, unemployment benefits Proper housing, education, health Such minimum security gives an equal chance to enjoy personal autonomy and the benefits of economic growth

18 Universal human rights  Based on membership of and inclusion in a particular national community and territory => raise the possibility of exclusion  Migrants movements (transnational family, cultural, political and business connections with their home country)  Complicated ethical, political and practical issues


20 The biggest challenges…  World citizenship  Global citizens

21 How to Be a World Citizen? Understand the world doesn't end in your home village, town, city, state or country Learn some new major languages Be tolerant and respectful of other people's cultures Resist, react, repeal, speak against xenophobia and intolerance in all its forms Oppose racism, tribalism, regionalism, religious bias and all kinds of segregation of any kind Value each human life as you value your own Feel welcome in whatever region of the world where you happen to find yourself Consider each individual on his own merits and repeal unfounded popular myths about certain nations and peoples Teach other people in normal conversation Don't refer to your special group if you intend your message to be universal Find the best way you can really help Be active and contribute Learn from wise people and redistribute your knowledge Learn about the past in order to help build a better future

22 Globalization  flows of people, technologies, ideas, symbols, capital, etc. (Appadurai)  time–space compression (Harvey)  action at distance (Giddens)  accelerating interdependence (Ohmae)  networking (Castells) 1. ‘ Hyperglobalizers vs sceptics’, where the key distinction concerns the degree of novelty of globalization and its impact on nation-states; 2. ‘Neoliberals vs neo-Marxist and radicals’, where the key points are the balance between positive and negative impacts of globalization and its truly global or western hegemonic character; and 3. ‘Homogenization vs heterogeneity and hybridization’, which focuses on the cultural dimension of globalization.

23 Globalization and Modernity “we live in runway world where everything seems out of control”  Traditions no longer provide clear social directions => construction of self-identities and life biographies  Lifestyles requires the selection of practices that enable the individuals to achieve self- actualization  Risk chemical spills, global warming, climate change  Intimacy democracy of emotions, openness, trust, equality  Family Separation sexuality and love from reproduction  Rising fundamentalism

24 Contradictoriness of Globalization Globalization is a process that has created at least as much trouble as possibility. It is a process of social representation Production and distribution vs. exploitation and poverty Information has become increasingly available in real-time vs information remains attached to particular interests and power The structures and the ideologies of the world are still organized nationally The rules and resources of governments rest on the violence-backed power of state vs. the rules and resources of governmentality rest on consensus and agreement


26 The dream of cosmopolitism, “globalization” as a dominant new imaginary The utopian vision of a cosmopolitan and boundaryless civil society espoused by Kant (Idea for a universal history with a cosmopolitan purpose. In Political writings) The utopia discourse of world civil society in formally democratic institutional regimes, the quasi-world governments as the League of Nations, The United Nations (Bertrand Russell, Ralph Bunche) The utopia representation “globalization” in the late 1980s as if a world civil society were finally at hand (A. Giddens, U. Beck, M. Kaldor, J. Keane, D. Held)

27 Classical theoretical writings o Marx (class formation, mode of production) o Durkheim (functional differentiation) o Weber (bureaucracy, authority, power)  Also Parsons, Elias, Goffman, Geerts universalizing process and compression of temporal, spatial, and cultural scale

28 Universalism and nationalism  Durkheim: how to find a new set of universally significant moral bonds to replace the religious convictions threatened by secularization, while cementing together the more complex national and world orders created by individualism  Marx: capitalist exploitation would ultimately create the conditions for an increasingly organized and militant working class so that it would send shudders through nation-state societies

29 The Realist perspective  World society is largely synonymous with the relationship between states  An inherent risk of conflicts erupting  Relations between states are mostly dominated by question of military security, appropriate foreign policies, nation security  The word polity is hierarchical. States are not equal in their capacity to shape events

30 Critique of the Realist approach  States agendas are much broader than national security and military matters  The rapid growth of powerful non-state, transnational bodies (TNC)  IGOs (the World bank, the IMF, and other)

31 Criticisms of international relations theory Global Society and International Relations: Sociological Concepts and Political Perspectives, Cambridge: Polity, 1994 Conflicts over questions of ethnic, religious, gender and class affiliation

32 Markets  the institutional embodiment of the exchange principle  a system of society-wide coordination of human activities, not by central command but by mutual interactions in the form of transactions  socially constructed entities that need regulation

33 International markets “-”  new patterns of hierarchy and inequality  new forms of inclusion and exclusion  a threat for existing forms of social cohesion  create social and inequalities in the world’s major cities “+”  increase the freedom of choice of individuals and groups  open new opportunities for development  contribute to integration through productive interdependence  the spread of similar consumption standards (world youth culture)  Give a sense of equal opportunities and a sense autonomous identity

34 Transnational and Multinational corporations (TNCs and MNCs) the large corporation acts as the ‘visible hand’ that integrates economic life by internalizing a large number of economic activities more efficiently than markets could do, through processes of coordination, standardization and routinization Characteristics  operate on the basis of the authority principle  act according to the rules of international competition and the laws of the different countries in which they operate  organize economic space according to an international division of labour  limit competition by setting barriers for new potential entrants  control technological innovations  organize global production and distribution networks  their interest is global profitability  pressure national governments and international organizations  exploit the fragmentation of markets for labour and natural resources, and their technologies



37 International governmental organizations (IGOs)  focus on collective policy problems of economic, ecological and social security, rather than on the traditional geopolitical relations of states, and fostered the growth of a polyarchic, mixed-actor system of global politics  provide a forum for other actors to be heard, give voice to minorities, and uphold, at least to some extent, the principles for which they have been established  based on collective decision-making among governments and non-governmental organizations and the goal of consensual solutions to international problems

38 When the UN was established in 1945, there were 51 Member States. Now, there are 193 Member States, nearly four times the original number. In comparison, the size of the Security Council membership was increased once in 1965, from 11 to 15 members, through an increase in the number of non-permanent seats.

39 European nation-states in the 21 century

40 “ The nation is imagined as limited because even the largest of nations has a finite boundary beyond which there are other nations. It is imagined as sovereign in that it displaces or undermines the legitimacy of organized religion or the monarchy ”

41 The Nation  Imagined because members cannot all know each other  Limited because no nation encompasses all of mankind, nor even aspires to  Sovereign because nations came into being during Enlightenment and strive for freedom  Community because a nation is conceived of as a horizontal comradeship of equals

42 The Origins of National Consciousness  Between 1820 & 1920 national print-languages were of central ideological and political importance in Europe  Languages belonged no longer to God, but to their speakers, and dictionaries and grammars treat all languages as equals  A language is a powerful means to root a nation to a past because a language looms up from the past without any birth date of its own, and suggests a community between a contemporary society and its dead ancestors  Poetry and songs, as national anthems create a simultaneous community of selfless voices  The new middle-class intelligentsia of nationalism had to invite the masses into history  War monuments, holidays commemorating battles, holocausts, genocides, and even fraternal (civil) wars serve to bond a nation to a history

43 Three factors changing state structures  Internal pressures from domestic groups  The political ferment and economic transformations  Institutional innovations (ex: legal codes, mass education system)

44 Women and the state  The state not only treats women unequally in relation to men, it also constructs men and women differently  Controlled women in many ways  Regarded as the main carriers of their country’s unique cultural heritage  Foucault: exercise biopower by states (to have more children)  Have often been deliberately targeted as war victims

45 Women and contemporary warfare  Up to 7 in 10 women around the world experience physical and/or sexual violence at some point in their lifetime  603 million women live in countries where domestic violence is not yet considered a crime  As many as 1 in 4 women experience physical or sexual violence during pregnancy  Over 60 million girls worldwide are child brides, married before the age of 18  Approximately 250,000 to 500,000 women and girls were raped in the 1994 Rwandan genocide



48 Does globalization mean the decline of the nation-state? States have to adhere to the demands of IGOs Declining capacity to determine the own military strategies and foreign policies Relatively easy for terrorists and criminals to obtain lethal arms, small explosives and even certain types of nuclear weaponry A growing body of international law is increasingly infringing on state autonomy The ability of states to determine effective national economic policies is declining


50 Military blocks  NATO and others


52 International collective movements the heirs of the critical social movements that developed on a national basis, such as the feminist, environmental and anti-war movements Function  engaged in mobilizing transnational communities of resistance and solidarity  taking advantage of the same technological resources that corporations use to control the market  organize parallel summits of global society in the same place and time as major transnational institutions, like the IMF or the G8

53 International non-governmental organizations (INGOs)  challenge governments and win wide support across national borders  represent effective pressure groups vis-a-vis global decisionmakers  play key roles in international cooperation and in the formation of a global civil society and public space  have soft power => the driving force of the decision-making process

54 The resurgence of national and ethnic demands and rivalries The crisis in the Balkans The first Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, the Gulf War The continuing dispute between China and Taiwan The uncertainties over long-established ethnic, linguistic, religious or regional demands for autonomy in Northern Ireland, Canada, Spain, Palestine and several African countries The uncertainties surrounding the UN’s interventions The proliferation of chemical and nuclear weaponry


56 The antipathy to Modernity  Highly informed reflexive citizen networks  Ethnic and regional minorities demanding the devolution of some or most central powers to local levels  Widespread public disillusionment with the rhetoric of conventional party politics

57 The changes associated with postmodernity are transforming all social and cultural experiences The tendency of disappearing of such meta-narratives as liberalism, nationalism and socialism as significant factors in our lives All boundaries and status hierarchies are breaking down Every aspect and area of cultural and social life is acquiring a money value The pursuit of individual self-realization, narcissistic enjoyment of the body and the construction of private and distinctive lifestyles Rising volume of information, images and messages

58 Camelleri and Frank encourage us to deconstruct the meta-narratives of nationalism and democracy:  Cultural pluralism undermines national politics  “British”, “Canadian” – who are they?

59 Transnational states William Robinson  Transnational network of politicians and officials who are sympathetic to global capitalism together with elites linked to various supranational economic and political forums  They serve the interests of transnational capitalism, act as midwives of capitalist globalization  Use globalization as a pretext to cut welfare expenditure, remove trade union rights and deregulate labor markets

60 Cosmopolitan democracy Held and Archibugi  Citizens, wherever they are located in the world, have a voice, input and political representation in international affairs, in parallel with and independently of their own governments  Requires the creation of authoritative global institution able to monitor the political regimes of member countries and to influence the domestic affairs of states where necessary  Creating regional parliaments

61 Conclusions by Jeffrey C. Alexander No liberalization in the normative sense, no moral purchase, no individual freedom and civil rights The structures and the ideologies of the world are still organized nationally The role of the expansion of organizational and cultural power A process of space/time/meaning compression is ongoing The dream of cosmopolitan peace has not died Globalization is a new and powerful social representation

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