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Nation-Building in the Modern World Placards. India Britain had ruled India since 1877. In 1919, the British massacred unarmed Indians at Amritsar. This.

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Presentation on theme: "Nation-Building in the Modern World Placards. India Britain had ruled India since 1877. In 1919, the British massacred unarmed Indians at Amritsar. This."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nation-Building in the Modern World Placards

2 India Britain had ruled India since 1877. In 1919, the British massacred unarmed Indians at Amritsar. This incident, more than any other single event, had marked the beginning of the end of British rule in India. After the Amritsar Massacre, Gandhi knew the British had to go. It was during this time that Gandhi began numerous civil disobedience movements, beginning with the Great Salt March in 1930. It all began when the British taxed the Indians on salt, a season commonly used in Indian food. Gandhi felt taxing Indian salt was wrong because it was a gift of nature to India. As a means of non-violent protest, Gandhi marched 241 miles to the sea in 24 days to protest the salt tax. While on the coast, Gandhi and his followers defied the British by making and using their own salt. After the Salt March, the British started to show signs of giving in to Gandhi’s demands. Gandhi’s movement of civil disobedience did not end with the Great Salt March. Gandhi persuaded millions of Indians to make “home-spun” cloth and not buy from the British. Millions of people began producing their own cloth and making their own clothes. Britain’s economy was hurt by this boycott. The British began to realize they needed to leave India soon. Before the British left India the Indian National Congress (INC) was formed. The INC was created to be the government after the British left India. It consisted of mostly Hindus. Many Muslims were not happy with the Indian National Congress because it was made up of mostly Hindus. As a result, the Muslim League was formed to protect Muslim needs with Muhammad Ali Jinnah as it’s leader. Moreover, many Muslims did not like the idea of living in a country that was made-up of mostly Hindus. Before long, many Muslims began calling for a separate country. The British finally announced that they were going to leave India in 1947. Gandhi asked The Muslim League to keep Muslims a part of India. The Muslims refused. As a result, India split into two nations - India and Pakistan. Once the British left India, much violence between Hindus and Muslims occurred. It is estimated that 1 million people died during this time. Gandhi pleaded with Hindus and Muslims to live together peacefully. Riots engulfed Calcutta, one of the largest cities in India, and the Gandhi fasted (did not eat) until the violence ended. On January 13, 1948, he undertook another successful fast in New Delhi to bring about peace. But on January 30, 12 days after the termination of that fast, as he was on his way to his evening prayer meeting, he was assassinated by a Hindu fanatic who thought he was too supportive of Muslims. He was 79 years old. Gandhi’s death was regarded as an international catastrophe. His place in humanity was measured not in terms of the 20th century but in terms of history. A period of mourning was set aside in the United Nations General Assembly, and condolences to India were expressed by all countries. Religious violence soon diminished in India and Pakistan, and the teachings of Gandhi came to inspire nonviolent movements elsewhere, notably in the U.S. under the Civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. Side A

3 India Side B

4 Pakistan, Bangladesh & Sri Lanka Pakistan After WWII Britain found itself with enormous war debts. Therefore, they were finally willing to give up their colonial possessions. When India obtained their independence in 1947, Muslims living in India were not willing to live under Hindu rule. They wanted to have their own Muslim country. After many clashes between Hindus and Muslims the British government decided the best way to keep peace was to divide India and Pakistan Into separate countries. The northwest and eastern regions of India, where most Muslims lived, would become the new nation of Pakistan. On July 16, 1947 two nations were born, India for the Hindus and Pakistan for the Muslims. As people scrambled to relocate, violence among the different religious groups erupted. Over 1 million people died due to this conflict. Instability plagued Pakistan’s government after independence. First, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, their first governor-general died shortly after independence. This left the nation without strong leadership, As a result, the country went through a series of military coups. Bangladesh From the beginning the two regions of Pakistan experienced strained relations. On March 26, 1971, East Pakistan declared itself an independent nation called Bangladesh. A civil war followed between Bangladesh and Pakistan. Eventually Indian forces stepped in and sided with Bangladesh. Eventually Pakistan surrendered. Over 1 million died in the civil war. Pakistan lost about one-seventh of its area and about one-half of its population to Bangladesh. The war with Pakistan had ruined the economy of Bangladesh and destroyed the communication system. Sheik Mujibur Rahman became the nations first prime minister and appeared more interested in strengthening his own power than rebuilding his country. He called for a one-party state and was assassinated by military leaders. Although Bangladesh has tried to create a more democratic government over the years, government corruption and election fraud were common. In 2001, the government became more stable electing Begum Khaleda Zia as Prime Minister. Although Bangladesh is now more democratic it still has many problems. Because of it’s geography, the country often suffers from tidal waves and cyclones that regularly floods the land, ruins crops and takes lives. Bangladesh is also one of the poorest nations in the world. Sri Lanka In February of 1948 the small island nation of Sri Lanka just off the southeast coast of India won it’s independence from Britain. This small country’s recent history has also been one of turmoil. A militant group of Tamils has long fought an armed struggle for a separate nation for it’s people. Since 1981 thousands of lives have been lost. Although they tried to reach an peace agreement by sending in Indian troops to help disarm the Tamil rebels, this effort was not successful and civil war continued. Side A

5 Pakistan, Bangladesh & Sri Lanka Side B

6 Philippines The Philippines gained independence immediately after World War II from the United States in 1946. The immediate goals of the Filipinos after gaining independence was to rebuild the economy and restore the capital of Manila. The city had been badly damaged in World War II. In order to get $600 million that the U.S. promised, the Filipinos were required to approve the Bell Act. The act would establish free trade between the U.S. and the Philippines for 8 years. The Filipinos were worried that the U.S. would exploit the resources and environment of the Philippines. However, they eventually signed the Act in order to get the needed money. In order for the U.S. to protect it’s interests in Asia, they maintained a military presence in the Philippines, especially with the beginning of the Cold War. Therefore the U.S. demanded a 99-year lease on its military and naval bases in the Philippines. These bases became a great source of conflict between the U.S. and the Philippines. In 1991 the U.S. will give up it’s bases. In 1965 Ferdinand Marcos was elected president of the Philippines. Until the end of his rule, the people suffered great hardship. Not only did Marcos impose authoritarian rule, but he also stole millions of dollars. In 1986 Corazon Aquino won the election but Marcos refused to recognized Aquino as the winner. The people forced Marcos to leave the Philippines for good. In 1995 they were able to recover the millions of dollars stolen by Marcos. During Aquino’s presidency, the Philippine government ratified a new constitution. In 1992, Fidel V. Ramos succeeded Aquino as president. The presidents are now restricted to a 6-year term to prevent the abuse of power that occurred during Marco’s 20-year-rule. The Filipinos suffered from extreme poverty, having one of the lowest average yearly incomes. Side A

7 Philippines Side B

8 Burma (Myanmar) Burma, in Southeast Asia, had been pressing for independence from Britain for decades. In 1948 it chose to become a independent nation. After Burma gained it’s freedom it suffered many problems. It’s people struggled with conflict between pro-democracy leaders and Repressive military governments. During World War II the Japanese declared Burma an independent state and both the Burmese and Japanese fought against British rule. At the end of the war, The Burmese nationalist army, led by Aung San helped the British forces defeat the Japanese. They succeeded in driving out the Japanese and were about to become independent. Then Aung San and most of his cabinet were killed by Burmese political rivals. Conflict among Communists and ethnic minorities disrupted the nation. In 1962, General Ne Win set up a repressive military government, with the goal of making Burma a socialist state. Even after Ne Win stepped down in 1988 the military continued to govern repressively. In 1988 Aung San Suu Kyi, the daughter of Aung San, returned to Burma after many years aboard. Her goal was to bring democracy to Burma. She became active in the national League for Democracy. For her pro-democracy activities she was placed under house arrest for 6 years by the government. She was not able to see children or other family members. The country’s military changed the name from Burma to Myanmar after the country’s failed democratic uprising in 1988. The West and opposition figures boycotted the name change because it came from an oppressive dictatorship. In 1990 election, the first multi-party election in over 30 years – the National League for Democracy won 80% of the seats. The military government refused to recognize the election, and kept Aung San Suu Kyi under house arrest. She was finally released in 1995 though still kept under surveillance. For her efforts to establish democracy in Burma, she won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991. Burma continues to suffer from extreme poverty and military rule. Side A

9 Side B Burma (Myanmar) (Burma)

10 Malaysia and Singapore During World War II, the Japanese conquered the Malaya Peninsula in Southeast Asia, formerly ruled by the British. The British returned to the peninsula after the Japanese defeat in 1945. They tried, unsuccessfully, to organize Malaya into one state. They also struggled to put down a communist uprising. Ethnic groups resisted British efforts to unite their colonies on the peninsula and in the northern part of the island of Borneo. Malays were a slight majority on the peninsula, while Chinese were the largest group in Singapore. In 1957 Malaysia gained it’s independence from Britain. The Federation of Malaya was created from Singapore, Malaya, Sarawak, and Sabah. The union, however, was unstable due to distrust and ideological differences between leaders of the State of Singapore and the federal government of Malaysia. Such issues resulted in frequent disagreement within politics, economic, financial and social policies. The conflict spread to the populace, resulting in major racial riots in 1964 in Singapore. In 1965, Malaysian Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman decided upon the expulsion of Singapore from the Federation, leading to the Independence of Singapore on August 9, 1965. Singapore, extremely prosperous, was one of the busiest ports in the world. Lee Kuan Yew ruled Singapore as prime minister from 1959-1990. Under his guidance, Singapore emerged as a banking center as well as a trade center. It has a standard of living far higher than any of its Southeast Asian neighbors. In early 1997, the Geneva World Economic Forum listed the world’s most competitive economies. Singapore topped the list. It was followed, in order, by Hong Kong, the United States, Canada, New Zealand, Switzerland, and Great Britain. Side A

11 Malaysia and Singapore Side B

12 Indonesia The Southeast Asian country of Indonesia will gain it’s independence in 1949 from the Dutch with the help of the nationalist leader Sukarno. Sukarno (known only by his first name) lead Indonesia’s independence movement after the Japanese were forced to leave after their defeat in World War II. The Dutch, with the help of Britain and the United States, tried to regain control. Unlike the British colonists, who served their term in India and then returned to England, the pre-war Dutch looked upon the East Indies as their permanent home. To keep it that way, the Dutch resisted native Indonesians’ attempts to enter the civil service (government employment) or to acquire higher education. After the war, Indonesians refused to be mistreated by the Dutch and formed a successful guerrilla army to fight against the Dutch. After losing support from the United States and the United Nations, the Dutch agreed to grant independence to Indonesia in 1949. Indonesia became the fourth most populated nation in the world. It consisted of more than 13,600 islands with 300 different ethnic groups, 250 languages, and most of the world’s major religions. It contained the world’s largest Islamic population. After independence, Sukarno tried to create a democracy. Unfortunately this attempt failed. In 1965, a group of junior army officers attempted to throw Sukarno out of power, however, the coup was stopped by a general named Suharto. He then took power for himself. Conflict broke out and almost 1 million Indonesians were killed. Suharto was named president in 1967 and turned Indonesia into a police state. Outside observers heavily criticized him for his annexation of East Timor in 1976 and for human rights violations there. Bribery and corruption became a commonplace. Only the rich enjoyed prosperity. Political and economic conditions worsened in the late 1990’s. In 1998 protesters forced Suharto, Asia’s longest ruling dictator, to resign. Side A

13 Indonesia Side B

14 Ghana Ghana, formerly known as the Gold Coast in the continent of Africa will be one of the first African nations to gain independence. The leader of the non- violent, independence movement was Kwame Nkrumah who worked throughout the 1940’s to help the Gold Coast to gain independence from Britain. In 1957 the Gold Coast obtained independence from Britain and renamed itself Ghana. This name honored a famous West African kingdom of the past. Ghana became the first nation governed by black Africans to join the British commonwealth. Nkrumah became Ghana’s first prime minister and later its president-for life. He began a program to revitalize the country by creating new roads, schools and health facilities. But these projects will eventually prove to be too costly and will cripple the economy. Nkrumah will be criticized for spending to much money and focusing too much on Pan-African efforts. He wanted to create a “United States of Africa”. He wanted an Africa ruled by Africans. Nkrumah helped develop the Pan-African Congress held in Machester, England in 1945. Later, in 1958, he hosted the first Pan-African meeting held in Africa This led to the formation of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) In 1963. In 1966, while Nkrumah was in China, the army and police in Ghana took power. Since then, the country has shifted back and forth between civilian and military rule. At the same time, it has struggled for economic stability. Jerry Rawlings, and Air Force pilot, seized power in 1979 and again in 1981. Side A

15 Ghana Side B

16 Kenya Britain began to settle in Kenya to take over their prized farmland in the northern highlands of Kenya in the African continent. They resisted any attempts for independence. Eventually, the British were forced to accept black self-government as a result of two developments. One was the strong influence of the Kenyan nationalist leader, Jomo Kenyatta. Having been educated in London, England he was able to unite the people to seek independence. The second was the rise of a secret society called the Mau Mau. This group was mostly working farmers forced out of their farms by the British. The goal of the Mau Mau was to frighten the British into leaving the farms rather than engaging in war. Kenyatta did not condemn the actions of the Mau Mau and therefore was imprisoned by the British. The imprisonment will lead to conflict. More than 10,000 black Kenyans and 100 white Kenyans were killed in the fighting. The British finally granted independence to Kenya in 1963. Kenyatta became president of the new nation. He worked hard to unite the various ethnic and language groups in the country. Nairobi, the capital, grew into a major business center of East Africa. When Kenyatta died in 1978, his successor, Daniel arap Moi, was less successful in governing the country. Moi faced more and more opposition to his one-party rule. While he was leader many students protested and as a result they were killed. These demonstrations put pressure on Moi to make the country more democratic. In the early 1990’s, Kenya’s economy suffered a severe reversal. Adding to the nation’s problems, were corruption in Moi’s government and ethnic conflicts that killed hundreds and left thousands homeless. Side A

17 Kenya Side B

18 The Congo Of all the European possessions, the Congo in Africa was the most exploited. Belgium had taken much of the colony’s natural resources of rubber and copper and employed a system of forced labor. Not only did Belgium drain the wealth of this colony, it never provided social services or prepare the Belgium people for independence. When Belgium finally granted independence to the Congo in 1960 chaos erupted. Patrice Lumumba became the nation’s first prime minister. He ruled a divided country. In the mineral-rich southeastern province of Katanga, a local leader name Moise Tshombe declared that region’s independence. This was a serious threat, especially since copper from Katanga’s mines was the nation’s primary export. During the first years of independence, outside influence was a major problem. Tshombe was backed by Belgian mining interests. Lumumba, with Communist connections, first asked the United Nations for help in putting down Tshombe’s rebellion. He then turned to the Soviet Union for aid. At this point, a coup led by an army officer, Colonel Joseph Mobutu, later known as Mobutu Sese Seko, overthrew Lumumba and turned him over to his enemy, Tshombe. Lumumbas was murdered while in Tshombe’s custody. Tshombe himself ruled briefly until he was overthrown by Mobutu, who Seized power in a bloodless coup in 1965. From 1965-1997 the country will change it’s name to Zaire. In 1997 Laurent Kabila overthrew Mobutu and had himself sworn in as president of the country. The rebels met little opposition as they crossed the country. The New York Times called the Zaire government “a house that had been eaten by termites. The rebels came along and pushed it over.” That is, the corruption of Mobutu’s rule had undermined his support among the people. The name of the country was changed from Zaire to the Congo. Mobutu died in 1997. Side A

19 The Congo Side B

20 Algeria The French colony of Algeria in Africa will be successful in gaining it’s independence in 1962. At first, the French offered full citizenship rights to its colonial subjects rather than independence. It desperately wanted to hold on to this prized possession. Over a million French colonists were living in Algeria in 1945. They had been living there for generations and were unwilling to give up their land. But, the Algerian’s refused to share political power. After World War II a conflict arose between the French and the Algerian nationalists when the French troops fired on Algerian protestors. Before peace was established thousands of Muslims and about 100 Europeans were killed. Although the French tried to appease the Algerians with reforms, the nationalists were not satisfied and pushed for independence. In 1954, the Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN) announced its intention to fight for independence. The FLN would use guerrilla tactics at home and diplomatic tactics internationally. The French sent over half a million troops into Algeria to fight the FLN. Both sides Committed atrocities. European settlers in Algeria began requesting that Charles D Gaulle return as president of France and restore order in the French colony. In 1958 De Gaulle returned to power and decided that Algeria should not longer be held by force. France also let go of most of its other possessions in Africa. After France planned to transfer power to Algeria in March of 1962, 750,000 French settlers fled Algeria. Independence came in July of 1962. The new prime minister will be Ahmed Ben Bella, leader of the FLN. He reestablished national order, began land reforms, and developed new plans for education. In 1965, he was overthrown by his chief of staff. From 1965-1988. Algerians tried to modernize and industrialize. Their efforts were slowed when oil prices plunged in 1985. Unemployment and the unfulfilled promises of the revolution contributed to an Islamic revival. Riots in 1988 against the government left hundreds dead. The chief Islamic party, the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS), won elections in the early 1990’s. However, the ruling government refused to accept the election results. Eventually, a civil war broke out between Islamic militants and the government which claimed thousands of lives. Side A

21 Algeria Side B

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