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The New Nation
Washington – the Father of our Country Presidents’ Day Precedents The Cabinet:
- Secretary of State: Jefferson – Foreign Policy - Secretary of Treasury: Hamilton – Money Matters
- Secretary of War: Knox – Army and Navy - Attorney General: Randolph – Legal Matters
Today: more members and additional functions Loose interpretation of the Constitution Organising the finances
Hamilton’s plan: - Establish the credit of the U.S. At home and in other countries - Encourage manufacturing - Provide a stable currency
Federal government would assume the debts from the Revolutionary War
Tariffs and taxes on imports and some agricultural products Special project – the National Bank
The anti-federalists feared that: - Control the money supply - Destroy state banks - Claim all surplus government funds Plan worked – investments, purchase of goods
Beginning of political parties Two-party system Federalists and Democratic- Republicans Republicans (Federalists) and Democrats
Foreign policy - Federalists and Democratic-Republicans agreed that the U.S. should remain neutral
Washington retired in 1796 Farewell Address “It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world, so far as we are now at liberty to do it
Policy of isolation for more than 100 years 1796 election: - Dem-Republicans – T. Jefferson - Federalists – John Adams Adams won by three votes
Adams as President Difficult because: - followed Washington - experienced but tactless, proud - Jefferson was Vice President - some members of his own party were plotting against him
Problem – Washington’s Proclamation of Neutrality The British – seized merchants’ ships for men and goods A treaty was signed
The French seized American ships Adams negotiated with the French and British to keep out of conflict which at first was seen as something cowardly but later considered a big achievement
1st legislation to limit immigration in the U.S. – the Naturalization Act of 1798 (5 to 14 years) The Alien Acts – right to imprison immigrants who are considered dangerous to the U.S.
Force the immigrants to leave the country Keep poor or revolutionary immigrants from coming to the U.S. Never enforced strictly and allowed to expire in 1800
The Nation Grows Early 1800’s – vibrant, alive, secure Desire to expand
Northwest Territory Acquired at the end of the Revolutionary War Northwest Ordinance 6-mile-square townships – 36 sections One section – to provide money for public schools
The rest could be sold to settlers The ordinance: - established a structure for the government - provided a procedure for becoming a state
- Encouraged public schools - Prohibited slavery - Guaranteed civil liberties Successful Ohio (1803), Vermont (1791), Kentucky (1792), Tennessee (1796)
Into the “wilderness”in search of good farmland and a chance to succeed on their own Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin
Louisiana Purchase Port of New Orleans Transport on the river rather than on land 1802 – France had control of the area Jefferson negotiated with Napoleon to buy the city
$10 million for New Orleans and as much land as possible to the east but the whole Louisiana region was sold for only $15 million
The boundaries extended U.S. Territory to the west and to the north The size doubled overnight Rich farmland Removed the French gov from the North-American continent
France and Britain at War The wars in Europe – good for the Americans: - neutral status – benefited from free trade Blockades The British enlisted American soldiers by force
Jefferson prohibited American exports to other countries 1812 – James Madison – keep peace BUT the Congress – go to war against Britain and Spain
Deciding factors for Madison: - problems with trade - the British supported some Indian attacks on Americans in the west - desire to add Canada and Florida to the U.S.
Americans - not very successful but fought off the British and regained control of the Great Lakes
The Star-Spangled Banner Chesapeake Bay to Washington, D.C. Militia was overrun The Capitol and the White House were set on fire Baltimore – Francis Scott Key
The Treaty of Ghent – 1812 Pre-war situation restored Conflicts not resolved but no longer important as Europe was longer at war
Results of the war: - feeling of nationalism/pride - foreign policy of isolation - desire to settle the West - increase in industry and manufacturing - End of Federalist party
Good of the country The Protective Tariff of 1816 Protect the infant industries Changes in the transportation system
Florida Purchase 1812 – desire to acquire Florida Hide-out for pirates, smugglers, runaway slaves and hostile Seminole Indians 1818 Andrew Jackson John Quincy Adams – Onis Treaty
$5 million for Florida (1819) Europeans interested in the newly independent Latin- American countries The Holy Alliance – Austria, Prussia, France, Russia
The Monroe Doctrine (1823): - the Western Hemisphere closed to further colonization - the U.S. Would not interfere with the existing colonies/internal affairs of the European nations
European action in the Western Hemisphere would be considered a military threat and act A milestone - importance of the U.S. In world affairs
1820’s – loyalty to the state or region Nationalism to sectionalism 3 main areas: - Northeast- industrial, bankers - South – agricultural - West – independent farmers
Different feelings about different issues that led to the Civil War 1840’s – U.S. Should expand to the Pacific Ocean – destiny/fate Annexation of Texas, California, New Mexico, Oregon
Spanish rights in Texas recognized until the Mexicans took over Stephen Austin – the Texans War with Mexico 1846 - 1848
GEORGE WASHINGTON A. What was Washington’s foreign policy? Neutrality- not taking sides, staying out of it B. Define impressment To force men into military.
The Early National Period What You Need To Know. The Early National Period The new American republic prior to the Civil War experienced dramatic territorial.
Who fought on the British side in the War of He was able to get lots of Native Americans to help fight the Americans.
U.S. from Jefferson and the Louisiana Purchase Who owned Louisiana in the 1790s? –Spain How did France gain possession of Louisiana? –Treaty.
President James Madison James Madison was elected the fourth president of the United States in Wars between Britain and France caused challenges.
A New National Identity
EARLY PRESIDENTS WASHINGTON ADAMS JEFFERSON MADISON MONROE QUINCY ADAMS JACKSON.
GEORGE WASHINGTON THE PRECEDENT PRESIDENT
War of 1812 Notes on… Jefferson’s Foreign Policy Embargo War of 1812 Era of Good Feelings.
Vocab Political Parties Events in History War of 1812 Other
THE EYE OF THE HURRICANE How could the Monroe presidency be characterized as being in the eye of the hurricane?
Causes / Battles/ Effects of …. 1 st Four Presidents Review Washington Adams Jefferson Madison Development of Government.
American Foreign Policy
Washington’s Presidency Washington’s Presidency was a time when the Executive Branch set many precedents that defined how the national government under.
Standard(s): 27. Explain the major significance of the following historical documents: Constitution Bill of Rights Monroe Doctrine Missouri Compromise.
Objective: understand the constitution after 1787 with emphasis on states v federal authority.
Creating and Growing a Nation AFTER THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR, THE UNITED STATES UNDERWENT SIGNIFICANT SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, AND TERRITORIAL CHANGES. THE U.S.
8 th Grade Ch 9. American Foreign Policy The Big Idea The United States peacefully settled disputes with foreign powers.
A Strong Start for the Nation ( ) *Federal Government Established *Dealing with a Dangerous World.
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