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The New Nation. Washington – the Father of our Country Presidents’ Day Precedents The Cabinet:

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Presentation on theme: "The New Nation. Washington – the Father of our Country Presidents’ Day Precedents The Cabinet:"— Presentation transcript:

1 The New Nation

2 Washington – the Father of our Country Presidents’ Day Precedents The Cabinet:

3 - Secretary of State: Jefferson – Foreign Policy - Secretary of Treasury: Hamilton – Money Matters

4 - Secretary of War: Knox – Army and Navy - Attorney General: Randolph – Legal Matters

5 Today: more members and additional functions Loose interpretation of the Constitution Organising the finances

6 Hamilton’s plan: - Establish the credit of the U.S. At home and in other countries - Encourage manufacturing - Provide a stable currency

7 Federal government would assume the debts from the Revolutionary War

8 Tariffs and taxes on imports and some agricultural products Special project – the National Bank

9 The anti-federalists feared that: - Control the money supply - Destroy state banks - Claim all surplus government funds Plan worked – investments, purchase of goods

10 Beginning of political parties Two-party system Federalists and Democratic- Republicans Republicans (Federalists) and Democrats

11 Foreign policy - Federalists and Democratic-Republicans agreed that the U.S. should remain neutral

12 Washington retired in 1796 Farewell Address “It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world, so far as we are now at liberty to do it

13 Policy of isolation for more than 100 years 1796 election: - Dem-Republicans – T. Jefferson - Federalists – John Adams Adams won by three votes

14 Adams as President Difficult because: - followed Washington - experienced but tactless, proud - Jefferson was Vice President - some members of his own party were plotting against him

15 Problem – Washington’s Proclamation of Neutrality The British – seized merchants’ ships for men and goods A treaty was signed

16 The French seized American ships Adams negotiated with the French and British to keep out of conflict which at first was seen as something cowardly but later considered a big achievement

17 1st legislation to limit immigration in the U.S. – the Naturalization Act of 1798 (5 to 14 years) The Alien Acts – right to imprison immigrants who are considered dangerous to the U.S.

18 Force the immigrants to leave the country Keep poor or revolutionary immigrants from coming to the U.S. Never enforced strictly and allowed to expire in 1800

19 The Nation Grows Early 1800’s – vibrant, alive, secure Desire to expand

20 Northwest Territory Acquired at the end of the Revolutionary War Northwest Ordinance 6-mile-square townships – 36 sections One section – to provide money for public schools

21 The rest could be sold to settlers The ordinance: - established a structure for the government - provided a procedure for becoming a state

22 - Encouraged public schools - Prohibited slavery - Guaranteed civil liberties Successful Ohio (1803), Vermont (1791), Kentucky (1792), Tennessee (1796)

23 Into the “wilderness”in search of good farmland and a chance to succeed on their own Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin

24 Louisiana Purchase Port of New Orleans Transport on the river rather than on land 1802 – France had control of the area Jefferson negotiated with Napoleon to buy the city

25 $10 million for New Orleans and as much land as possible to the east but the whole Louisiana region was sold for only $15 million

26 The boundaries extended U.S. Territory to the west and to the north The size doubled overnight Rich farmland Removed the French gov from the North-American continent

27 France and Britain at War The wars in Europe – good for the Americans: - neutral status – benefited from free trade Blockades The British enlisted American soldiers by force

28 Jefferson prohibited American exports to other countries 1812 – James Madison – keep peace BUT the Congress – go to war against Britain and Spain

29 Deciding factors for Madison: - problems with trade - the British supported some Indian attacks on Americans in the west - desire to add Canada and Florida to the U.S.

30 Americans - not very successful but fought off the British and regained control of the Great Lakes

31 The Star-Spangled Banner Chesapeake Bay to Washington, D.C. Militia was overrun The Capitol and the White House were set on fire Baltimore – Francis Scott Key

32 The Treaty of Ghent – 1812 Pre-war situation restored Conflicts not resolved but no longer important as Europe was longer at war

33 Results of the war: - feeling of nationalism/pride - foreign policy of isolation - desire to settle the West - increase in industry and manufacturing - End of Federalist party

34 Good of the country The Protective Tariff of 1816 Protect the infant industries Changes in the transportation system

35 Florida Purchase 1812 – desire to acquire Florida Hide-out for pirates, smugglers, runaway slaves and hostile Seminole Indians 1818 Andrew Jackson John Quincy Adams – Onis Treaty

36 $5 million for Florida (1819) Europeans interested in the newly independent Latin- American countries The Holy Alliance – Austria, Prussia, France, Russia

37 The Monroe Doctrine (1823): - the Western Hemisphere closed to further colonization - the U.S. Would not interfere with the existing colonies/internal affairs of the European nations

38 European action in the Western Hemisphere would be considered a military threat and act A milestone - importance of the U.S. In world affairs

39 1820’s – loyalty to the state or region Nationalism to sectionalism 3 main areas: - Northeast- industrial, bankers - South – agricultural - West – independent farmers

40 Different feelings about different issues that led to the Civil War 1840’s – U.S. Should expand to the Pacific Ocean – destiny/fate Annexation of Texas, California, New Mexico, Oregon

41 Spanish rights in Texas recognized until the Mexicans took over Stephen Austin – the Texans War with Mexico


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