Presentation on theme: "Starting a New Nation Issues facing the new nation? How do we set up a government at the present time? What principles is the new system to be based upon?"— Presentation transcript:
Starting a New Nation Issues facing the new nation? How do we set up a government at the present time? What principles is the new system to be based upon? Small State/Large State? Autonomy of the State?
Days in Government class… The argument on representation… Sharing of Powers? The Articles of Confederation The Articles will in time prove to be very weak.
Articles of Confederatoin The result of a Colonial fear of tyranny…well we want effective governance, but we don’t want a king and we want the states to be able to preserve their autonomy. The result…
No Chief Executive, No National Court System, Laws need 9/13 state approval, All powers reserved to states. Congress could: Declare war and make peace Raise an army/navy Make treaties/alliances Coin and borrow money Regulate weights/measures Est. a post office Regulate Indian affairs Congress could not: Levy taxes Regulate foreign or domestic trade Settle disputes among states Collect state debts owed the government Enforce its powers Make laws with force
Conclusion? As you can see the Articles of confederation were not an effective means of governance and their inability to enforce measures or levy taxes will in time prove to be too great an obstacle… In time other events will illustrate the weaknesses of the document.
British? They refused to leave the West and their lucrative fur trade… And closed ports in Canada to the new confederation of states. John Adams sent to negotiate…but he was backed by a powerless government.
Spain Refused to honor our claims to the territory west of Appalachia and Ohio River Valley. Established forts and Indian alliance throughout region Refused us access to the Port of New Orleans and Mississippi Refused us access to West Indies trade that they controlled. John Jay sent to negotiate but…weak government behind him
Shay’s Rebellion: a turning point To some degree the foreign problems that arose after the Revolution were expected…however the problems domestically were not expected. Wealthy who loaned the government money favored high taxes to enable the government to repay them…
Problem is that puts enormous pressure on poor farmers. Conflict between debtors/creditors…poor/rich Farmers losing their farms…on the way to debtor prison Enter Daniel Shays…a former soldier turned farmer.
Eventually the rebellion was stopped but it had served its purpose pointing out not only the poor condition of class and economics in the new nation but also that its new system of governance was not effectively meeting the “inalienable” needs of the people…John Locke Washington: “what a triumph for our enemies to find that we are incapable of governing our selves!”
Final Straw: It was becoming increasingly obvious that the new nation was exactly the opposite of what they had fought for and what they had hoped to become…the problem: National Unity or Disunity. Citizens viewed themselves as a “citizen of the country of Massachusetts” even under the articles
Hence our nation was not a nation but a splintered fragment of independent states. A new conflict brews…Nationalists led by Washington/Franklin/Jefferson and James Madison who advocated a strong National Government. And the States Rights group led by Patrick Henry and Samuel Adams.
The call for “changes” to the Articles of Confederation was first ignored but after Shays Rebellion the second was noted and the delegates met at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia May 1787.
Conflicts at CC New Government or “fix” articles? National or State orientated? Powerful or weak? Popular rule or appointment? Representation by state? Role of slavery?
New or Fix? As there initial intention was to fix the system it became obvious as they got farther and farther into the process that repair was going to be redesigning. So a new system was to be implemented.
National or State Orientation? Can be largely attributed to two facts: 1. The articles based on the “state” system were ineffective and the reason the delegates were there. 2. Look at the guys in favor of National system: Washington/Franklin and Jefferson. Enough said. A reverse:reverse:
Articles of ConfederatonConstitution National PowerState Power
Strong or Weak… Caused much deliberation will be settled largely on the basis of the historical flaws of the Articles of Confederation. Question became…how do you give the Nation a strong government but check its power and share it with states? They decided on Checks and Balances and Seperation of Powers.
Popular Rule One of the most heated debates of the event…problem is all delegates recognized that the government should be based on the rule of the people…but not everyone had “confidence” particularly Alexander Hamilton who chastised the public as being incompetent. Electoral College is the answer.
Representation New Jersey Plan: Unicameral based on equality. Virginia Plan: Bicameral legislature based on states population. The Great Compromise: our current system
The issue of Slavery Issue won’t die! Slaves and representation. South wants them as “1 person” yet won’t treat them as people? Why representation…North they don’t count as people so why count in representation? 3/5 compromise the solution… Biggest problems still to come… Slave Trade compromise
The New Government: Brief, Brief Overview…think back to Government:
Ratification The next difficult task…those in favor- Federalists, those against: Anti-Federalists. An example: your reading of Federalist 10.