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Only the Strong Survive: Realpolitik & the Age of Unification The Great Decision of the time will not be resolved by speeches and majority decisions…but.

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Presentation on theme: "Only the Strong Survive: Realpolitik & the Age of Unification The Great Decision of the time will not be resolved by speeches and majority decisions…but."— Presentation transcript:

1 Only the Strong Survive: Realpolitik & the Age of Unification The Great Decision of the time will not be resolved by speeches and majority decisions…but by blood and iron. - Otto von Bismarck

2 The Vacation that Changed History Bad Ems, 1870 Wilhelm I Wilhelm I Benedetti Benedetti Ems Dispatch Ems Dispatch

3 Too many Hohenzollerns The eve of the Franco-Prussian War, 1870

4 The Chancellor and the Emperor The legacy of ’48 Bismarck Bismarck Napoleon Napoleon

5 Age of Competition Among/within states… Realpolitik Between classes… Marxist theory Within nature… Darwinian model

6 Limits of… Universalism (Renaissance) the Enlightenment – rationalism Liberalism Extension of… Nationalism Romanticism - irrationalism

7 I. Ideology and Political Re-Alignment National power, mass politics

8 A. Napoleon complex 1.July Monarchy 1830 – Louise-Philippe 2.Banquet Revolution of Ideology and famine - moderates (constitutional reforms) - radicals (universal suffrage; social programs) Second Republic

9 3. The Alliance folds - Louis Blanc & the Luxembourg Commission - Louis Blanc & the Luxembourg Commission - The June Days - The June Days Louis-Napoleon (Napoleon III) Louis-Napoleon (Napoleon III)

10 4. The Second Empire urban renewal - Imperial expansion “mass” politics

11 B. Crisis in America 1. Manifest Destiny - Romanticism v. Conspiracy 2. Mexican-American War Wilmot Proviso 1846 James K. Polk James K. Polk

12 C. What did they want? 1. Liberal - states are a projection of individual rights 2. Romantic - states are the projection of a “nation” 3. Conservative - new states should reflect established social order

13 4. Realpolitik Power, not ideology, should govern states, diplomacy -Protect geopolitical interests - Protect domestic power “political power flows from the barrel of a gun” - Mao Zedong “political power flows from the barrel of a gun” - Mao Zedong

14 II. The Crimean War Limits of the “Concert of Europe”

15 A. The Great Game 1. Russian expansion - Suez Canal (1857) - Nicholas & Napoleon

16 B. Power vacuum 1. Trouble in the East - Siberia - Sepoy Mutiny “British Raj”

17 2. Central Europe

18 III. The Unification of Germany

19 The Man Who Would Not Be Kaiser Frederick Wilhelm IV of Prussia Revolution of 1848 Liberal Nationalism “Crown from the Gutter”

20 A. Romantic nationalism 1. Land and life - Johann von Herder Volkstum - geography, environment shape national character - “races” 2. Unification, path to greatness - Young Italy, Risorgimento The Nation/Race v. Liberal Nationalism Giuseppe Mazzini v. Liberal Nationalism Giuseppe Mazzini

21 B. The ’48ers 1.Frankfurt fail 2.Zeitgeist 3.Zollverein 3.Zollverein

22 B. Otto von Bismarck 1. The reluctant nationalist - Junker - Prussian absolutism

23 C. Greater or Lesser Germany 1.“Where is the German Fatherland?” - Hapsburgs - Liberal v. Romantic

24 2. Wars of Unification: - Denmark Schleswig-Holstein Austria 1866 Von Clausewitz On War war as an extension of politics Von Clausewitz On War war as an extension of politics

25 3. The Catholic Question North German Confederation

26 C. Franco-Prussian War Napoleon III - Second Empire 2. Spanish succession - Hohenzollerns 3. “Ems Dispatch”

27 4. New European hegemony - Railroads, timetables, industrialization

28 D. The Second Reich Kaiser Wilhelm I

29 2. Strong central government 3. Universal male suffrage and Reichstag 4. Reform, repression

30 E. Kulturkampf 1870s 1. Weaken Catholic/Austrian influence 2. Growing suspicion of anyone not “racially” German 3. Ultra-nationalism, imperialism

31 F. Fractured Republic 1. Third Republic Paris Commune 2. Boulanger Affair Dreyfus Affair

32 III. The (re)Unification of the United States Civil War and Reconstruction,

33 A. Liberal Nationalism 1. Election (Revolution) of coalition of bourgeoisie, entrepreneurial class, social progressives - vs. Southern “aristocracy”

34 2. Emancipation Proclamation Sept The Gettysburg Address Nov “nation” mentioned 5 times - “all men are created equal” - refers to Declaration, not to Articles 4.“Union” as a shield for liberty

35 B. Reconstruction America’s 2 nd Revolution? 1.Presidential th Amendment 2. Radical (Congressional) Reconstruction - Civil Rights Act of Freedmen’s bureau th / 15 th Amendment - dual citizenship - male suffrage

36 4. Needs of nationalism limit reform - Redemption [Kulturkampf] - Racial Radicalism “Iron and blood” “All power flows from the barrel of a gun”

37 IV. Rome Reborn? Italian Unification

38 A. The two Giuseppes /48 – Risorgimento Mazzini – republic Garibaldi – the Red Shirts 2. Organized grassroots resistance to intervention

39 B. Kingdom of Sardinia 1.Count Cavour - strengthened monarchy - initiated liberal reforms - role in Crimean War 2. Feared influence of “Young Italy”, Red Shirts - Garibaldi overruns central, southern Italy - conflict with the Pope

40 C. Unification comes , Cavour undercuts Garibaldi - radicals agree to Italian monarchy 2. Character of unification - greater local autonomy - Italy far less industrialized - weak bourgeoisie - weak liberal tradition – Church, aristocrats 3. Weakness leaves door open for extremism fascism, bolshevism, anarchism


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