Presentation on theme: "American Foreign Policy"— Presentation transcript:
1American Foreign Policy 1789-1920 A Brief Outline
2What is a Foreign Policy? How one country interacts with another country or groupIn the United States our Foreign Policy has spanned the extremes of Isolationist to Internationalist.USS Chesapeake
3• How active should America be in world affairs? IsolationismThe view that a nation should tend to its own domestic rather than international affairs.InternationalismThe view that a nation should assume active role in international affairs.
4What factors guide a nation to be isolationist or internationalist? The simple answer for some is “What is in our national interest?” These people would suggest that we should ask only what is in the national interest of the United States and not what is best for the for the world.Others, Universalists, argue that we should take into account the interests and rights of people outside the United States as well as ourselves.
5Goals of A Nation’s Foreign Policy Preserve its own independence and integrity.Security for the nation and its citizens.Prosperity for the nation and its citizens.Sometimes for some nations: revenge or prestige.Sometimes for some nations: the protection or expansion of specific ideals or ideas.
6Factors that influence Foreign Policy GeographyMilitary and economic powerEconomic needsEthnic and religious tiesHistoryNote that conditions change over time- an appropriate policy when it took six weeks to cross the Atlantic by sailing ship might not be sound in the age of ICBMs.
7THREE PHASES OF U.S. FOREIGN POLICY ISOLATIONISMNonentanglementCONTINENTAL EXPANSIONManifest DestinyIMPERIALISMGreat Crusades
8Events that Shaped American Foreign Policy from 1789-1824 The entangling and permanent 1778 Alliance with FranceWashington’s Farewell Address with its call for no “permanent alliances”President Jefferson’s call in his first Inaugural Address for no “entangling alliances”War of 1812Monroe Doctrine
9French Alliance of 1778Two treaties- one a commercial agreement and a political and military alliance.We needed French to win our independence.The 1789 French Revolution leads to aggressive policies against other European powers beginning in 1793 that results in the English going to war with the French.Jefferson (good faith), Hamilton (no obligation), and Washington’s (neutral) positions.
10Washington’s Farewell Address Established concept of isolation which would dominate US foreign policy until the 20th century.
11Jefferson’s First Inaugural Address “kindly separated by nature and a wide ocean from the exterminating havoc of one quarter of the globe”Jefferson expanded upon Washington’s warning against “permanent alliances” to include “entangling alliances” and reinforced the principle of non-involvement in European wars.
12War of 1812Illustrated the nation’s willingness to violate the policy of neutrality when it became advantageous to do so.Demonstrates the difficulty of non-involvent when trade and neighbors bring us into contact with European powers.
13The Monroe DoctrineStressed the America’s special interests in the Western Hemisphere and remains, with some modifications, viable today.In response to fears that European powers including Britain might expand its influence into the Western Hemisphere.
14KEY GUIDING STRATEGEMNo permanent friends, only permanent objectives
15Some Key Early Decisions Jay TreatyPinckney TreatyXYZ AffairLouisiana PurchaseEmbargo & Non-Intercourse ActsWar of 1812Treaty of GhentRush-Bagot TreatyAdams-Onis Treaty
16Trends Over Time 1789-1824 Tendency toward isolation Creation of more secure bordersNavigation of waterways (Mississippi and later seas)Increased respect from foreign nationsIncreased boldness of some American policy-makersLinks with newly established Latin American nations
17The Endless ArgumentShould American policy be based on our own national interests (protecting our independence, borders, security, power and interests in peace) or should we take to the “high road” to base our policies on moral principles that could serve as a model for others (human rights, democracy, etc)
18John Quincy Adams: Secretary of State to James Monroe 1817-1825 One of the most successful Secretaries of State in American history.Had a clear vision of what US policy should be and where it should be headed.Philosophy: National interests should determine foreign policy.
19John Quincy Adams: Accomplishments Adams-Onis Treaty gives Florida (strategic importance) to US, eliminated Spain from contention for Oregon TerritoryArchitect of Monroe DoctrineAdams’ Vision: expansion of US to the Pacific, pursuit of good relations with newly independent nations in Latin America
20Westward Expansion evolves into Manifest Destiny Movement of the “frontier line” from the Fall line in the Piedmont, to the Appalacians (Proclamtion of 1763), to the Mississippi River is followed by the call for Continental Expansion as our Manifest Destiny.
21Manifest Destiny“And that claim is by right of our manifest destiny to overspread and possess the whole of the continent which providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us… The God of nature and of nations has marked it for our own…”John L. Sullivan, Dec. 1845John L. Sullivan
22Westward Expansion & Foreign Policy 1783-1853 Original United States + Northwest Territory (1783 GB)Louisiana Purchase (1803, FR)British Cession(1818 Rush-Bagot TreatySpanish Cession (1819, FL- from SP)Texas Annexation (1845)Oregon Country (1846 BR)Mexican Cession (1848 Mex War)Gadsden Purchase (1853 Mex)
24American Indian Policy Expansion has implications for American IndiansResist, co-exist, migrateTreaty of Greenville, 1795Jefferson- Trans-Mississippi “reserve”Jackson- Indian Removal Act 1830
25Major Indian WarsOld Northwest Territory (Tecumseh, The Prophet, the Fox, etc)The Creeks (Alabama, Florida, Western TennesseeSeminole- in Florida
26Mexican American War James K. Polk and Manifest Destiny Was this war consistent with previous US foreign policy?Who supported War with Mexico?Henry Thoreau and Civil Disobedience (jailed because he refused to pay a federal taxes which he believed paid for an unjust war)
27Aftermath of the Mexican American War for Indians Continual Warfare on Great Plains & West1870’s movement to ReservationsBattle of Little Big Horn (1876) - one of the few Indian “victories”The Massacre at Wounded Knee one of the last of many brutal defeatsDawes Severalty Act, 1887
28Northern Boundary Warhawks Rush-Bagot Treaty 1817 Convention of 1818 Caroline AffairAroostook War 1839Webster-Ashburton Treaty, 1842Buchanan-Pakenham Treaty, 1846Alaska Purchase and Seward, 1867
29Late 19th Century Imperialism: The USA Enters the World Stage Economic motivations: new markets, new resourcesIdeas about racial supremacy driven by Social DarwinismManifest Destiny-extendedMilitary considerations (strategic, defensive)Alfred Mahan & “The New Navy”US exceptionalism (1st crusade for the U.S.)
30Early Non-Contiguous Expansion Offer to purchase Cuba from Spain in 1848 and 1854Alaska 1867Pago-Pago, Samoa 1878Pearl Harbor 1884Hawaii 1898
311896 Republican Party Platform Strong imperialist platformEconomic expansion guides positionOverseas expansion good for US industry“sympathy for Cuba”Nicaraguan Canal and purchase of Danish West IndiesAnnexation of HawaiiQueen Liliuokalani
32Spanish American War 1898-1900 Cuba “Maine” incident, yellow journalism, jingoism & war feverRough Riders & Theodore RooseveltUS acquires Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam
33McKinley, T. Roosevelt & Taft McKinley: Open Door PolicyRoosevelt: Panama Canal, Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine, “Walk Softly and Carry a Big StickTaft: Dollar Diplomacy (private funds to pursue diplomatic goals
34Pre WWI Imperialism Focal Points Philippine RevolutionCuba (Platt Amend)Latin American interventions (numerous)Balancing Japan’s growing dominance in Asia with US-Japanese economic tiesPanama CanalChina: getting a toehold in China trade
35WW I: From Neutrality to Versailles Traditional neutralityChallenges to neutrality:u-boats, US business loans,munitions trade,propaganda, some pro-war advocates (TR)Wilson’s 1916 Pledge: To keep us out of warWilson’s 1917 statement to “make the world safe for democracy”. (2nd crusade for the US)RMS Lusitania
36Wilson’s 14 Points & Versailles Treaty & the “Lessons of War” 14 Points largely disregardedFight for Ratification of the TreatyHenry Cabot Lodge and American Isolationists prevail-reject League of NationsUS returns to its “isolationist” position vis a vis Europe“Lessons” of WWI, Red Scare & Peace Movement
37Sources: American Foreign Policy by Leonard James American Foreign Policy by Thomas FitzgeraldAmerican Foreign Policy.ppt by Joyce Williams & Justin Hill, RCPS (h t t p://sp.rpcs.org/faculty/HillJ/ AP US History/American Foreign Foreign Policy.pdf