Developed in 12 th and 13 th Centuries “Universitas”—Latin for an association of people. Became place for learning and teaching Paris Oxford Bologna Salerno
Reconcile faith and reason. Christianity with Aristotle’s philosophy. St. Thomas Aquinas’ Summa Theologica summarized religion at the time. Each point used reason/faith.
Under feudalism, all people were loyal to their feudal lord. People did not pay much attention to which “country” they lived in. As feudalism began to decline, Kings began to organize their kingdoms into organized nation. This fueled “Patriotism” the feeling of loyalty to a country as a whole.
Power of King ~ Up Feudal Lords ~ Down # of Serfs ~ Down # of Free Peasants ~ Up = Death of Feudalism
Named for a series of conflicts between 1337 and 1453 between England and France Causes: English King held 2 territories in France, that made him the vassal of the French King When the last Capetian died, Edward III (K of E) tried to claim the French throne He brought an army to Flanders, and the conflict had begun
Despite many English victories, by 1453 the English had lost all French land except Calais By 1553, they had lost Calais as well Ultimately, this was a major defeat for the British
Over time Parliament, especially the House Commons gained more power than the king King needed their power to tax, which gave them ultimate power
Civil War between ruling families Yorks (white roses) vs. Lancasters (red roses) Delayed the growth of strong central govt. in England Most fighting done by nobles and private armies
Henry Tudor (Lancaster) ended the wars by defeating Richard III (York) at Bosworth Field (1485) Tudor seized the throne, married a daughter of the House of York and became Henry VII, the founder of the Tudors
During the wars, a civil war broke out between the royal families ~ Orleans and Burgundy Joan of Arc said she heard voices of saints telling her to defend Orléans French held Orleans
Burgundian forces captured her and turned her over to the Church as a heretic She was convicted and burned at the stake in 1431 But, she had helped to create a strong monarchy (Charles VII)
Created in 1302 by Philip IV (modeled after English Parliament) Named for the groups that attended the meetings ~ 1st Estate (Clergy), 2nd Estate (Nobles), 3rd Estate (Commoners) When monarchy was weak, E.G. began to control finances and pass laws, as Monarchy regained power, E.G. lost out, never gained authority to pass taxes
Ruled from 1461-1483, nicknamed “Universal Spider” because he was skilled at conspiracy and intrigue
Built an alliance against Duke of Burgundy (Chars. The Bold) and eventually led to his death, then Louis seized this territory
By 1400, 4 Christian kingdoms had developed in Spain ~ Portugal, Castile, Navarre and Aragon 1469 Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon Fought the Moors in 1492 and captured Grenada
In the late 1400s, early 1500s, Isabella and Ferdinand united Castile and Aragon to form a united Spain, then added Navarre Strong monarchy, strong Catholics Forced all Jews & Muslims to convert or leave ~ most left (bad idea)---Spanish Inquisition!!!!
H.R. Emperor lacked control to be a strong nation Emperor chosen by 7 Electors ~ as a result had no real power (only prestige) Elections usually included bribery and favor trading 1273 ~ Habsburgs gained power, used prestige to cement marriage alliances and gained much of Austria and nearby lands Barrier ~ Papal States
By 1500, three strong nation states had developed in Europe: England, France and Spain The Holy Roman Empire will exist in one form or another until the 1800s when Germany and Italy will unify Decline of Feudalism directly gave way to the rise of Patriotism