Presentation on theme: "Building a German Nation Chapter 7 Section 1. German-Speakers Early 1800s: German-speaking people lived in numerous scattered German states in Europe."— Presentation transcript:
Building a German Nation Chapter 7 Section 1
German-Speakers Early 1800s: German-speaking people lived in numerous scattered German states in Europe Many lived in Prussia, the Austrian Empire, Bavaria, etc. There was no unified German nation unlike today’s map Events in motion soon led to German unification Remember Napoleon?? : Napoleon invaded and conquered German lands Napoleon organized several German states into the Rhine Confederation – an alliance of German states
Before German Unification This map shows that Germany once consisted of separate German-speaking kingdoms including Prussia, Austria, and other smaller kingdoms.
German-Speakers After Napoleon’s defeat, the Congress of Vienna created the German Confederation The German Confederation was a weak alliance of German states headed by Austria 1830s: Prussia created an economic union called the Zollverein for the German states The Zollverein removed tariff (tax) barriers between many German states to promote trade, but the states still remained politically fragmented and independent
Otto von Bismarck Bismarck, the chancellor of Prussia, led the drive to unite the German states—but under Prussian rule Bismarck was a master of Realpolitik, or realistic politics based on the needs of the state After creating a powerful military, he was ready to pursue an aggressive foreign policy in his quest to unify Germany Over the next decade, Bismarck led Prussia into three wars Each war increased Prussian power and paved the way for German unity
Prussia and Other German States
Otto von Bismarck Bismarck used his policy of “blood and iron” to unite the German states under Prussian rule. He delivered his famous “blood and iron” speech in 1862 that set the tone for his future policies.
Austro-Prussian War Bismarck created an excuse to attack Austria (1866) Austro-Prussian War lasted seven weeks (Seven Weeks War) Prussia won and annexed (take control of) several north German states The annexation was part of Bismarck’s plan to unite German-speaking peoples into one big nation In France, the Prussian victory angered Napoleon III A growing territorial rivalry between Prussia and France led to the Franco-Prussian War of 1870
Franco-Prussian War Bismarck worsened the crisis by re-writing and releasing to the press a telegram (the EMS Dispatch) that reported on a meeting between William I of Prussia and the French ambassador Bismarck’s editing of the telegram made it seem that William I of Prussia had insulted the French ambassador Furious, Napoleon III, ruler of France, declared war on Prussia, as Bismarck had secretly hoped The Prussian army, supported by troops from other German states, quickly defeated the French soldiers The French army was poorly organized and badly supplied
Napoleon III Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the first President of the French Republic and, as Napoleon III, the ruler of the Second French Empire. He was the nephew and heir of Napoleon I. Elected President by popular vote in 1848, he initiated a coup d'état in 1851, before ascending the throne as Napoleon III on 2 December 1852, the forty-eighth anniversary of Napoleon I's coronation. He ruled as Emperor of the French until 4 September He holds the distinction of being both the first titular president and the last monarch of France.firstPresidentFrench RepublicrulerSecond French EmpireNapoleon Iby popular vote in 1848coup d'état1851titularpresident monarch
Scenes from the Austro-Prussian War (1870)
Kaiser William I Delighted by the victory in the Franco-Prussian War, German princes persuaded William I to take the title Kaiser (emperor) of Germany January, 1871: German nationalists celebrated the birth of the Second Reich (empire) Bismarck drafted a constitution that created a two-house legislature The upper house was the Bundesrat; the lower house, the Reichstag The real power, however, was in the hands of the Kaiser and Otto von Bismarck
Powerpoint Questions (13 points) 1. Which country led the German Confederation? 2. What was the name and purpose of the economic union that Prussia created? 3.Who became the Chancellor of Prussia? 4.Realistic politics based on the needs of the state is called what? 5.What is the name of the famous speech that established Prussia’s foreign policy direction? 6. Why did Bismarck want to annex several German states?
Powerpoint Questions 7.What led to the Franco-Prussian War (1870) 8.What did Bismarck wish for when he intentionally re- writing and re-releasing the EMS Dispatch (telegram) that purportedly insulted the French Ambassador? 9.Which country and leader declared war on Prussia? 10.Who won the Franco-Prussian War of 1870? 11.What is a Kaiser? 12.What is a Reich? 13.What is the capital of North Dakota?