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CHAPTER 3: THE GROWTH OF A YOUNG NATION AMERICA EXPANDS IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE 19 TH CENTURY.

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1 CHAPTER 3: THE GROWTH OF A YOUNG NATION AMERICA EXPANDS IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE 19 TH CENTURY

2 THE JEFFERSONIAN ERA: SECTION 1 Election of 1800 pitted Thomas Jefferson and his Democratic- Republican Party vs. John Adams and his Federalist Party While Jefferson defeated Adams by 8 electoral votes, he tied his running mate, Aaron Burr For six days the House of Reps took vote after vote until 36 votes later – Jefferson prevailed (Led to 12 th Amendment) 3 rd President of the U.S

3 SIMPLIFYING THE GOVERNMENT  Jefferson’s theory of government, known as Jeffersonian Republicanism, held that simple, limited government was the best for the people  Jefferson decentralized the government, cut costs, reduce bureaucracy, and eliminate taxes Jefferson Memorial

4 JOHN MARSHALL AND THE POWER OF THE SUPREME COURT Before leaving office, John Adams (2nd President), attempts to “pack” the Federal courts with Federalists Judges Jefferson argued this was unconstitutional Supreme Court Chief Justice Marshall rules in Marbury v. Madison (1803) that part of the Judicial Act was unconstitutional Established principle of Judicial Review – the ability of the Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional

5 THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE By 1803, French leader Napoleon had abandoned his dreams of an American Empire He needed money to fight European wars, so he accepted Jefferson’s offered of $15,000,000 More than doubled the size of our country Lewis and Clark ordered to go explore new territory

6 MADISON ELECTED PRESIDENT After two terms, Jefferson is succeeded by James Madison Madison was two-term President Known as the “Father of the Constitution, Madison also is known for his leadership during the War of th President

7 WAR OF 1812 – U.S. vs. BRITAIN Causes: British “impressment” (seizing Americans at sea and drafting them into their navy) upset Americans The War: 1814 – British sack D.C. Burn White house Andrew Jackson leads great victory in New Orleans Treaty of Ghent signed, Christmas Eve, 1814 British Impressment of U.S. seamen upset Americans

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9 RESULTS OF WAR OF 1812 Results of the war included:  End of the Federalist Party (opposed war)  Encouraged industries in U.S.  Confirmed status of U.S. as a strong, free, and independent nation Despite the burning of the President’s mansion, the U.S. emerged strong

10 NATIONALISM SHAPES POLICY James Monroe was elected president in 1816 Immediately, Nationalism clearly established as key concern of administration Treaty with Britain to jointly occupy the Oregon Territory Adams-Onis Treaty (1819) secured Florida & southern- most areas of SE America

11 THE MONROE DOCTRINE In the early 19 th Century, various European countries hinted at increased colonization In his 1823 address to Congress, Monroe made it clear to Europe: Don’t interfere with Western Hemisphere (Monroe Doctrine)

12 What idea does this political cartoon convey?

13 THE AGE OF JACKSON: SECTION 2 During a time of growing Sectionalism, Andrew Jackson’s election in 1828, ushered in a new era of popular democracy

14 REGIONAL ECONOMIES CREATE DIFFERENCES The Northeast continued to develop industry while the South and West continued to be more agricultural The Industrial Revolution reached America by the early- mid 19 th century New England first to embrace factory system Especially in textile (fabric) mills

15 SOUTH REMAINS AGRICULTURAL Meanwhile, the South continued to grow as an agricultural power Eli Whitney’s invention of the Cotton Gin (1793) made producing cotton even more profitable The South became a “Cotton Kingdom” More labor was needed – 1790 = 700,000 slaves 1820 = 1,500,000 slaves Cotton Gin quickly separated cotton fiber from seeds

16 BALANCING NATIONALISM AND SECTIONALISM Economic differences created political tension between North & South As the regions moved apart, politicians attempted to keep nation together House Speaker Henry Clay’s American Plan called for a protective tariff, a National Bank, and an improved infrastructure to help travel

17 THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE In 1818 settlers in Missouri applied for statehood Northerners and Southerners disagreed on whether Missouri should be admitted as a “free” state Henry Clay organized a compromise in which Missouri was “slave” but Maine would be “free” Also Louisiana Territory split at 36 30’ north latitude HENRY CLAY: THE GREAT COMPROMISER

18 MISSOURI COMPROMISE 1820

19 ELECTION OF ANDREW JACKSON Jackson, hero of the common man, won election in 1828 in part because the right to vote had been expanded to more citizens In the 1824 election, won by John Quincy Adams, 350,000 white males voted In 1828, over 1,000,000 white males voted Many of the new voters supported the rugged westerner Jackson who also won re-election in 1832 ANDREW JACKSON IS ON THE $20 BILL

20 JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY As part of his political philosophy, Jackson sought to grant political power to the common people Called The Spoils System or Jacksonian Democracy, Jackson hired his own supporters to replace the previous administration’s staff Jackson gave away many jobs to his friends and political allies

21 INDIAN REMOVAL ACT Congress, with Jackson’s support, passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830 Under this law, the federal government funded treaties that forced tribes west The Cherokee Tribe in Georgia refused and were supported by the Supreme Court Jackson refused to abide by the Court decision Jackson said, “John Marshall (Supreme Court Chief Justice) has made his decision, now let him enforce it.” Trail of Tears followed the Court ruling as U.S. troops rounded up the Cherokee and drove them west, mostly on foot...thousands died

22 INDIAN REMOVAL

23 TARIFF OF “ABOMINATION” In 1824 and again in 1828, Congress increased the Import Tariff of 1816 Southerners called the 1828 Tariff, “a Tariff of Abominations,” and blamed it for economic problems in the South THE NORTH THE SOUTH TARIFFS

24 NULLIFICATION THREAT In an attempt to free South Carolina from the tariff, John Calhoun (Jackson’s VP from S.C.), developed the Theory of Nullification He believed if a state found an act of Congress to be unconstitutional, it could declare the law void within its borders Tensions only relieved by a Clay Compromise Tariff in 1833

25 JACKSON’S BANK WAR Jackson opposed National Bank so he created Pet Banks – so called because they were favored by Jackson’s Democrats Many felt Jackson was acting more like a King than a president In 1832, his opponents formed a new party – the Whigs

26 PANIC OF 1837 In 1836, Democrat Martin Van Buren won the Presidency He inherited problems from the “Bank Wars” Jackson’s Pet Banks printed money without Gold backing In 1837 a panic set in and many banks closed, accounts went bankrupted, and unemployment soared MARTIN VAN BUREN

27 HARRISON & TYLER Whig William Henry Harrison defeated Democrat Van Buren in the election of 1840 Harrison, known as “Tippecanoe” for a battle he won against natives, died a month into his term His VP, John Tyler became president HARRISON 1841 TYLER

28 MANIFEST DESTINY: SECTION 3 In the 1840s Americans became preoccupied with expansion Many believed that their movement westward was predestined by God Manifest Destiny was the belief that the U.S. would expand “from sea to shining sea”

29 UNITED STATES EXPANSION BY MANIFEST DESTINY

30 FAMOUS TRAILS WEST No highways existed, thus wagon trails served as the roads to the West Santa Fe Trail ran from Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico Oregon Trail stretched from Independence to Oregon City, Oregon Mormons especially utilized the Oregon Trail on their way to Salt Lake City

31 MEXICO CONTROLS TEXAS After 300 years of Spanish rule, Mexican settlers felt at home in Texas territory Mexico won their independence from Spain in 1821 and Texas was theirs Mexican officials offered land to Americans to make the area more stable Americans soon outnumbered Mexicans in Texas – trouble started

32 TEXAS INDEPENDENCE Stephen Austin established a colony of Americans in Texas Conflicts intensified between Mexicans and Americans in Texas One issue was the slaves many Americans had brought with them Mexico had outlawed slavery in 1829

33 REMEMBER THE ALAMO Mexican President Santa Anna was determined to force Texans to obey Mexican law Santa Anna marched his troops toward San Antonio – at the same time Austin issued a call to arms for all American Texans American forces moved into a mission known as the Alamo in 1836 After 13 days the Mexican troops scaled the walls and slaughtered all 187 Americans THE ALAMO IN SAN ANTONIO

34 MEXICAN-AMERICAN WAR 1844 presidential election winner, James Polk, eagerly wanted to annex Texas as part of the U.S. Negotiations failed and U.S. troops moved into Mexican territory in 1845 America victories soon followed, and in 1848 Mexican leader Santa Anna conceded defeat Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed – U.S. gets (larger) Texas, New Mexico & California MEXICAN PRESIDENT SANTA ANNA

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36 CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH After gold was discovered at Sutter’s Mill, migration to California rose from 400 in 1848 to 44,000 in 1850 Folks who rushed to San Francisco in 1849 became known as Forty-niners By 1857, the total amount of gold mined in California topped $2,000,000,000

37 THE MARKET REVOLUTION: SECTION 4 The first half of the 19 th century in America, brought vast changes to technology, transportation, and production Known as the Market Revolution, people increasingly bought and sold goods rather than make them for themselves A 19 th century market

38 NEW INVENTIONS HELP ECONOMY 1837 – Samuel Morse invented the Telegraph Railroads were becoming faster and more numerous by 1830 surpassing canals as # 1 means of transport Robert Fulton invented the Steamboat and by 1830, 200 were on the Mississippi John Deere’s Plow and Cyrus McCormick’s Reaper improved agriculture By 1854, 23,000 miles of telegraph wire crossed the country

39 WORKERS SEEK BETTER CONDITIONS In 1834, Lowell, Massachusetts textile workers went on strike after their wages were lowered – one example of the dozens of strikes in the U.S. in the 1830s and 1840s Several industries formed the National Trade Union in 1834 in hopes of bettering their conditions STRIKES AND UNIONS BECAME MORE NUMEROUS AFTER 1830

40 REFORMING AMERICAN SOCIETY: SECTION 5 The Second Great Awakening spread Christianity through revival meetings Another growing religious group was the Unitarians who emphasized reason as path to perfection Ralph Waldo Emerson was a Unitarian preacher who developed Transcendentalism These and other religions became the impetus for reforming society RALPH WALDO EMERSON

41 THE ABOLITIONIST MOVEMENT 1820s: Abolitionist movement to free African Americans from slavery arose Leader was a white radical named William Lloyd Garrison Abolitionist called for immediate emancipation of all slaves

42 FREDERICK DOUGLASS: AFRICAN AMERICAN LEADER Freed slave, Frederick Douglass escaped from bandage and became an eloquent abolitionist (critic of slavery) leader He began an anti-slavery newspaper called, Northstar – named after the star that guided runaway slaves to freedom

43 TURNER’S REBELLION The vast majority of African- Americans were enslaved in the South and were subjected to constant degradation Some rebelled against their condition Most famous revolt was led by Virginia slave Nat Turner Turner led 50 followers in a revolt killing 60 whites – he was caught and executed Turner plans his rebellion

44 WOMEN AND REFORM From abolition to education, women worked actively in all reform movements Throughout the 1800s opportunity for women to become educated increased 1833: Oberlin College became first coed institution

45 WOMEN’S RIGHTS MOVEMENT EMERGES Reform movements of the 19 th century spurred the development of a Women’s movement For example, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott had both been ardent abolitionists In 1848, more than 300 women participated in a Women’s Right convention in Seneca Falls, N.Y.

46 THE DIVISIVE POLITICS OF SLAVERY Over the centuries, the Northern and Southern sections of the United States developed into two very different cultural and economic regions There were also differences in geography and climate, as well as religious differences

47 THE SOUTH BEFORE THE WAR Rural plantation economy Relied on slave labor “Peculiar Institution” created tension Southerners feared the loss of slavery would mean loss of culture Family working the cotton field on a Plantation

48 THE NORTH BEFORE THE WAR The North had a more diverse economy Industry flourished The North openly opposed slavery in the South and the new territories The North was more urbanized than the South BOSTON HARBOR

49 SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES The issue of whether slavery in California and the West would be legal led to heated debates in Congress Gold rush led to application for statehood for California CALIFORNIA BECAME A STATE IN 1850

50 COMPROMISE OF 1850 Southerners threatened secession over issue Henry Clay again worked a Compromise For the North: California would be admitted as free state For the South: A more effective fugitive slave law Residents of New Mexico & Utah would vote themselves-”popular sovereignty” CONGRESSIONAL DEBATE

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52 FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW Under the law, runaway slaves were not entitled to a trial by jury Anyone helping a slave escape was jailed for 6 months and fined $1,000 Northerners were upset by the harshness of the new law and often helped hide fugitive slaves A HARSH FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW FURTHER INCREASED TENSIONS

53 UNDERGROUND RAILROAD Escape from slavery was dangerous and meant traveling on foot at night As time went on, African Americans and white abolitionists developed a secret network of people who would hide fugitive slaves ”Conductors” would hide runaways in tunnels and even kitchen cupboards

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55 HARRIET TUBMAN One of the most famous conductors was Harriet Tubman Tubman escaped slavery and vowed to help others do the same She made 19 trips back to South and freed over 300 slaves (Including her own parents)‏ HARRIET TUBMAN

56 UNCLE TOM’S CABIN In 1852, Harriet Beecher Stowe published her influential novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin The book stressed the moral evil of slavery Abolitionist protests increased Author Harriet Beecher Stowe Instant best seller sold 500,000 by 1857

57 TENSION BUILDS IN KANSAS After Stephen Douglas worked to pass the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, Kansas would vote to decide on whether slavery would be legal or outlawed This contradicted the 36’ 30’ of the Missouri Compromise vs.

58 BLEEDING KANSAS The race for Kansas was on. Both supporters and opponents attempted to populate Kansas to win the vote over slavery As the election neared, a group of pro-slavery “border ruffians” from Missouri attempted to cross into Kansas Violence erupted – Blooding Kansas is the legacy Finally, after years of fighting, Kansas is admitted as a free state in 1861

59 THE FREE-SOILERS Another party that emerged in the mid-19 th century was the Free-Soilers They were northerners who opposed slavery in the territories Free-Soilers objections to slavery were based on economics not moral objection to slavery They believed slavery drove down wages for white workers “Soil”

60 REPUBLICANS EMERGE AS LEADING PARTY In 1854, opponents of slavery in the territories formed a new political party, the Republican Party As the party grew it took on Free-Soilers, some anti- slavery Democrats and Whigs, and Know-Nothings Republicans won all but 3 presidential elections from

61 THE DRED SCOTT DECISION A major Supreme Court decision occurred when slave Dred Scott was taken by his owner to free states Illinois & Wisconsin Scott argued that that made him a free man Finally in 1857, the Court ruled against Dred Scott citing the Constitution’s protection of property The decision increased tensions over slavery DRED SCOTT LOST HIS CHANCE AT FREEDOM

62 LINCOLN – DOUGLAS DEBATES The 1858 race for U.S. Senate in Illinois was hotly contested between Republican Lincoln and Democratic Douglas One of the most celebrated debates in history ensued as the topic was slavery in the territories Douglas favored popular sovereignty while Lincoln wanted a Constitutional Amendment “THE LITTLE GIANT” VS. “HONEST ABE”

63 HARPER’S FERRY While politicians debated the slavery issue, John Brown plotted a major slave revolt On October 16, 1859, he led a band of 21 men, black and white, into Harpers Ferry, Virginia He hoped to seize a large federal arsenal, but troops put down the rebellion Brown was tried and executed ARSENAL BROWN

64 1860 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION Republicans nominated Abe Lincoln while the Democrats split Lincoln won the 1860 election with less than half the popular vote and no Southern electoral votes The Southern states were not happy LINCOLN MEMORIAL

65 1860 ELECTION RESULTS

66 SOUTHERN SUCESSION Lincoln’s victory in 1860 election convinced Southerners that they had to act quickly South Carolina led the way, seceding from the union in December of 1860 Mississippi was next, then Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, & Texas Southern delegates met in February, 1861 and formed the Confederate States with Jefferson Davis as President

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68 THE CIVIL WAR BEGINS: ****************************** The first battle of the Civil War ( ) was fought at Fort Sumter, South Carolina on April 12, 1861 Soon after, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina and Tennessee seceded (Confederate states = 11)‏ Virginia split on whether to leave Union (West Virginia formed)

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70 NORTH HAD ADVANTAGES The North and South were not evenly matched The North had many advantages including; More people More factories More food production More railroads Better communication

71 SOUTH HAD ADVANTAGES The South had some advantages over the Northern forces First rate military leadership Highly motivated soldiers Only had to defend their land – not attack North

72 STRATEGIES The Northern strategy going into the war included a naval blockade, a plan to split the Confederacy by going down the Mississippi river, and capturing the Confederate capital city of Richmond, Virginia The South was content to have a defensive strategy U.S.S. St. Louis, First Eads Ironclad Gunboat

73 THE BATTLE OF BULL RUN First major bloodshed of the war occurred at Bull Run near Washington, D.C. – Summer 1861 This battle made Confederate General Thomas Jackson famous Nicknamed “Stonewall Jackson” he inspired the Confederates to hold firm Confederate victory boosted moral ACTUAL PHOTOS OF BULL RUN AND GENERAL JACKSON

74 THE CLASH AT ANTIETAM Union General George McClellan confronted Confederate General Robert E. Lee in Antietam, Maryland The single bloodiest day in American history ,000 died Lee and the Confederates retreated, McClellan did not follow- Lincoln fires him BLOODIEST DAY IN AMERICAN HISTORY 9/17/1862

75 EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION As the war progressed, Lincoln used his powers to end slavery Just as Union troops could seize Confederate supplies, Lincoln authorized the army to seize and emancipate slaves Emancipation was not just a moral issue; it became a weapon of war

76 JANUARY 1, 1863

77 CONSCRIPTION ISSUES Both sides dealt with social unrest during the Civil War Both President Lincoln and Confederate leader Davis suspended Writ of Habeas Corpus Draft riots occurred in New York City as some thought draft process was unfair to the poor and immigrants DEPICTION OF NEW YORK CITY DRAFT RIOTS

78 AFRICAN AMERICANS FIGHT FOR FREEDOM Although only 1% of the North’s population, by the end of the war 180,000 African Americans fought for the Union (10% of Union Army)‏ However, they were segregated and earned lower wages See: Glory

79 SOLDIERS SUFFERED ON BOTH SIDES Heavy casualties on both sides were worsened by conditions on the field Disease, poor nutrition, and inadequate medical care were common features of the war GETTYSBURG

80 DISEASE ACCOUNTED FOR 76% OF DEATHS IN CIVIL WAR

81 WOMEN WORK TO IMPROVE CONDITIONS While women were not in combat, 3,000 women served as Union nurses Carla Barton was a famous Union nurse Known as the “Angel on the Battlefield” she went on to form the American Red Cross after the war

82 THE NORTH TAKES CHARGE: *********************************** ** In a small town in Pennsylvania, the most decisive battle of the war was fought Gettysburg was a three-day battle fought in early July of 1863 The Union had 90,000 troops under George Meade and the Confederates had 75,000 troops under General Lee GETTYSBURG JULY, 1863

83 GETTYSBURG The three-day battle produced staggering losses: 23,000 Union soldiers and 28,000 Confederate soldiers were wounded or killed After the Confederate retreat, Lee gave up any hope of invaded the North and retreated ROBERT E. LEE

84 GETTYSBURG ADDRESS In November 1863, a ceremony was held to dedicate a cemetery in Gettysburg Abe Lincoln spoke for less than two minutes, but inspired a nation with his address Some say his Gettysburg Address “remade America”

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86 GRANT WINS AT VICKSBURG In the Spring of 1863 Union General Ulysses S. Grant fought to take Vicksburg, Mississippi Grant ordered two frontal attacks on Vicksburg He succeeded in splitting Confederate forces U.S. GRANT MEMORIAL

87 CONFEDERACY WEARS DOWN After the twin defeats at Gettysburg and Vicksburg, the Confederate morale was destroyed Many Southern soldiers had deserted Grant and General Tecumseh Sherman were now in control of the Union Army They aimed to destroy the will of the Confederates UNION GENERAL SHERMAN

88 SHERMAN’S MARCH In the spring of 1864, Sherman began his march southeast through Georgia to the coast His troops created a path of destruction as they burned homes, destroyed livestock and railroads After reaching the sea, his troops (included 25,000 former slaves) turned Northward

89 ELECTION OF 1864 Despite the war, politics continued as the North held a presidential election in 1864 While some Northerners were dismayed as to the length of the war and Lincoln was pessimistic about his re-election, he defeated General McClellan easily DISGRUNTED GENERAL MCCLELLAN LOST 1864 ELECTION

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91 SURRENDER AT APPOMATTOX On April 3, 1865, Union troops conquered Richmond, the Confederate capital On April 9, 1865 in a Virginia town called Appomattox, Lee and Grant met to arrange a Confederate surrender At Lincoln’s request the terms were generous LEE SURRENDERS TO GRANT

92 DEADLY WAR BRINGS CHANGES The Civil War was the deadliest war in American history Over 620,000 died -nearly as many as all other U.S. wars combined The role of the federal government increased Economically the gap between North and South widened U.S. CIVIL WAR

93 The Union armies had from 2,500,000 to 2,750,000 men. Their losses, by the best estimates: 360,222Total 250,152Disease, etc.: 110,070Battle deaths: The Confederate strength, known less accurately because of missing records, was from 750,000 to 1,250,000. Its estimated losses: 258,000Total 164,000Disease, etc.: 94,000Battle deaths:

94 American Deaths in Each War Data from National Park Service internet web siteWarDeaths% of Total War DeathsYear for Population EstimateEstimated Population Deaths/ Population Revolutionary War4,4350%17832,963, %War of 18122,2600%18158,439, %Mexican War13,2831%184821,966, %Civil War624,51149%186535,000, %Spanish-American War2,4460%189873,565, %World War 1116,5169% ,262, %World War 2405,39932% ,745, %Korean War36,5163% ,725, %Vietnam War58,1525% ,274, % 4,900 This webpage was updated This webpage has been accessed times since July 2, ,900 This webpage was updated This webpage has been accessed times since July 2, 2001 D-DayD-Day 4,4984,498 Pearl HarborPearl Harbor 54,80754,807 GettysburgGettysburg casualtiescasualties 0.03%210,274, %58,152Vietnam War 0.02%159,725, %36,516Korean War 0.29%141,745, %405,399World War %103,262, %116,516World War %73,565, %2,446 Spanish- American War 1.78%35,000, %624,511Civil War 0.06%21,966, %13,283Mexican War 0.03%8,439, %2,260War of %2,963, %4,435 Revolutionary War Deaths/ Population Estimated Population Year for Population Estimate % of Total War Deaths DeathsWar

95 THE 13 TH AMENDMENT Lincoln believed a Constitutional Amendment was needed to ensure freedom for slaves The 13 th Amendment outlawing slavery was ratified in 1865

96 LINCOLN IS ASSASSINATED On April 14, 1865 Lincoln was shot in the head while attending a play in Washington, D.C. He was the first president ever assassinated His killer, John Wilkes Booth escaped, but was shot and killed later More than 7,000,000 Americans turned out to mourn -1/3 rd of population The play was a British comedy called, My American Cousin

97 RECONSTRUCTION: SECTION 4 The Civil War had ended. Slavery and secession were no more. Now what? How does the Union integrate the South back into American society? How do 4 million newly freed African slaves integrate themselves into society?

98 THE POLITICS OF RECONSTRUCTION The politics of Reconstruction was complicated by the fact that Lincoln, his VP and successor Andrew Johnson, and the Congress all had different ideas of how Reconstruction should be handled ANDREW JOHNSON

99 LINCOLN’S PLAN Lincoln made it clear that he favored a lenient Reconstruction policy His Ten Percent Plan called for a pardon of all Confederates who would swear allegiance to Union (oath)‏ When 10% of the voting population of a state took the oath, a state would be readmitted into the Union

100 JOHNSON’S PLAN After Lincoln’s death, his VP & successor Andrew Johnson announced his own plan It differed only slightly from Lincolns: He excluded high ranking Confederates and wealthy planters from the oath, but did pardon 13,000 while contending that, “White men alone must manage the South”

101 CONGRESS PLAN Congress worked hard to shift the focus of Reconstruction from the President to the Congress In 1866, Congress overrode President Johnson’s veto and passed the Civil Rights Act, the Freedmen’s Bureau Act, the 14 th Amendment and the Reconstruction Act Congress overrode Johnson’s veto of Freedmen’s Bureau

102 CIVIL RIGHTS ACT One of the important acts passed by Congress was the Civil Rights Act This law gave African Americans citizenship and forbade states from passing laws discriminating against former slaves (Black Codes)‏ FROM HARPER’S MAGAZINE 1866 – BLACKS CELEBRATE

103 FREEMEN’S BUREAU Congress also passed the Freemen’s Bureau Act which provided much needed aid to African Americans Included in the Act was money for education, hospitals, social services, churches, and help with labor contracts and discrimination cases EDUCATION WAS AN IMPORTANT PART OF THE BUREAU

104 14 TH AMENDMENT In 1866, Congress passed the 14 th Amendment which provided legal backing to the Civil Rights Act It prevented states from denying rights to people based on race This nullified the Dred Scott decision

105 RECONSTRUCTION ACT OF 1867 Congressional Republicans again joined forces to pass the Reconstruction Act This act voided the state governments formed in the South under the Presidential plans and instead divided the south into 5 military districts The states were required to grant black men the right to vote and to ratify the 14 th Amendment This image depicts an artisan, a businessman and a soldier standing in line to cast their first ballot “First Vote”

106 JOHNSON IMPEACHED Radical Republicans felt Johnson was blocking Reconstruction efforts Thus, they looked for grounds to impeach him They found grounds when he fired a cabinet member in violation of the “Tenure of Office Act” He was impeached, but not convicted and served out his term GALLERY TICKET FOR JOHNSON IMPEACHMENT HEARING

107 1868 ELECTION Civil War hero U.S. Grant ran as a Republican against Democratic nominee Horatio Seymour Grant won by a margin of 300,000 in the popular vote 500,000 African Americans voted – 90% for Grant

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109 15 th AMENDMENT Soon after Grant’s election, Congress passed the 15 th Amendment This amendment stated that no one could be kept from voting because of “race, color, or previous servitude” The 15 th Amendment was ratified in 1870

110 RECONSTRUCTING SOCIETY The South went through significant changes after the war The economy was in ruins and they lost hundreds of thousands of young men Republicans now dominated politically, but often with conflicting goals MANY SOUTHERN CITIES SUFFERED EXTENSIVE DAMAGE

111 SOUTHERN REPUBLICANS 3 groups made up the bulk of Southern Republicans 1) Scalawags: White farmers (small farms) 2) Carpetbaggers: Northerners who came south in search of opportunity after the war 3) African Americans: Former slaves- 90% of whom were Republican CARPETBAGGERS SCALAWAGS

112 AFRICAN AMERICANS African Americans took an active role in the political process in the South They voted in record numbers and many ran for office Hiram Revels was the first black Senator HIRAM REVELS – FIRST BLACK SENATOR

113 40 ACRES AND A MULE Despite Sherman’s promise of “40 acres and a mule” few former slaves received anything Republicans considered property to be a sacred American right Therefore, most plantation owners kept their land SPIKE LEE’S PRODUCTION COMPANY IS CALLED “40 ACRES AND A MULE”

114 SHARECROPPING AND TENANT FARMING Without land of their own, Southern African Americans could not grow their own crops Thus, many became sharecroppers– a system be which families were given a small plot of land to work in exchange for some of the crops ARKANSAS SHARECROPPERS

115 THE COLLAPSE OF RECONSTRUCTION While some Southern whites participated in the new governments, voted in elections, and reluctantly accepted African Americans---others were very resentful and formed hate groups Most famous vigilante group was the Ku Klux Klan, or the KKK

116 KU KLUX KLAN The Klan was formed by disgruntled Confederate soldiers whose goals included destroying the Republican Party, aiding the planter class, and preventing blacks from integrating into society Estimates range as high as 20,000 murders attributed to the Klan whose membership peaked at almost 4 million in the 1920s

117 DEMOCRATS “REDEEM SOUTH” Lack of Republican unity in the South and an economic downturn that diverted attention from Southern issues, caused Democrats to regain control of the South Called “Redeemers” these politicians were out to reclaim Southern culture, pride and tradition The Reconstruction Era was over by 1877


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