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Chapter Ninth Edition America: Past and Present America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Copyright ©2011,

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Ninth Edition America: Past and Present America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Copyright ©2011,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Ninth Edition America: Past and Present America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Nation at War 24

2 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Toward War 1914: War in Europe Assassination of Franz Ferdinand of Austria Nationalism – Imperialism – Militarism Balance of Power/Secret Agreements Central Powers headed by Germany, Austria Allied Powers headed by England, France Russia

3 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands TOWARD WAR Austria issues ultimatum to Serbia Germany backs up ultimatum with a “blank check” Russia backs Serbia and Europe stumbles into WW I

4 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Neutrality Policy Wilson declares neutrality Progressives saw war as wasteful, irrational and an obstacle to reforms Suspicion that business sought war for profit Immigrants preferred U.S. neutrality Americans saw little national stake in war

5 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Freedom of the Seas Neutrality proves difficult England’s blockade of Germany restricts U.S. trade with Germany Wilson accepted English promise of reimbursement at war’s end Wilson protests trading blockades – trades mostly with Allies U.S. position changed toward Germany because German U-boats interrupt trade with Allies

6 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The U-Boat Threat German submarines violated international law by shooting without warning Wilson refused to ban trade or to ban Americans from foreign ships 1915: Lusitania sunk by U-Boat –Wilson demanded Germans pay for loss of 128 Americans

7 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The U-Boat Threat April, 1916: Wilson issued ultimatum: call off attacks on cargo and passenger ships or U.S.– German relations would be severed May, 1916: Sussex Pledge—Germany pledges to honor U.S. neutrality and only shoot ships of the enemy’s navy Sussex Pledge postponed U.S. involvement in war

8 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands “He Kept Us Out of War” 1916: Wilson campaigned on record of neutrality Republican campaigned on tougher line against Germany Wilson won close election – people want to remain neutral

9 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Final Months of Peace February, 1917: Germany renewed U-Boat attacks Zimmerman Telegram and Germany sinks five American ships Wilson’s response: declare war on Germany War to end all wars and make the world safe for democracy Wilson’s speech – Peace among equals

10 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Over There U.S. allies were in danger of losing war –Germans sunk 881,000 tons of Allied shipping during April, 1917 –Mutinies in French army –British drive in Flanders stalled –Bolsheviks signed separate peace with Germany and left war –Italian army routed Allies braced for spring, 1918 offensive

11 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Mobilization U.S. not prepared for war Preparedness issue split country 200,000 troops at war’s beginning Selective Service Act created draft John J. (Blackjack) Pershing - head American Expeditionary Force (AEF) American Expeditionary Force small and poorly equipped –

12 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands European Alliances and Battlefronts, 1914–1917

13 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands War in the Trenches WW I – Trench Warfare represents vast devastation Battle of Verdun – over 600,000 casualties Somme – over 1 million casualties 1917: U.S. troops arrive in France 1918: U.S. forces help halt final German offensive Germans stopped outside Paris

14 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Western Front: U.S. Participation, 1918

15 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Over Here Victory on front depends on mobilization at home Wilson consolidates federal authority to organize war production and distribution War Industries Board in charge of production Food Administration run by Hoover

16 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Conquest of Convictions Wartime laws to repress dissent – Espionage Act: Outlawed acts to aid the enemy, including encouraging disloyalty – Trading with the Enemy Act: Government can censor foreign language press – Sedition Act: Criticism of the war made a crime – violate freedom of speech – 1500 dissenters imprisoned, including Eugene Debs – he denounced the war

17 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Conquest of Convictions Russian Bolshevik Revolution results in Russia signing treaty with Germany and leaving the war Germany could then concentrate on fighting in the West 1918–1919: Revolution resulted in “Red Scare” in U.S. Russia blocked from peace conference

18 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands A Bureaucratic War Wilson organizes a wartime economy War Industries Board and other agencies supervise production, distribution to maximize war effort Government seizes some businesses to keep them running Cooperation between government and business the norm Business profits from wartime industry

19 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Labor in the War Union membership swells Labor shortage prompts: – Wage increase – Entry of Mexican Americans, women, African Americans to war-related industrial work force

20 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Labor in the War 200,000 blacks served in France – 42,000 combat troops Great Migration to northern factories – Blacks must adjust industrial work pace – Encounter Northern racism

21 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Treaty of Versailles 1918 U.S. help crush German Army American contribution, although small in comparison to European countries, was vital Wilson goes to Paris treaty with his Fourteen points calling for non-punitive settlement

22 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Treaty of Versailles England and France balk at Fourteen Points –Want Germany disarmed and crippled –Want Germany’s colonies –Skeptical of principle of self-determination

23 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands A Peace at Paris Wilson failed to deflect Allied punishment of Germany in treaty Wilson wants self-determination and League of Nations Treaty created Wilson’s League of Nations – Article X of League charter required members to protect each others’ independence and territorial integrity – Collective Security

24 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands

25 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Europe After the Treaty Versailles, 1919

26 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Rejection in the Senate Opponents in Congress oppose treaty on any grounds – some in Congress want compromise Some see League of Nations infringing on American autonomy Wilson unwilling to compromise with opponents 1919: Stroke disables Wilson 1920 – Final defeat of Treaty in Senate

27 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Rejection in the Senate Wilson hopes Democratic victory in 1920 election will provide mandate for League of Nations Landslide for Republican Warren Harding Defeat of League of Nations brought defeat of Progressive spirit

28 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Postwar Disillusionment To the next generation, the war seemed futile, wasteful The progressive spirit survived but without enthusiasm or broad-based support Americans welcomed Warren G Harding


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