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NATION BUILDING AND NATIONIONALISM America: Past and Present Chapter 9.

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Presentation on theme: "NATION BUILDING AND NATIONIONALISM America: Past and Present Chapter 9."— Presentation transcript:

1 NATION BUILDING AND NATIONIONALISM America: Past and Present Chapter 9

2 Expansion and Migration American perspective shifts from Europe to West after 1815 American perspective shifts from Europe to West after 1815 Land perceived as rich, unsettled Land perceived as rich, unsettled Continent held in part by the English, Spanish, and Indians Continent held in part by the English, Spanish, and Indians

3 Extending the Boundaries John Quincy Adams--expansionist secretary of state from 1816 to 1824 John Quincy Adams--expansionist secretary of state from 1816 to 1824 Adams-Onis Treaty secures all Florida, U.S. boundary to Pacific Adams-Onis Treaty secures all Florida, U.S. boundary to Pacific Settled "West" still mostly east of Mississippi River Settled "West" still mostly east of Mississippi River

4 North America, 1819

5 Settlement to the Mississippi: Indian Removal Indian Removal policy begins after 1815 Indian Removal policy begins after 1815 Some Indians retain tribal homelands Some Indians retain tribal homelands Some Southern states claim jurisdiction over the Indians in their borders Some Southern states claim jurisdiction over the Indians in their borders Former Indian land sold to speculators Former Indian land sold to speculators

6 Settlement to the Mississippi: Settlers Move In By 1840 over 1/3 of U.S. population lives west of the Appalachians By 1840 over 1/3 of U.S. population lives west of the Appalachians Speculators sell land parcels to settlers on credit Speculators sell land parcels to settlers on credit Settlers immediately enter commercial farming to pay off debt Settlers immediately enter commercial farming to pay off debt Access to markets gained by network of market towns, regional centers Access to markets gained by network of market towns, regional centers

7 The People and Culture of the Frontier West settled to escape overpopulation, rising land prices, worn-out soil West settled to escape overpopulation, rising land prices, worn-out soil Settlers bring culture with them Settlers bring culture with them Cooperation, strong community necessary for survival Cooperation, strong community necessary for survival Land values rise rapidly in a few years Land values rise rapidly in a few years Price rise encourages rootlessness as many sell out and move on Price rise encourages rootlessness as many sell out and move on

8 A Revolution in Transportation Primitive land transportation in the East was offset by shipping via the coastal waterways Primitive land transportation in the East was offset by shipping via the coastal waterways After the War of 1812 political leaders recognized the need the need to improve the country’s transportation network After the War of 1812 political leaders recognized the need the need to improve the country’s transportation network

9 Roads and Steamboats National Road from Cumberland, Maryland to Wheeling, Virginia National Road from Cumberland, Maryland to Wheeling, Virginia Private turnpikes built by entrepreneurs Private turnpikes built by entrepreneurs Roads useful but unprofitable Roads useful but unprofitable

10 Roads and Steamboats (2) Network of rivers encourage economic development Network of rivers encourage economic development Flatboats transport down river early Flatboats transport down river early Steamboats transport upriver after 1811 Steamboats transport upriver after 1811 Upriver capabilities reduce costs Upriver capabilities reduce costs Steamboat traffic stimulates Congress to establish safety regulations Steamboat traffic stimulates Congress to establish safety regulations

11 The Canal Boom Erie Canal first transportation link between East and West, 1825 Erie Canal first transportation link between East and West, 1825 Canal cuts East-West transportation costs dramatically Canal cuts East-West transportation costs dramatically Canal stimulates commercial growth of New York City Canal stimulates commercial growth of New York City

12 Emergence of a Market Economy Canals cut shipping expenses for western farmers and eastern manufacturers Canals cut shipping expenses for western farmers and eastern manufacturers Steamboats on the rivers also reduced shipping costs and stimulated commercial agriculture Steamboats on the rivers also reduced shipping costs and stimulated commercial agriculture

13 The Beginning of Commercial Agriculture Lower transportation costs mean greater income for the farmer Lower transportation costs mean greater income for the farmer Sale to distant markets involves farmers in a complex system of credit Sale to distant markets involves farmers in a complex system of credit Market stimulates specialization Market stimulates specialization  Ohio Valley produces wheat  Lower South produces cotton

14 Commerce and Banking Commercial farming stimulates new system of marketing Commercial farming stimulates new system of marketing Farmers borrow on future crops Farmers borrow on future crops Use of credit stimulates banking Use of credit stimulates banking State banks increase after 1812 State banks increase after Second Bank of the United States created to check state banks Second Bank of the United States created to check state banks Bank’s easy credit sparks Panic of 1819 Bank’s easy credit sparks Panic of 1819

15 Early Industrialism Rise in manufacturing after 1812 Rise in manufacturing after 1812 Traditional methods but innovative financing through “putting out” system Traditional methods but innovative financing through “putting out” system  “putting-out”--merchants deliver raw materials for farm families, artisans to process Textile industry leads development of factory system Textile industry leads development of factory system

16 The Politics of Nation Building After the War of 1812 Politics a one-party system after 1812 Politics a one-party system after 1812 Interest groups no longer take differences into the political arena Interest groups no longer take differences into the political arena Federal executive, legislature largely irrelevant to domestic economy Federal executive, legislature largely irrelevant to domestic economy Supreme Court exerts influence on economy by deciding crucial cases Supreme Court exerts influence on economy by deciding crucial cases

17 The Republicans in Power Republicans begin adopting Federalist measures after War of 1812 Republicans begin adopting Federalist measures after War of 1812  1815: establish high tariffs  1816: charter a national bank  federal aid for internal improvements Federal efforts to stimulate economy falter Federal efforts to stimulate economy falter  Madison, Monroe see Constitutional conflicts  Efforts provoke sectional conflict

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19 Monroe as President James Monroe elected President in 1816, reelected in 1820 James Monroe elected President in 1816, reelected in 1820 Monroe seeks national harmony Monroe seeks national harmony Takes no action in Panic of 1819, believes president above such matters Takes no action in Panic of 1819, believes president above such matters Provides no leadership controversy over Missouri Provides no leadership controversy over Missouri

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21 The Missouri Compromise: The Issues Missouri applies for statehood as slave state Missouri applies for statehood as slave state Northerners believe South over- represented in House of Representatives Northerners believe South over- represented in House of Representatives House rejects unless slavery abolished House rejects unless slavery abolished South wishes to preserve balance between slave states and free states South wishes to preserve balance between slave states and free states

22 The Missouri Compromise: The Solution Missouri admitted as slave state Missouri admitted as slave state Maine admitted as free state Maine admitted as free state Slavery banned elsewhere in Louisiana Purchase above the latitude of 36E30' Slavery banned elsewhere in Louisiana Purchase above the latitude of 36E30' Missouri controversy exposed deep rift between North and South Missouri controversy exposed deep rift between North and South

23 The Missouri Compromise,

24 Postwar Nationalism and the Supreme Court John Marshall chief justice John Marshall chief justice Marshall uses position to encourage national growth Marshall uses position to encourage national growth Believes Constitution exists to protect the industrious Believes Constitution exists to protect the industrious Protects individual property rights against government interference Protects individual property rights against government interference Marshall uses court decisions to limit powers of the states Marshall uses court decisions to limit powers of the states

25 Nationalism in Foreign Policy: The Monroe Doctrine When Latin American nations revolt, U.S. supports new republics When Latin American nations revolt, U.S. supports new republics European ruling classes fear rebellion might prove contagious European ruling classes fear rebellion might prove contagious France was encouraged to squelch Spain's rebellious colonies France was encouraged to squelch Spain's rebellious colonies Great Britain asks U.S. to cooperate against French in Latin America Great Britain asks U.S. to cooperate against French in Latin America

26 Nationalism in Foreign Policy: Monroe Doctrine (2) Monroe persuaded that U.S. alone must protect Latin American independence Monroe persuaded that U.S. alone must protect Latin American independence Monroe Doctrine warns European nations out of the Western Hemisphere Monroe Doctrine warns European nations out of the Western Hemisphere Doctrine also promises U.S. will not interfere in European affairs Doctrine also promises U.S. will not interfere in European affairs Refocuses U.S. from worldwide struggles against tyranny to national development Refocuses U.S. from worldwide struggles against tyranny to national development

27 The Troubled Presidency of John Quincey Adams James Monroe supports John Quincy Adams to succeed him James Monroe supports John Quincy Adams to succeed him Adams intelligent, keen interest in progress, loyal to nation, not sectional Adams intelligent, keen interest in progress, loyal to nation, not sectional Nearly loses election of 1824 Nearly loses election of 1824 A "gentleman" in an age of rising democracy A "gentleman" in an age of rising democracy Term of office fails because of fiercely contending sectional interests Term of office fails because of fiercely contending sectional interests

28 The End of the “Era of Good Feelings” There were sharp divisions over how to achieve national greatness There were sharp divisions over how to achieve national greatness Elite nonpartisan statesmanship would soon give way to a more contentious democratic process Elite nonpartisan statesmanship would soon give way to a more contentious democratic process


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