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The Growth of a Young Nation The Jeffersonian Era Jefferson won a close and bitter Election in 1800 Won the most popular vote Tied in electoral college.

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Presentation on theme: "The Growth of a Young Nation The Jeffersonian Era Jefferson won a close and bitter Election in 1800 Won the most popular vote Tied in electoral college."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 The Growth of a Young Nation

3 The Jeffersonian Era Jefferson won a close and bitter Election in 1800 Won the most popular vote Tied in electoral college with Aaron Burr Hamilton broke the tie 12 th Amendment changed the way the president would be chosen Jefferson ’ s Theory-Jeffersonian republicanism People should control the government Government should be simple and small He reduced the size of the military and lowered governmental expenses

4 Jeffersonian Era He was the first president to take office in the new federal capital- Washington DC 1 st of three presidents from VA This showed rise of southern political power At the same time the Supreme Court was increasing its power

5 Marbury vs. Madison Chief Justice was John Marshall Strengthened power of Supreme Court Ruled a law passed by congress unconstitutional This power was called judicial review

6 Louisiana Purchase 1803-Jefferson got chance to buy land from France Wasn ’ t sure he had Constitutional power to buy it Bought it anyway-3 cents per acre Called the Louisiana Purchase New boundaries stretched from Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains

7 Madison and War of 1812 Britain and France were at war Both threatened American ships British engaged in impressment seized American sailors forced to serve in British navy America ’ s anger grew Madison becomes president in 1808 He asks Congress to declare war on Britain

8 War of 1812 The British attacked Washington DC Madison had to flee the city Andrew Jackson defeats British at New Orleans- becomes a hero! Treaty of Ghent ended the war Three outcomes of war Anti-war Federalists Party died out America began to develop their own industries Showed that United States was truly independent Treaty of Ghent

9 Nationalism National pride grew after the war 1816-Monroe elected Choses John Quincy Adams as Sec. Of State Adams based foreign policy on nationalism Nation ’ s intrest come before what a region wants He settled some issues with Britain Convinced Spain to give Florida to United States-with help of Jackson

10 Monroe Doctrine 1823-Monroe warned European nations not interfere with any nation in the Americas He said United States would stay out of European affairs Policy statement was known as Monroe Doctrine Still used today!

11 The Age of Jackson Chapter 3 sec. 2

12 Regional Economic Create Differences Early in the 19 th century regions of the US developed differently. Northern states economy depended on Commerce Trade, shipping, production of materials The South remained agricultural Cotton, tobacco

13 Missouri Compromise 1818: Settlers wanted admission Free or Slave State? The Compromise Maine admitted as free state Missouri as a slave The rest of the Louisiana Territory Split into 2 parts 36 ’ 30 Slavery banned in the North (except for Missouri) South of it was legal

14 Indian Removal Act of 1830 Under the Authority of President Jackson Forceful removal of Native Amer. to west Removal of Indian from 1831-33 Again in 1835 An estimated 30,000 Indians forced to move west of the Mississippi.

15 Worcester v. Georgia 1832 The Cherokee Nation took the state of Georgia to court They won their case Jackson refused to follow the order Even so, still forcibly removed Indians walked 1000s of miles 1/4of the Cherokee would die along the way The Trial Of Tears

16 Nullification Southerners objected to tariffs John C. Calhoun fought for states ’ rights Argued that states could nullify federal laws they felt were unconstitutional 1832-South Carolina tried to nullify a federal tariff threatened to secede from the union Daniel Webster (Mass) opposed nullification Henry Clay worked out compromise to keep S.C in Union

17 Bank War Jackson was against 2 nd National Bank Took federal money out of the national bank and put it in other hands National bank went of existence People began to think that Jackson had too much power Whig Party was formed

18 Growth of Political Parties Election of 1824 John C. Calhoun John Quincy Adams William Crawford Henry Clay Andrew Jackson Election of 1828 Andrew Jackson John Quincy Adams Election of 1836 Martin Van Buren William Henry Harrison Daniel Webster Hugh White Election of 1840 Martin Van Buren William Henry Harrison Democrat Republican Whig

19 Panic of 1837 Martin Van Buren Elected President in 1836 By 1837-many banks that Jackson had put money into failed Helped cause the Panic of 1837 and a depression 1840-Van Buren loses to Wm Henry Harrison (Whig) Harrison dies soon after-vice-president john Tyler takes over

20 Manifest Destiny Chapter 3 Section 3

21 Terms and Names Manifest destiny Santa Fe Trail Oregon Trail Stephen F Austin Texas Revolution The Alamo Sam Houston James K Polk Republic of California Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

22 Settling the Frontier Many Americans believed that God wanted them to move across the continent Believed that they were meant to control the west- manifest destiny Why go west? Economic reasons-cheap land After panic of 1837 many wanted fresh start Paths to the west Santa Fe Trail-Independence, MO & Santa Fe, New Mexico Oregon Trail-Independence & Portland, Oregon Mormons-used Oregon trail to Utah Had been persecuted in the East Settled on edge of the Great Salt Lake

23 Texas Independence 1820s-Mexico encouraged Americans to settle in Texas They were offered land to help make area more stable Stephen F Austin-set up a colony of Americans in Texas Soon Anglos outnumbered the Spanish-speaking Texans Created cultural differences English instead of Spanish Protestant instead of Catholic Southerners who brought slaves Mexico had outlawed slavery in 1829 Mexicans unsuccessful in getting Texans to free slaves

24 Texas Independence Mexico tried to keep more Americans from coming Settlers came anyway Austin asks Mexico for self-government in Texas 1836-War breaks out-called Texas Revolution Small Texas force tried to defend the Alamo All 187 Americans were killed when Mexico captured the mission

25 “ Remember the Alamo ” Became the rallying cry for Texas rebels Sam Houston became commander of the Texans They captured Santa Anna Won their independence 1844-James K Polk-President Slaveholder Favored westward expansion 1845-Texas admitted as state

26 The Mexican-American War 1846-48 For the first time the US went to war not for independence, or foreign provocation but for territorial expansion. Polk, believed war with Mexico would allow the US to take over the Texas, New Mexico and California territory Polk implied that Texas was a part of the Louisiana purchase, and treated it as US property Sent troops under Gen. Zachary Taylor to protect our border ’ s Tension escalated when Taylor crossed the Rio Grande. An American Soldier was found dead and an American patrol was attacked. That all the provocation Polk needed to declare war

27 After several military victories Mexico conceded defeat The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mexico agreed to the Rio Grande as the border The US gained Texas, New Mexico And California

28 California Gold Rush 1848-Gold discovered in California People “rushed” to California for gold These “49ers” came from all over America as well as other countries California’s population exploded San Francisco became a boom town Thousands of people came to California Development of farming, manufacturing, shipping, and banking grew rapidly

29 Chapter 3 Section 4

30 Great economic changes in the US during the first half of the 19 th century Market revolution-people bought and sold goods rather than making them for themselves Free enterprise-economic system in which private businesses and individuals control production Both expanded at this time Entrepreneurs-invested in new industries New industries produced goods that: Made life more comfortable Improved manufacturing Improved transportation Improved communications

31 New Inventions

32 Different regions became dependent on each other Each region needed goods produced by other regions North became the center of commerce and manufacturing Midwest became a farming region Crops were carried by canal and train to markets in the East South remained agricultural Cotton Rice Tobacco Slaves were used to raise those crops

33 Changing Workplaces New market economy changed the way Americans worked Factories took the place of home shops New machines allowed unskilled workers make goods that skilled workers had made These workers had to work in factories Thousands of people worked in textile mills Hired young women instead of men-could be paid less “ Mill girls ” lived in boarding houses owned by factories Working conditions were horrible Workday-more than 12 hours-a-day Hot, noisy and dirty Many became ill

34 Workers Organize Bad working conditions led workers to unite 1834-Lowell textile mill cut wages by 15% Mill girls went on strike Public support was against the workers 1830s-40s-there were many strikes for shorter work days Employers won strikes by hiring strike-breakers Many were European immigrants Immigration increased between 1830-1860 Most met prejudice in the United States

35 The First Unions Small trade unions began to band together in the 1830s National Trades ’ Union formed in 1834 Represented a variety of trades At first strikes were declared illegal 1842-Commonwealth v. Hunt Massachusetts Supreme Court supported the workers right to strike

36 Reforming American Society TOPICAIMS/GOALS Second Great Awakening Bring more people to God Unitarianism Transcendentalism Abolition Women ’ s Rights

37 Religious and Social Reforms of the 19 th Century Second Great Awakening Lyman Beecher Charles G Finney Abolitionist Fredrick Douglas Henry Highland Garnet William Lloyd Garrison Educational Reform Lyman Beecher Horace Mann Mentally Ill & Handicapped Dorothea Dix Thomas Gallaudet Samuel Gridley Howe Women’s Rights Lucretia Mott Elizabeth Cady Stanton Temperance Movement Lyman Beecher

38 Study FOR Your


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