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First Nations of Canada Unit

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1 First Nations of Canada Unit

2 DEFINITIONS Aboriginal – the descendants of the original inhabitants of Turtle Island (North America). This is an umbrella term used to categorize all people of Indian, Metis and Inuit ancestry into a single entity. Usage is acceptable if your intention is to categorize all nations into a single entity.

3 Terminology Crown: refers to the government (term comes from the fact that we are decedents of a monarchy – get it crown for king of queen) Aboriginal: refers to all peoples that are considered to be the first people to inhabit the land. First Nations: the native people of Canada to replace the word ‘Indian’. Inuit: the native people of northern Canada Metis: people who are half First Nations and half European (mostly French) FNIM: initial commonly used in Canada for “First Nation Inuit Metis” FSIN: initials commonly used in Saskatchewan/Canada “Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations”. SICC: initials for “Saskatchwewan Indian Cultural Centre” AFN: “Assembly of First Nations” Band: a body of First Nations who share land.

4 Terminology …con’t Reserve: land given to the a group of First Nations in which they can live and govern. In Saskatchewan we have approximately 60 Reserves. Off-reserve: a term used to describe people, services or objects that are not part of a reserve but relate to First Nations people. Tribal Council: a regional group of First Nations members (think of it as a bunch of Bands joining together). Some tribe names include: Algonkin, Cree, Cheppewa, Haida, Huron, Iroquois, Shuswap, Assinaboine, Ottawa, Dakota, Dene, Indian Act: a Canadian legislation first passed in 1876 but amended (changed) several times since. Indian Act outlines who is considered ‘Indian’. It sets out the federal gov’t obligations to the First Nations people. It also regulates the management of the Indian reserves, Indian moneys and other resources. Status Indian: a person who is registered as an Indian under the Indian Act.

5 Terminology … con’t Non-status Indian: an Indian who is not registered as an Indian under the Indian Act. Treaty Indian: a Status Indian who belongs to a First Nations group that signed a treaty with the crown. Treaty: an agreement signed between a specific tribe and the crown. Tribe: a group of Indians who lived and worked together. Urban Reserve: a reserve of land occupied by First Nations in a Treaty that resides in a city. Saskatoon has many urban reserves.

6 First Nations First Nations – new term, referring to the ancestors of the original inhabitants who are classified by the term “Indian” replaces the term ‘Indian’ except in reference to the Act Umbrella term for those recognized by the Indian Act.

7 Terminology Indian – legal term under the ‘Indian Act’; The Act defines who can be an ‘Indian’ May have three legal definitions: Status – means you fit under the Indian Act; registered, thus have ‘status’; every “Indian” has status Treaty – has status, plus belong to a First Nation that signed a treaty Non-status – claim Indian/First Nations status, yet are not registered under the Act. They identify with a First Nations or Inuit Community culturally or linguistically


(Commonly used term in brackets) NEHIYAWIK (Cree) DENE (Chipewyan, but not recommended) ANISHINABE (Ojibway; Saulteaux) SIOUX: Lakota (Sioux), Dakota (Sioux), Nakota (Sioux); Assiniboine; Stoney but not recommeded)

10 Part II: Identity Current requirements:
Must produce records denoting Metis ancestry Must be accepted by the Metis community as being Metis Must expressly hold herself/himself to be of Metis ancestry Must have origins in the Metis Homeland Must be accepted by whites as well as Indians – feel lost as they don’t know where they fit in.

11 The Traditional Metis Homeland

12 Traditional First Nations Spirituality
God/Creator/Great Spirit Sun/Moon/Earth/Stars Rock/Fire/Air/Water Plant Life Insect World Swimmers/Flyers Four Legged Creatures Humans

Numbered Treaties Website Google Aboriginal Canada

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