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The Nation Grows and Prospers, 1790–1825

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1 The Nation Grows and Prospers, 1790–1825
The American Nation Chapter 11 The Nation Grows and Prospers, 1790–1825 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

2 Chapter 11: The Nation Grows and Prospers, 1790–1825
The American Nation Chapter 11: The Nation Grows and Prospers, 1790–1825 Section 1: The Industrial Revolution Section 2: Americans Moves Westward Section 3: Unity and Division Section 4: New Nations in the Americas Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

3 The Industrial Revolution
Chapter 11, Section 1 What was the Industrial Revolution, and how did it take hold in the United States? Why was Lowell, Massachusetts, called a model factory town? What was daily life like in early factories? What impact did the Industrial Revolution have on American cities?

4 The Industrial Revolution
Chapter 11, Section 1 Industrial Revolution—a long, slow process, begun in Britain, that completely changed the way goods were produced Gradually machines replaced hand tools. New sources of power such as steam replaced human and animal power. The economy began a gradual shift toward manufacturing. New technology transformed the textile industry. For example, the spinning jenny, which could spin several threads at once, replaced the spinning wheel, which spun one thread at a time. A water-powered loom that could weave cloth faster replaced older, hand-operated looms. Instead of working alone in their homes, many workers went to work where the machinery was—in large mills near rivers. This new system of work is called the factory system. Large amounts of capital, or money, were needed to set up and operate large mills. Capitalists—people who invest in a business in order to make a profit—supplied the money.

5 How the Industrial Revolution Came to the United States
Chapter 11, Section 1 The First American Mill Samuel Slater, a skilled mechanic in a British textile mill, heard that Americans were offering rewards for British factory plans. Slater memorized the design of machines in the mill. Then he boarded a ship bound for New York City. In Pawtucket, Rhode Island, he built the first successful textile mill in the United States powered by water. Interchangeable Parts Skilled workers made goods by hand. Each item was slightly different than every other item. Eli Whitney had the idea of having machines manufacture each part. All parts would be alike, or interchangeable. Interchangeable parts would save time and money. Whitney demonstrated his idea with muskets, but the idea of interchangeable parts also applied to clocks and many other goods.

6 Lowell, Massachusetts: A Model Factory Town
Chapter 11, Section 1 In Britain, one factory spun thread and another wove it into cloth. Francis Cabot Lowell had the idea of combining spinning and weaving under one roof. After Lowell’s death, his partners built an entire factory town, with streets of small, neat, white houses. The company hired young women from nearby farms. They came to be called the Lowell girls. The company built boardinghouses for them and made rules to protect them.

7 Daily Life During the Industrial Revolution
Chapter 11, Section 1 Child Labor Boys and girls as young as seven worked in factories. Often, their wages were needed to help support their family. Long Hours Working hours were typically long—12 hours a day, 6 days a week year round. Changes in home life Now, many family members left the home to earn a living. In poorer families, women often had to go out to work, but in middle-class families, women usually stayed home.

8 Section 1 Assessment Chapter 11, Section 1 The Industrial Revolution gradually changed the way people worked. After the Industrial Revolution, a) more people were able to work at home. b) more skilled workers were British. c) many workers produced goods in one place with machinery. d) workers doing different tasks usually worked in separate buildings. The Industrial Revolution had an impact on family life because a) workers now left their homes to earn a living. b) women stayed home to do the farming while men went to work in factories. c) factory workers worked shorter hours than farmers. d) factories would not hire anyone younger than 18. Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.

9 Section 1 Assessment Chapter 11, Section 1 The Industrial Revolution gradually changed the way people worked. After the Industrial Revolution, a) more people were able to work at home. b) more skilled workers were British. c) many workers produced goods in one place with machinery. d) workers doing different tasks usually worked in separate buildings. The Industrial Revolution had an impact on family life because a) workers now left their homes to earn a living. b) women stayed home to do the farming while men went to work in factories. c) factory workers worked shorter hours than farmers. d) factories would not hire anyone younger than 18. Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.

10 Americans Move Westward
Chapter 11, Section 2 How did settlers travel west in the early 1800s? What steps did Americans take to improve their roads? How did steamboats and canals improve transportation for Americans?

11 How Early Settlers Traveled
Chapter 11, Section 2 Great Wagon Road across Pennsylvania Wilderness Road opened by Daniel Boone; through the Cumberland Gap into Kentucky Flatboats down the Ohio River into Indiana, Kentucky, and Illinois Southern trails westward from Georgia and South Carolina to Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana Northern trails from New England, New York, and Pennsylvania into the Northwest Territory

12 Improving American Roads
Chapter 11, Section 2 Turnpikes Private companies built gravel and stone roads. The companies collected tolls from travelers. At points along the road, a pike, or pole, blocked the road. After the wagon driver paid a toll, the pike keeper turned the pole aside. The best road in the United States was the Lancaster Turnpike, linking Philadelphia and Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Corduroy roads Roads made of logs. Looked like corduroy cloth. Made a very noisy and bumpy ride. The National Road Ran from Cumberland, Maryland, to Wheeling, in western Virginia. The first time Congress approved funds for a national road-building project.

13 Steamboats Improved Transportation
Chapter 11, Section 2 Development of the Steamboat John Fitch showed how a steam engine could power a boat. He opened a ferry service on the Delaware River, but few people used it, and he went out of business. Robert Fulton launched his own steamboat, the Clermont, on the Hudson River. It carried passengers from New York City to Albany in record time. Soon, steamboats were carrying passengers up and down the Atlantic coast. Steamboats carried passengers and goods on the Mississippi, Ohio, and Missouri rivers. Henry Shreve designed a flat-bottomed steamboat for shallow western rivers.

14 Canals Improved Transportation
Chapter 11, Section 2 The Erie Canal Some New Yorkers had the idea of building a canal linking the Great Lakes with the Mohawk and Hudson rivers. The Erie Canal would let western farmers ship their goods to New York. New York governor DeWitt Clinton persuaded the state legislature to put up money for the Erie Canal. Work began in 1817 and was finished in The cost of shipping goods dropped to about one tenth of what it had been and helped make New York City a commercial center. The success of the Erie Canal led other states to build canals, too.

15 Canals Improved Transportation
Chapter 11, Section 2

16 Section 2 Assessment Chapter 11, Section 2 The first time Congress ever put up funds for a national transportation project, the money was for the a) Erie Canal. b) Wilderness Road. c) Corduroy Road. d) National Road. Supporters argued that the Erie Canal would a) provide a route around waterfalls on the Hudson River. b) let western farmers ship their goods to the port of New York. c) connect the Great Lakes for travel from one lake to another. d) eliminate sandbars. Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.

17 Section 2 Assessment Chapter 11, Section 2 The first time Congress ever put up funds for a national transportation project, the money was for the a) Erie Canal. b) Wilderness Road. c) Corduroy Road. d) National Road. Supporters argued that the Erie Canal would a) provide a route around waterfalls on the Hudson River. b) let western farmers ship their goods to the port of New York. c) connect the Great Lakes for travel from one lake to another. d) eliminate sandbars. Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.

18 Unity and Division Chapter 11, Section 3 What role did sectionalism play in the nation during the Era of Good Feelings? How did Congress help American industry after the War of 1812? What was Henry Clay’s American System? How did the Supreme Court give more power to the Federal government?

19 The Era of Good Feelings
Chapter 11, Section 3 James Monroe A Republican; defeated the Federalist candidate for President in the election of 1816. A popular, easygoing President, he hoped to create a new sense of national unity. One newspaper wrote that the United States was entering an “era of good feelings.” When he ran for a second term, no candidate opposed him.

20 Rise of Sectional Interests
Chapter 11, Section 3 Voices for Different Sections of the Country John C. Calhoun—the South Supported the War of 1812 Defended slavery Opposed strengthening the power of the federal government Daniel Webster—the North Opposed the War of 1812 and refused to vote for taxes to pay for the war. Wanted the federal government to take a larger role in building the nation’s economy Thought that slavery was evil Henry Clay—the West A War Hawk who promoted the War of 1812 Favored a more active role for the central government in promoting the country’s growth

21 Congress Helps American Businesses
Chapter 11, Section 3 Problem Solution What it did The charter of the first Bank of the United States ran out. Individual states issued money. They put too much money in circulation. Prices rose. Congress chartered a second Bank of the United States. The bank lent money and regulated the nation’s money supply. After the War of 1812, American businesses faced British competition. Because the British had a head start in industrializing, they could make and sell goods more cheaply than Americans could. A protective tariff—the Tariff of 1816 The Tariff of 1816 greatly raised tariffs on imports. This made imported goods more expensive than American-made goods.

22 The Tariff of 1816 Chapter 11, Section 3

23 Henry Clay’s American System
Chapter 11, Section 3 A problem Sectionalism—loyalty to one’s state or section rather than to the nation as a whole. Clashes over the tariff were an example of sectionalism. Henry Clay’s plan With his American System, Henry Clay wanted to promote economic growth for all sections. High tariffs on imports would help northern factories. Northerners could then buy farm products from the West and the South. Use the money from tariffs for internal improvements—roads, bridges, and canals. Improved transportation would help western and southern farmers ship goods to market. The opposition Southerners already had many rivers so they opposed paying for roads and canals.

24 The Supreme Court Under John Marshall Strengthens the Power of the Federal Government
Chapter 11, Section 3 The Case The Issue The Decision McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) Maryland tried to tax the Bank of the United States. The Bank cashier refused to pay. The Court ruled that states had no right to interfere with federal institutions within their borders. Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) A New York law tried to control steamboat travel between New York and New Jersey. The Court ruled that a state could regulate trade only within its borders, but only the federal government had the power to regulate interstate commerce, or trade between different states.

25 Section 3 Assessment Chapter 11, Section 3 During the Era of Good Feelings, sectionalism began to grow. Sectionalism is a) favoring raising tariffs in one section but not in the others. b) loyalty to one’s state or section over loyalty to the nation as a whole. c) protecting a country’s industries from foreign competition. d) having different money in different sections of the country. The expression “internal improvements” refers to a) gaining wealth from industry within a state. b) taxing federal institutions within a state. c) increased trade within the borders of one state. d) improvements in roads, bridges, and canals. Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.

26 Section 3 Assessment Chapter 11, Section 3 During the Era of Good Feelings, sectionalism began to grow. Sectionalism is a) favoring raising tariffs in one section but not in the others. b) loyalty to one’s state or section over loyalty to the nation as a whole. c) protecting a country’s industries from foreign competition. d) having different money in different sections of the country. The expression “internal improvements” refers to a) gaining wealth from industry within a state. b) taxing federal institutions within a state. c) increased trade within the borders of one state. d) improvements in roads, bridges, and canals. Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.

27 New Nations in the Americas
Chapter 11, Section 4 How did the Latin American nations win independence and become republics? How did the United States gain Florida from Spain? What was the purpose of the Monroe Doctrine?

28 Latin American Nations Win Independence
Chapter 11, Section 4 Area Leaders What Happened Mexico Miguel Hidalgo José Morelos Father Hidalgo and Father Morelos led peasent movements for independence from Spain. Both were captured and executed by the Spanish. Creoles—people born in Latin America to Spanish parents—began to join the revolutionary movement. In 1821, revolutionary forces won control of Mexico. Republic of Great Colombia—made up of present-day Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Panama Simón Bolívar In 1819, Bolívar led an army from Venezuela into Colombia and defeated Spanish forces there. He became president of the Republic of Great Colombia.

29 Latin American Nations Win Independence
Chapter 11, Section 4 Area Leaders What Happened Argentina José de San Martín San Martín led Argentina to freedom in 1816, then helped Chile, Peru, and Ecuador win independence. United Provinces of Central America—made up of present-day Nicaragua, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala In 1821, peoples of Central America declared independence from Spain. Two years later, they formed the United Provinces. Brazil Prince Pedro, son of the Portuguese king Brazilian revolutionaries demanded independence. Prince Pedro supported them. He became emperor of the independent Brazil.

30 Latin American Nations Win Independence
Chapter 11, Section 4

31 The United States Gains Florida
Chapter 11, Section 4 Many Americans wanted Florida. Southerners worried about the Creek and Seminole Indians of Florida raiding Georgia settlements. Many enslaved African Americans escaped to Florida. About 1,000 African Americans lived in settlement on the Apalachicola River known as Negro Fort. In 1818 Andrew Jackson led American troops into Florida. Spain protested but was busy with revolutions in Latin America. In the Adams-Onís Treaty, Spain agreed to give Florida to the United States for $5 million.

32 The Monroe Doctrine The Background
Chapter 11, Section 4 The Background In 1815, Prussia, France, Russia, and Austria formed an alliance aimed at crushing any revolution in Europe. They seemed ready to help Spain take back its colonies in Latin America. Russia claimed lands on the Pacific coast of North America. The British feared their trade would be hurt if Spain regained control of its former colonies. Thus, Britain suggested the United States and Britain issue a joint statement guaranteeing the freedom of the new nations.

33 The Monroe Doctrine Monroe’s Foreign Policy
Chapter 11, Section 4 Monroe’s Foreign Policy President Monroe acted independently of Britain. He issued a foreign policy statement known as the Monroe Doctrine. The United States would not interfere in the affairs of European nations or their existing colonies. At the same time, European nations should not try to regain control of the newly independent nations of Latin America. The United States would oppose any attempt to build new colonies in the Americas. Several Presidents have called on the Monroe Doctrine to challenge European intervention, or direct involvement, in Latin America.

34 Section 4 Assessment Chapter 11, Section 4 One reason the United States wanted Florida was that a) New England merchants wanted to trade there. b) southerners wanted to keep enslaved African Americans from escaping to Florida. c) American hunters wanted the opportunity to trap alligators. d) Father Hidalgo had called for freedom. The Monroe Doctrine states that a) European nations should not build new colonies in the Americas. b) Spain should sell Florida to the United States for a reasonable price. c) wealthy creoles should give up land to peasants. d) American trade should favor the British. Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.

35 Section 4 Assessment Chapter 11, Section 4 One reason the United States wanted Florida was that a) New England merchants wanted to trade there. b) southerners wanted to keep enslaved African Americans from escaping to Florida. c) American hunters wanted the opportunity to trap alligators. d) Father Hidalgo had called for freedom. The Monroe Doctrine states that a) European nations should not build new colonies in the Americas. b) Spain should sell Florida to the United States for a reasonable price. c) wealthy creoles should give up land to peasants. d) American trade should favor the British. Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.


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