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The Emergence of the Nation-State in Europe Trends of the Late Middle Ages Church in crisis  Division & ReformChurch in crisis  Division & Reform “The.

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Presentation on theme: "The Emergence of the Nation-State in Europe Trends of the Late Middle Ages Church in crisis  Division & ReformChurch in crisis  Division & Reform “The."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 The Emergence of the Nation-State in Europe

3 Trends of the Late Middle Ages Church in crisis  Division & ReformChurch in crisis  Division & Reform “The Commercial Revolution: Rise of trade and capitalism“The Commercial Revolution: Rise of trade and capitalism Changing class system in transition (Money and Rise of the Middle Class)Changing class system in transition (Money and Rise of the Middle Class) Philosophical  From Scholasticism vs. to HumanismPhilosophical  From Scholasticism vs. to Humanism

4 Trends of the Late Middle Ages Old: accept authority; New: challengeOld: accept authority; New: challenge Changes in warfare  Expense of new weapons and larger armies  increasing power of monarchs and national systemChanges in warfare  Expense of new weapons and larger armies  increasing power of monarchs and national system Rise of Nationalism and National Monarchies:Rise of Nationalism and National Monarchies: –The Nation-State

5 Problem: The old system of government is not functioning well. What is the solution? Either the old system will be improved and adapted to meet the new challengesEither the old system will be improved and adapted to meet the new challenges>>OR<< A new system will rise to replace the old and respond in different ways with new solutions to the problemsA new system will rise to replace the old and respond in different ways with new solutions to the problems

6 Everybody Wants Power The 3 main groups vying for power during the Later Middle Ages and the Renaissance are: –Monarchy –Nobility (Aristocracy) –Church It’s all about the Power!

7 Influence is the key! The more people that do as you say, the more power you have! –The Monarchs, Nobles, and Church are all trying to be the main influence in peoples’ lives –“The people” will support whomever they believe will best meet their needs: Protection Increased rights

8 Have a plan! The People will follow those leaders with a plan –Whoever can prove to the people they are capable of leading will win influence over them –Whoever can guarantee “the people” the basic security to lead their lives will benefit

9 Barriers to the Nation-State PoliticalPolitical –Strong Nobility and Feudal System –Weak-willed King GeographicGeographic –Large in size –Divided by topography –Lack of natural borders for defense

10 Barriers to the Nation-State SocialSocial –People are used to the old ways: Feudal lords and the Church –Need for strong economic base –Need for cultural unity ReligiousReligious –Strong Church opposed government centralization –Large land ownership by Church

11 Characteristics of the New Monarchies  Centralized government power  Bureaucracy for national administration  Uniform law, order, and justice  Strong military (expensive!)  Gunpowder and other new weapons  National Army: Commoners with Professional Officer class; Equipped by state; Conscription  Navy

12 Characteristics of the New Monarchies  Promoted and controlled trade  More efficient taxation  Allied with middle class against old aristocracy  National church  Catholic: State superior in control  Protestant: State church or separate

13 Niccolo Machiavelli

14 “Experience has shown that the princes that have accomplished great deeds are those who have cared little for keeping their promises and have known how to manipulate the minds of men with shrewdness. It is necessary for a prince to know how to do wrong. In the actions of all men, and especially of princes, one must think of the ends.” “Experience has shown that the princes that have accomplished great deeds are those who have cared little for keeping their promises and have known how to manipulate the minds of men with shrewdness. It is necessary for a prince to know how to do wrong. In the actions of all men, and especially of princes, one must think of the ends.” ***Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince

15 “One becomes a prince through either the support of the common people or the rich, for in every state, these two opposing parties exist. The prudent man who becomes prince with the aid of the common people keeps their friendship which is easy, since they ask nothing except not to be oppressed.” “One becomes a prince through either the support of the common people or the rich, for in every state, these two opposing parties exist. The prudent man who becomes prince with the aid of the common people keeps their friendship which is easy, since they ask nothing except not to be oppressed.” ***Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince

16 “Is it better to be loved than feared or feared than loved? One should wish to be both, but it is much safer to be feared than loved. Men on the whole are ungrateful, fickle, false, cowardly, covetous. They will offer you their blood, property, life, and children when the need is distant, but when it approaches they turn against you....

17 ... and a prince who, relies entirely on their promises and neglects other precautions, is ruined. Men have fewer scruples in offending one who is beloved than one who is feared, for love is preserved by the link of obligation which is broken at every opportunity for their advantage, but fear preserves you by a dread of punishment which never fails.” – Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince

18 "The chief foundations of all states, new as well as old or composite, are good laws and good arms; and as there cannot be good laws where the state is not well armed, it follows that where they are well armed they have good laws.” -Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince

19 Status of the major National Areas, ca :

20 c. 2000

21 c. 1500

22 France, England, and Spain formed strong, national monarchies

23 France Victory in the Hundred Years’ War created a strong, centralized monarchy under Charles VIIVictory in the Hundred Years’ War created a strong, centralized monarchy under Charles VII Louis XI brought peace and controlled nobilityLouis XI brought peace and controlled nobility

24 England Tudor dynasty, beginning with Henry VII, united people after Wars of the RosesTudor dynasty, beginning with Henry VII, united people after Wars of the Roses Parliament was included in the Tudor systemParliament was included in the Tudor system

25 Spain Unified by marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of CastileUnified by marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile Reconquista completedReconquista completed Beginning world exploration and conquestBeginning world exploration and conquest

26 Germany and Italy remained fragmented until ca. 1870

27 The Italian States Warfare, competition among the city-states, and a strong Church leaves Italy divided into city-states

28 The German States Power struggle between feudal princes and the Emperor and religious division kept the states divided

29 Portugal Unified territory and monarchyUnified territory and monarchy Taking the lead in world explorationTaking the lead in world exploration

30 The Netherlands Divided into 17 feudal provinces under foreign rule Divided into modern Netherlands (1648) and Belgium (1830)Divided into modern Netherlands (1648) and Belgium (1830)

31 Russia Unifying under the Dukes of MoscowUnifying under the Dukes of Moscow Isolated from Europe by geography, religion, neighboring countriesIsolated from Europe by geography, religion, neighboring countries

32 The Ottoman Empire Strong and threatening Europe through the Balkans

33 Scandinavia: Sweden and Denmark Baltic trade of the Hansa losing value; trade shifting awayBaltic trade of the Hansa losing value; trade shifting away Climate change lowered agricultural outputClimate change lowered agricultural output

34 Poland Strong after union with LithuaniaStrong after union with Lithuania Weakening due to Nobility holding onto powerWeakening due to Nobility holding onto power Purposely elected weak kings and blocked laws through Liberum vetoPurposely elected weak kings and blocked laws through Liberum veto

35 THE END


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