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The Turbulent Sixties. Civil Rights: Nonviolent to Black Power MLK: “I have a dream…”

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Presentation on theme: "The Turbulent Sixties. Civil Rights: Nonviolent to Black Power MLK: “I have a dream…”"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Turbulent Sixties

2 Civil Rights: Nonviolent to Black Power MLK: “I have a dream…”

3 Malcolm X: “…by any means necessary.”

4 Civil Rights: Nonviolent to Black Power A.Peak of Nonviolent Success Organizations such as SCLC, CORE, and SNCC worked to gain equality within American society Freedom Summer (1964) registered voters Civil Rights Act of 1964 Voting Rights Act (1965) 24 th Amendment

5 Racist Reaction to Civil Rights Movement Freedom Rides Birmingham & Bull Connor

6 Civil Rights: Nonviolent to Black Power B. New Black Militancy Black Power emerges from teachings of Malcolm X SNCC, led by Stokely Carmichael, becomes radical proponents of Black Power

7 Civil Rights: Nonviolent to Black Power B. New Black Militancy “Long, Hot Summers” ( ) Harlem (143 injured) Cleveland (4 dead) Rochester Jersey City Philadelphia Watts (34 dead) Detroit (43 dead, 2000 injured) cities Newark (26 dead, 1500 injured) cities Washington DC (9 dead, 1000 injured)

8 Civil Rights: Nonviolent to Chicano Power C. La Causa Hispanics joined for 2 general reasons: improved working conditions and racial pride Chavez organized farm workers against California growers United Farm Workers (UFW) Brown Berets East LA Walkouts (March 1, 1968)

9 “!SÍ, se puede!”  Founded United Farm Workers (UFW) with Dolores Huerta  Followed Zapata, Nehru, Gandhi, King  1965 Delano Grape Strike  1966 Austin March  s Organized workers in Ohio, Wisconsin, and Texas  1980s Targeted pesticides

10 Nonviolent Civil Disobedience  Family lost farm during Great Depression  Served 2 years in Navy during WWII  Opposed Bracero program  In 1968: 25-day fast  In 1988: 36-day fast  8 states currently celebrate Cesar Chavez Day

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12 Civil Rights: Red Power D. Native American Protests Alcatraz Wounded Knee “Fish-ins” in Puget Sound American Indian Movement (AIM) established armed patrols and demanded self-government

13 1.Minneapolis patrols, Occupation of Alcatraz, 1968 (19 months) 3.Plymouth Rock protest, Mount Rushmore visit, Takeover at Wounded Knee, 1973 (exposed corruption of BIA) 6.The Longest Walk, 1978 (3,200 mile march) 7.Mascot protests of 1990s, 2000s

14 The Indian Renaissance Vine Deloria, Jr. ( ) Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto Red Power + Indian Renaissance + counterculture = new view of Native American culture

15 Civil Rights: Feminism E. NOW & New Feminism “Glass Ceiling” –51% of population vs. 7% doctors & 4% lawyers Left other movements and gained confidence in demanding gender equality

16 “The problem that has no name.” The Feminine Mystique "The problem lay buried, unspoken, for many years in the minds of American women. It was a strange stirring, a sense of dissatisfaction, a yearning [that is, a longing] that women suffered in the middle of the 20th century in the United States. Each suburban wife struggled with it alone. As she made the beds, shopped for groceries … she was afraid to ask even of herself the silent question — 'Is this all?"

17 Equal Rights Amendment  First proposed in 1923  Passed by Congress in 1973  Ratified by 35 of 38 needed states Ratified Ratified, then rescinded Not ratified, but 1 state house approved Not ratified They are still trying to get the other 3!!

18 F. Environmentalism Silent Spring by Rachel Carson Greenpeace Creation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1970 Endangered Species Act, 1973 Earth Day (April 22, 1970)

19 II. Lost Crusade in Vietnam A.Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Johnson used information to get Congress to nearly unanimously escalate ‘conflict’ (information misleading/faulty) : 3 times tonnage of bombs dropped on Vietnam as all of U.S. drops in WWII 500,000+ troops committed from April 1968 to summer 1969

20 II. Lost Crusade in Vietnam B. Opposition to War Although polls actually showed most college students favored LBJ’s policy, protests sprung up across college campuses (heavy opposition to ROTC recruitment & eventually the draft) My Lai Massacre Great Society is killed by Vietnam By 1968, most common poll answer to war is: “I want to get out, but I don’t want to give up.”

21 II. Lost Crusade in Vietnam C. Media Coverage (first televised war) Tet Offensive (Jan. 1968) “Hey, hey, LBJ, how many kids did you kill today?”

22 This televised protest by a Buddhist monk against U.S. aggression was televised and gave insight into the depths of anti-American sentiment in Vietnam. Viewers did not anticipate the horrific scene and turned many against continuing the police action.

23 II. Lost Crusade in Vietnam Role of Music in Protest Rock & Folk singers focused much of their music on Vietnam protest songs Bob Dylan, the Beatles, Janice Joplin, Credence Clearwater Revival, the Grateful Dead, the Doors are some of the singer/songwriters that galvanized the youth movement against the war

24 Fortune Son (CCR) Some folks are born made to wave the flag, ooh, they're red, white and blue. And when the band plays "Hail To The Chief", oh, they point the cannon at you, Lord, It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no senator's son, It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no fortunate one, no, Some folks are born silver spoon in hand, Lord, why don't they help themselves? oh. But when the taxman come to the door, Lord, the house look a like a rummage sale, yes, It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no millionaire's son, no, no. It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no fortunate one, no. (third verse) Yeh, some folks inherit star spangled eyes, ooh, they send you down to war, Lord, And when you ask them, how much should we give, oh, they only answer, more, more, more, yoh, It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no military son, SON, NO It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no fortunate one, NO NO It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no fortunate one, no no no, It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no fortunate son, son son son

25 RUN THROUGH THE JUNGLE (CCR) Whoa, thought it was a nightmare, Lo, it's all so true, They told me, "Don't go walkin' slow The Devil's on the loose." CHORUS: Better run through the jungle, Better run through the jungle, Better run through the jungle, Woa, Don't look back to see. Thought I heard a rumblin' Callin' to my name, Two hundred million guns are loaded Satan cries, "Take aim!" CHORUS Over on the mountain Thunder magic spoke, "Let the people know my wisdom, Fill the land with smoke." CHORUS

26 II. Lost Crusade in Vietnam D. Rise & Fall of Youth Movement 1950: 1 million students in higher education vs. 1970: 8 million 1970: 50% of U.S. population under 30 yrs. of age The New Left (Students for a Democratic Society) Port Huron Statement: anti-materialism, militarism, careerism, & racism Sit-ins (“Make Love Not War” & “Hell, no, we won’t go!”) led campaign on college campuses against ROTC & school administrations

27 II. Lost Crusade in Vietnam SDS (Tom Hayden) Staged hundreds of campus protests in 1968 Organized with other militant groups to protest at 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago

28 The Chicago Eight (Seven) The trial ran in 1970—and became a spectacle of left-wing protest. Jerry Rubin and Abbie Hoffman led with irreverent behavior throughout the trial and ultimately saw the conviction overturned in appeal. Most served 2 years in prison. Abbie HoffmanJerry Rubin David Dellinger Tom HaydenRennie Davis John Froines Lee WeinerBobby Seale

29 1968: Turning Point in History Tet Offensive begins (535,000 American servicemen in Vietnam) Assassinations of Martin Luther King, Jr. & Robert Kennedy Riot at Democratic National Convention =led Middle America to seek the “Law and Order” promised by Nixon

30 II. Lost Crusade in Vietnam D. Rise & Fall of Youth Movement Kent State Shootings (May 1970) Jackson State Shootings Ten days after Kent State Protests and Shootings

31 II. Lost Crusade in Vietnam E. “Law & Order” Response 75% of college students viewed themselves as ‘radical’ or ‘far left’ by 1970 Peaceful vs. militant protests split movement Hoover expanded FBI to hunt subversives Waning of Vietnam weakened movement Nixon elected as many Americans viewed student radicals as a problem in society =college campuses remain liberal center (curfews, dress codes, elective ROTC are remnants)

32 II. Lost Crusade in Vietnam F. Johnson’s Presidency 1. Great Society “War on Poverty” v. war in Vietnam 2. Civil Rights Agenda --continuing JFK, but with success Who is remembered as the Civil Rights president??

33 II. Lost Crusade in Vietnam F. Counterculture 1967 Summer of Love Social experiment of love & equality Social experiment of love & equality 100,000+ flood to Haight-Ashbury 100,000+ flood to Haight-Ashbury question everything question everything

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35 The Times They are A-Changin’ by Bob Dylan Come gather 'round people Wherever you roam And admit that the waters Around you have grown And accept it that soon You'll be drenched to the bone If your time to you Is worth savin' Then you better start swimmin' Or you'll sink like a stone For the times they are a-changin'. Come writers and critics Who prophesize with your pen And keep your eyes wide The chance won't come again And don't speak too soon For the wheel's still in spin And there's no tellin' who That it's namin' For the loser now Will be later to win For the times they are a-changin'. Come senators, congressmen Please heed the call Don't stand in the doorway Don't block up the hall For he that gets hurt Will be he who has stalled There's a battle outside And it is ragin' It'll soon shake your windows And rattle your walls For the times they are a-changin'. Come mothers and fathers Throughout the land And don't criticize What you can't understand Your sons and your daughters Are beyond your command Your old road is Rapidly agin' Please get out of the new one If you can't lend your hand For the times they are a-changin'. The line it is drawn The curse it is cast The slow one now Will later be fast As the present now Will later be past The order is Rapidly fadin' And the first one now Will later be last For the times they are a-changin'. Come gather 'round people Wherever you roam And admit that the waters Around you have grown And accept it that soon You'll be drenched to the bone If your time to you Is worth savin' Then you better start swimmin' Or you'll sink like a stone For the times they are a-changin'. Come writers and critics Who prophesize with your pen And keep your eyes wide The chance won't come again And don't speak too soon For the wheel's still in spin And there's no tellin' who That it's namin' For the loser now Will be later to win For the times they are a-changin'. The line it is drawn The curse it is cast The slow one now Will later be fast As the present now Will later be past The order is Rapidly fadin' And the first one now Will later be last For the times they are a-changin'. Come senators, congressmen Please heed the call Don't stand in the doorway Don't block up the hall For he that gets hurt Will be he who has stalled There's a battle outside And it is ragin' It'll soon shake your windows And rattle your walls For the times they are a- changin'. Come mothers and fathers Throughout the land And don't criticize What you can't understand Your sons and your daughters Are beyond your command Your old road is Rapidly agin' Please get out of the new one If you can't lend your hand For the times they are a-changin'.

36 Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters were leaders of the Acid Trip movement. Dr. Timothy Leary was the “godfather” of LSD

37 “Turn on, Tune in, Drop out!!” Like every great religion of the past we seek to find the divinity within and to express this revelation in a life of glorification and the worship of God. These ancient goals we define in the metaphor of the present — turn on, tune in, drop out— Timothy Leary, 1966

38 II. Lost Crusade in Vietnam F. Counterculture “Sex, Drugs, & Rock-n-Roll“Sex, Drugs, & Rock-n-Roll Woodstock was climax of Hippie GenerationWoodstock was climax of Hippie Generation Haight-Ashbury district of S.F.Haight-Ashbury district of S.F. NYC’s East VillageNYC’s East Village

39 II. Lost Crusade in Vietnam F. Counterculture Fades Manson MurdersManson Murders Guru of Haight- AshburyGuru of Haight- Ashbury “Helter Skelter” and impending race war“Helter Skelter” and impending race war John Lennon: “The dream is over. What can I say?” The Manson Family was created during the 1967 Summer of Love

40 Jonestown, 1978 Jim Jones was a religious leader during the counterculture movement Jim Jones was a religious leader during the counterculture movement “rainbow family” and racial integration “rainbow family” and racial integration challenged traditional Christianity and Bible challenged traditional Christianity and Bible Rep. Leo Ryan murdered Rep. Leo Ryan murdered 909 (303 children) “Drank the Kool-aid” 909 (303 children) “Drank the Kool-aid” (it was actually grape Flavor Aid) During the mid-1970s several of his friends sought to intervene on his behalf and help him return to the United States. Huey Newton and Harvey Milk openly embraced Jones as a friend and vouched for his character and intent.

41 Generational War? versus

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44 Lasting impact of Counterculture is seen in dress jeans jeans long hair long hair sexual revolution abortion abortion birth control birth control pornography pornography open homosexuality open homosexuality promiscuity promiscuity

45 You say you want a revolution Well, you know We all want to change the world You tell me that it’s evolution Well, you know We all want to change the world But when you talk about destruction Don’t you know that you can count me out Don’t you know it’s gonna be all right All right, all right You say you got a real solution Well, you know We’d all love to see the plan You ask me for a contribution Well, you know We’re doing what we can But when you want money For people with minds that hate All I can tell is brother you’ll have to wait Don’t you know it’s gonna be all right All right, all right You say you’ll change the Constitution Well, you know We all want to change your head You tell me it’s the institution Well, you know You better free your mind instead But if you go carrying pictures of chairman Mao You ain’t going to make it with anyone anyhow Don’t you know it’s gonna be all right All right, all right… REVOLUTION The Beatles, 1968


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