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“Don’t Forget the Women”. Republican Principles Not Meant for Women Property Voting Like Abigail Adams, Mercy Warren questioned… Mercy Otis Warren.

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Presentation on theme: "“Don’t Forget the Women”. Republican Principles Not Meant for Women Property Voting Like Abigail Adams, Mercy Warren questioned… Mercy Otis Warren."— Presentation transcript:

1 “Don’t Forget the Women”

2 Republican Principles Not Meant for Women Property Voting Like Abigail Adams, Mercy Warren questioned… Mercy Otis Warren

3 If peace and unanimity are cherished, and the equalization of liberty, and the equity and energy of law, maintained by harmony and justice, the present representative government may stand for ages a luminous monument of republican wisdom, virtue and integrity. The principles of the revolution ought ever to be the pole- star of the statesmen, respected by the rising generation; …The people may again be reminded that the elective franchise is in their own hands; that it ought not to be abused either for personal gratifications… This advantage should be improved, not only for the benefit of existing society, but with an eye to that fidelity which is due posterity. Mercy Otis Warren

4 Men were concerned women would alter politics Public interest “politics are too dirty” Informed enough to vote?

5 Economic Shifts lead to Cultural Shifts Pop increases Decline in property Changing settlement patterns Less land to hand down Family affected Less influence over marriage

6 Cultural Change Influences Marriage Romanticism in England -  Sentimentalism Marriage for love Companionate Marriage  Choice  Choice important as family declines in financial sustenance  Still might be male dominance in the house  Expanded acceptance of divorce (relatively)

7 18 th Century Family Note: Mothers & number of children

8 Change in Family Structure Fewer children  Because…fathers’ inability to provide adeq. Inheritance  Less necessary to have children to farm  Standard of living and health increases Class dictates structure  Nannies, house maids, cooks Religion reinforces Women’s role and value  Protestant ministers blame men for sexual misconduct  Women to teach children moral values

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10 Raising Children Republican  Northeast  Value and teach independence  Distinct from European traditions Rationalist  Episcopal and Presbyterian  Use advice and praise  Invoked Enlightenment ideals  Assume children are rational beings Authoritarian  Yeoman farmers (Baptist/Methodist)  Strict rules, harsh discipline

11 Variations in Education Just as in Parenting Unifying theme: Education increasingly important Men who did not want women in politics disagreed w/education for both genders Women and some men saw economic and social benefits of education Women more likely to teach for sake of knowledge  Women hired as teachers because they could be paid less

12 Education for Republican & Economic Reasons Republican: All citizens educated Economic: Reading, writing and math Economic: Discipline and respect for outside authority

13 Regional Variations New England: Independence values intellectual development  Locally funded elementary schools (reading & writing)  Few women went on to high school  1% of men to college o Rural Families (+artisans and laborers) o Demanded reading, writing & math o Believed college education to be elitist o By 1820s merchants demanded more uniform education standards & state legislatures acted

14 Est Middlebury College Andover Est UNC Est Abbot Academy est. 1828

15 Evidence of Utilitarian Education Fact: Not until the 1830s and 1840s do American authors achieve professional identity and international prestige Female authors become more numerous after 1840 though intellectual women often outcast


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