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Bahan Kajian MK. Dasar Ilmu Tanah

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Presentation on theme: "Bahan Kajian MK. Dasar Ilmu Tanah"— Presentation transcript:

1 Bahan Kajian MK. Dasar Ilmu Tanah
ORGANISME TANAH smno.jurtnh.fpub2013

2 Sumber: http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/i7MW5CTMzsxTX0Awb6oYdg
ORGANISME TANAH Sumber:

3 ORGANISME TANAH Diunduh dari sumber: …… 26/10/2012

4 Sumber: http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/i7MW5CTMzsxTX0Awb6oYdg
ORGANISME TANAH Sumber:

5 CACING TANAH In a hectare of healthy soil, earthworm numbers can equate to more than 3,000kg. The action of worms and their castings increases infiltration, water and nutrient retention, aeration, organic matter cycling, weed suppression and disease prevention. On average, worm castings contain 7 times more phosphorus, 10 times more potassium, 5 times more nitrogen, 3 times more magnesium and 1.5 times more calcium than surrounding soil. Castings also contain important hormones, enzymes, vitamins and antibiotics, all important for plant health and animal health. Diunduh dari Sumber: 26/10/2012

6 ORGANISME DALAM TANAH

7 BIOLOGI TANAH Typical number or length (in one handful of soil)
Biotic soil components Typical number or length (in one handful of soil) Typical biomass (pounds/acre) Plant roots Plant residues (both roots and shoots) are the ultimate source of almost all carbon (energy) for soil organisms There may be 1,000 times more soil microorganisms near plant roots than in soil further away from roots 60 – 150 inches (annual crops) 1,500 – 3,000 inches (perennial grasses) 3,000 (annual crops) 15,000 (perennial grasses) Diunduh dari Sumber: 26/10/2012

8 BIOLOGI TANAH Typical number or length (in one handful of soil)
Biotic soil components Typical number or length (in one handful of soil) Typical biomass (pounds/acre) Bacteria Along with fungi, are the most important group in organic matter decomposition Extracellular compounds help bind soil particles into aggregates Specialized groups are involved in each portion of the nitrogen cycle 300 million – 50 billion 400 – 4,000 Diunduh dari Sumber: 26/10/2012

9 BIOLOGI TANAH Biotic soil components
Biotic soil components Typical number or length (in one handful of soil) Typical biomass (pounds/acre) Fungi The most important group involved in decomposing resistant compounds such as lignin Hyphae grow extensively through soils, helping bind soil particles in aggregates Some specialized fungi grow symbiotically with plant roots, increasing nutrient and water uptake and decreasing disease incidence 500,000 – 100 million 500 – 5,000 Diunduh dari Sumber: 26/10/2012

10 BIOLOGI TANAH Actinomycetes
Biotic soil components Typical number or length (in one handful of soil) Typical biomass (pounds/acre) Actinomycetes Type of bacteria with growth form similar to fungi; functions similar to both Produce compounds that give soil its distinctive aroma 100 million – 2 billion 400 – 4,000 Diunduh dari Sumber: 26/10/2012

11 BIOLOGI TANAH Protozoa
Biotic soil components Typical number or length (in one handful of soil) Typical biomass (pounds/acre) Protozoa Help accelerate decomposition when they graze on bacteria, fungi and plant residues 100,000 – 50 million 5 – 100 Diunduh dari Sumber: 26/10/2012

12 BIOLOGI TANAH Biotic soil components
Biotic soil components Typical number or length (in one handful of soil) Typical biomass (pounds/acre) Arthropods Help accelerate decomposition when they (mites, collembolan and other insects) graze on bacteria, fungi and plant residues Collembola, shown in this photograph, are an important arthropod in plant residue decomposition 100 – 1,000 1 – 10 Diunduh dari Sumber: 26/10/2012

13 BIOLOGI TANAH Earthworms
Biotic soil components Typical number or length (in one handful of soil) Typical biomass (pounds/acre) Earthworms Burrowing activity mixes soils and creates macropores that increase water infiltration and flow and help aerate soil Soil passage through guts increases aggregation and nutrient cycling 0 – 2 10 – 40 Diunduh dari Sumber: 26/10/2012

14 Microorganisms Most important function is the breakdown of organic materials, a process by which the limited supply of CO2 available for photosynthesis is replenished (Alexander, 1977). Five major groups of microorganisms in the soil are: 1. Bacteria 2. Actinomycetes 3. Fungi 4. Algae 5. Protozoa Bacteri Tanah : 108 to 1010 / g tanah. Sumber:

15 Mikroorganisme Heterotroph: (chemoorganotrophic) require preformed organic nutrients to serve as sources of energy and carbon 1. Fungi 2. Protozoa 3. Most Bacteria Autotroph: (lithotrophic) obtain their energy from sunlight or by the oxidation of inorganic compounds and their carbon by the assimilation of CO2 Photoautotroph: energy derived from sunlight 1. Algae (blue-green, cyanobacteria) 2. Higher Plants 3. Some Bacteria Chemoautotroph: energy for growth obtained by the oxidation of inorganic materials. 1. Few Bacterial species (agronomic importance) a. nitrobacter, nitrosomonas and thiobacillus

16 Detritus (Plant Debris)
Peran Organisme Tanah CO2 energy O2 Detritus (Plant Debris) Earthworms Fungi Bacteria Soil Humus

17 Mikro-Organisme Tanah
Sumber:

18 Energy Yields CH2O 700 O2 CO2 H2O oxic CH2O NO3- CO2 N2 400 CH2O
*pH 7 Donor Acceptor Eh (mV)* Condition CH2O 700 O2 CO2 H2O oxic CH2O NO3- CO2 N2 400 CH2O Fe(OH)3 suboxic CO2 Fe2+ 100 CH2O SO42- anoxic CO2 H2S

19 Jaring-jaring Makanan dalam Tanah
Sumber:

20 Organisme tanah dan Tanaman
Tanah mengandung beragam organisme hidup yang berfungsi mendaur-ulang unsur hara dari tanah ke tanaman dan sebaliknya. Diunduh dari sumber: …… 26/10/2012

21 INTERAKSI Fungi-Tanaman
Mycorrhizae (root fungus) - extension of root system - fungus enhances nutrient and water intake - plants provide carbon source Nearly 90% of native plants have mycorrhizae association …. Diunduh 15/2/2012

22 Ekto-mycorhiza - association at exterior of root
- develop on evergreen trees and shrubs

23 Mycorrhiza Endomycorrhizae
- Associations occur in root interior between cells - Develop on deciduous trees, annual and herbaceous plants


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