3SyntaxSyntax is a part o linguistic study that determines how words or phrases “put together “ to form a sentence.Syntactic rules/grammar account for the “grammaticality”/correctness of sentences, and the ordering of words and morphemes.
4I trying to help him the best I can do. I wish I was the president of IndonesiaThey are play football in the school yard.This morning I see a horrible accident.The book read the man.John hopes to run/runningHe is taller than I/ He is taller than me
5Syntax Syntax involves our knowledge of structural ambiguity our knowledge that sentences may be paraphrases of each otherour knowledge of the grammatical function of each part of a sentence, that is, of the grammatical relations.
6SyntaxIt is also concerned with speakers' ability to produce and understand an infinite set of possible sentences.The sentence is regarded the highest-ranking unit of grammar, and therefore that the purpose of a grammatical description is to define, making use of whatever descriptive apparatus that may be necessary (rules, categories, etc).
7Grammatical Units and Scale SentenceClausePhrase/GroupGrammatical Units and ScaleWordMorpheme
88 kinds of parts of speechs: NounverbPronounAdverbAdjectivePrepositionConjuctionArticles/determiners
9Sentence StructureOne aspect of the syntactic structure of sentences is the division of a sentence into phrases, and those phrases into further phrases, and so forth. Another aspect of the syntactic structure of a sentence is "movement" relations that hold between one syntactic position in a sentence and another.
10Constituents “A unit forming part of a larger structure” Chalker and Weiner 1998Although the term string is often used technically to refer to sequences of words, sentences are not merely strings of words in a permissible order and making sense.They are structured into successive components, consisting of single words or groups of words. These groups and single words are called constituents (i.e. structural units), and when they are considered as part of the successive unraveling of a sentence, they are known as its immediate constituents.
11ConstituentsWhen we consider sentence My friend came home late last night, we find out that it consists of seven word arranged in a particular order.In syntax, the seven words in this model sentence are its ultimate constituents. This sentence and in general any sentence of the language may be represented as a particular arrangement of the ultimate constituents, which are the minimal grammatical elements, of which the sentence is composed.Every sentence has therefore what we will refer to as a linear structure. The small units are known as its immediate constituents.
12Immediate Constituent Analysis “One of the parts which a linguist unit is immediately divisible, by a process of immediate constituent analysis.” IC Chalker and WeinerFormal accounts of syntax are based on establishing the basic constituents, namely, categories, from which word strings are formed. Sentences are regarded as hierarchies of interlocking smaller units, or constituents. After a sentence is cut into its constituent elements, the two parts that are yielded are called immediate constituents. Then, we get the smallest grammatical unit obtained through the division, or segmentation, which is seen as the ultimate constituent.
13The segmentation of the sentence up into its immediate constituents by using binary cuttings until its ultimate constituents are obtained is an important approach to the realization of the nature of language, called Immediate Constituent Analysis (IC Analysis). The analysis can be carried out in ways of tree diagrams, bracketing or any other. For example:(1) Poor| John║ ran |out.
15constructionA construction is a relationship between constituents. Constructions are divided into two types: endocentric constructions and exocentric constructions.Endocentric construction is one whose distribution is functionally equivalent to that of one or more of its constituents. A word or a group of words acts as a definable center or head.Exocentric construction refers to a group of syntactically related words where none of the words is functionally equivalent to the group as a whole. There is no definable center or head inside the group.
16Endocentric Construction Some types of phrase contain a HEAD word and have the same formal function in their clause as the single head would:Too dreadfulRather more surprisinglyShe who must be obeyed
17Exocentric Construction Containing no element that is functionally equivalent to the whole structure (non-headed or unheaded)Some phrases are always exocentricThe boy stood on the burning deck.Who was the man in the iron mask?A basic English sentence (consisting of subject and predicate) is always exocentric, since neither part can stand for the whole:The boy / stood on the burning deck.
18Three universal basic syntactic rules: Linear order of constituentsCategorization of constituentsGrouping of constituents into constituent structures
19Sentence TypesSentences in any language are constructed from a rather small set of basic structural patterns and through certain processes involving the expansion or transformation of these basic patterns.When we consider sentence types from another perspective, it can be shown that each of the longer sentences of a language (and these are in the majority usually) is structured in the same way as one of a relatively small number of short sentences which are impossible to reduce to a short form.These short sentences have the basic sentence types. There are different ways of dealing with sentence types.
20“ The structure of every sentence is a lesson in logic”. Sentence Types“ The structure of every sentence is a lesson in logic”.John Stuart MillSimple SentenceCoordinate SentenceComplex Sentence
21Simple SentenceA simple sentence contains only one clause with a single verb group.Dora yelled.Christ resembled his father.Jack and Jill love each other.A runner from Ethiopia won the New York marathon this year.The students should have been working on the term paper.
22Coordinate Sentence (Compound Sentence) A coordinate sentence has two clauses conjoined into one by a coordinating conjunction. (and, but, or). They hold equal status.Christ resembled his father, but his brother resembled his mother.Mark loves Dora, and she feels it.
23Complex SentenceA complex sentence is composed of two clauses with one holding main status (matrix clause) and the other incorporated or embedded into it (embedded clause), which is often introduced by a subordinator (who, that, though, when, because, as, since, although)Mark denied that Dora yelled.The murderer escaped when the police arrived at the scene.
24Syntactic FunctionThe traditional approach to syntactic function identifies constituents of the sentence, states the part of speech each word belongs to, describes the inflexion involved, and explains the relationship each word related to the others.According to its relation to other constituents, a constituent may serve certain syntactic function in a clause.
26Constituency and Hierarchy A constituency refers to the whole body of a sentence which is made up of lexical items (constituents) that are hierarchically ordered with respect to each other
27Constituency and Hierarchy diagram A B C D EThis diagram formally reads asB and C are constituents of AD and E are constituents of C.D and E are not constituents of B as they are not linked to B.
28Tree Diagrams Who climbs the Grammar-Tree distinctly knows Where Noun and Verb and Participle grows.John DrydenIn describing the constituent of a structure, a tree diagram is employed as a tool to link members of a structure.
29I think that I shall never see A poem lovely as a tree Joyce Kilmer
30Phrase Structure RuleA rule which states that a phrase of a specific category. E.g. a rule = NP+VP,S must consist of a NP followed by VPPhrase Marker: “a string of elements”Phrase structure tree: a tree diagram which shows the division of a form into successively smaller constituents and labels each as belonging to one or more categoriesAlso labelled bracketing boys play well
31Tree Diagrams and Phrase-Markers Phrase-markers can be related to each other by dominance and precedence.Dominance1. VP node dominates all the other nodes.2. VP node immediately dominates the nodes labeled V and PP.
32Tree Diagrams and Phrase-Markers Precedence1. V node precedes the nodes labeled PP, P, NP, det, and N as well as in, the and house.2. V node immediately precedes the PP, P and in.
33Grammatical Categories: Number and Gender Number is a grammatical category for the analysis of such contrasts as singular and plural of certain word classes. In English, number is a feature of nouns and verbs.Gender demonstrates such contrasts as "masculine, feminine, and neuter", and "animate: inanimate", etc. for the analysis of certain word classes. In most languages, grammatical gender has little to do with the biological sex. For instance, in French, the moon, which has nothing to do with the biological sex, is grammatically feminine.
34CaseInflectional category, basically of nouns, which typically marks their role in relation to other parts of the sentence.The case category is often used in the analysis of word classes to identify the syntactic relationship between words in a sentence.
35Tense and AspectInflectional category whose basic role is to indicate the time of an event etc. in relation to the moment of speakingDivided notionally: present, past, futureInflectional distinction: past , present loved, loveVerbal categories that distinguish the status of events, etc. in relation to specific period of time, as opposed to their simple location in the present, past, or future I am reading your paperI have read your pap
36Chomskyan SyntaxSyntax is seen to be a fundamental principle for encoding and decoding meaning and is the part of grammar shared by speakers and listeners in communication. In 1957, the American linguist Chomsky proposed the transformational- generative grammar (TG), thus providing a model for the description of human languages. The goal of TG is to find out a system of rules to account for the linguistic competence of native speakers of a language to form grammatical sentences.
37Chomskyan SyntaxIt is called "transformational-generative" grammar because it attempts to do two things:to provide the rules that can be used to generate grammatical sentenceshow basic sentences can be transformed into either synonymous phrases or more complex sentences.
38Deep Structure and Surface Structure Abstract ‘syntactic representation’ posited to explain the way in which actual sentences are interpretedVisiting aunts can be boringJohn is eager to pleaseJohn is easy to pleaseFlying planes can be dangerous
39Surface structure is the actually produced structure. directly observable actual form of sentences as they are used in communication
40The relationship between deep structure and surface structure is that of transformation. Since the relationship is usually a complicated one, we can best use transformational rules in the total process of relating deep structure to surface structures.