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Motivation: Why we do things and why we don’t? Dr. David De Cremer.

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Presentation on theme: "Motivation: Why we do things and why we don’t? Dr. David De Cremer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Motivation: Why we do things and why we don’t? Dr. David De Cremer

2 Definition Performance Importance to Self The process of arousing, directing and maintaining behavior toward a goal Arousal: drive/energy behind actions Direction: choice of behavior Maintenance: people’s persistence

3 Overview Types of motivation: Intrinsic-extrinsic Importance of human needs Expectancy theory Fairness: Equity/Procedural fairness Goal-setting theory Leadership: Charisma

4 Intrinsic-extrinsic motivation Why do we engage in activities? Intrinsic = enjoyment of engaging in the activity itself (an end in itself) Extrinsic = focus on rewards (means to an end) Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000): autonomy, competence and relatedness To express oneself by means of need fulfillment (= self-determination)

5 Intrinsic-extrinsic (continued) Psychological needs: specific innate psychological nutriments that are essential for ongoing psychological growth, integrity and well-being. Adaptation to environment (performance) Fulfillment of these needs will enhance intrinsic motivation

6 Autonomy Freedom of choice, action is self-determined Most important one (Deci & Ryan) Study on REWARDS (threats with noice, surveillance, autonomous supported teachers) Rewards undermine intrinsic motivation However, less so if rewards are non-task contingent Overjustification effect

7 Competence The drive of being effective Positive feedback enhances intrinsic motivation and negative feedback undermines it (if individuals feel responsible for the outcome) Autonomy and competence work together to explain many results

8 Relatedness (need to belong) Intrinsic motivation more likely in contexts of secure relatedness (groups to survive) Experiment (De Cremer, UM, 2001) Performance context: social dilemma Conflict personal and group’s interest (contribute or not) I.V.: Respect and standing within the group Matter of inclusiveness


10 Intrinsic-extrinsic motivation Cognitive effect: “If you do A then you can do B” (preference activity) How to enhance intrinsic motivation? Role model as source of intrinsic motivation (e.g. piano teacher) Challenge, curiosity, feelings of control Fulfillment of needs

11 Expectancy Theory The role of expectations concerning success (e.g. good grades) When do you put a lot of efforts in? Expectancy theory asserts that people are motivated to exert effort if the belief exists that this will help to achieve desirable outcomes. People as rational being: Expectancy: outcome is attainable by effort (training required) Value: the meaning of the reward/outcome (e.g. money, vacation, cafetaria benefits)

12 Expectancy theory (continued) Group level: social loafing/free-riding Reason for low/high productivity Individuals expected to put effort in: If they value the behavior or the outcome (effect GROUP IDENTIFICATION) If a contingency between behavior and outcome is perceived (effect SELF-EFFICACY) Two experimental studies (De Cremer, 1999, 2001)

13 Experimental studies Experiment 1: Effect group identification Consequence: self-interest and group’s interest are interchangeable (self- categorization processes) Goal-transformation hypothesis Test: particularly for those with a pro-self orientation or goal (social value orientations; De Cremer & van Lange, 2001) Support for the value-assumption


15 Experimental studies Experiment 2: effect self-efficacy and group identification Support for the expectancy- assumption Value and expectancy are two independent components and need both to be fulfilled to reveal optimal performance


17 Fairness: Equity Review: fairness concerns are pervasive Equity concerns: people compare themselves to others by focusing on outcomes (pay, prestige) and inputs (time worked, effort) I other /O own vs. I other / O other 3 different states: overpayment, underpayment equitable payment Emotional consequences: injustice=negative emotional stateSpecific behaviors

18 Fairness (continued) How to restore inequity (actions)? People turn inequitable outcomes into equitable (stealing, less effort etc.) E.g.: basketball, temporary pay cut Cognitive: altering thinking about own and other’s outcomes Procedural fairness: procedures used to determine outcomes Promotes OCB, commitment and performance Self-interest and Relational interest (Lind)

19 Goal-setting theory Focus on why individuals with similar qualities may perform differently? Depends on PERFORMANCE GOALS 1. Assign specific goals (self-efficacy) 2. Use difficult, but attainable goals 3. Provide feedback Goal-setting facilitates self-regulation (provides a path toward the desired outcome)

20 Leadership: charisma Is about exerting influence! Top 10 sayings of ineffective leaders 10. We don’t do it that way around here 9. I don’t care what they told you in that training class, this is the real world (self-efficacy) 8. Drop what you are doing and get this to me as soon as possible 7. Don’t worry about WHY, just do it! 6. Don’t let me influence your decisions, but here’s my opinion 5. I want you to take risks, but remember our motto: DO it right the first time 4. You’re planning to work this weekend aren’t you? 3. You oughta, wanta do this. 2. We need teamwork. By the way, I’ll be doing your individual rankings this weekend. 1. If and when I want your opinion, I’ll give it to you. Autonomy, fairness, competence, self-efficacy are challenged

21 Leadership (continued) Transformational leadership: motivate people to go beyond their self-interest Charisma: to appeal to group members’ motives, aspirations and preferences, articulation of a compelling vision. Provide a PATH (goal-setting)!! “You can only lead others where you yourself are willing to go” (Lachlan Mclean) Instill commitment and vision among employees

22 Leadership (continued) Experiment (De Cremer, in press, UM) Self-sacrifice vs. benefiting Pro-selfs vs. pro-socials Transformation of motives Modeling behavior, path, trust, fairness (leadership skills)


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