Presentation on theme: "Don’t Bet On It – Preventing Teen Gambling"— Presentation transcript:
1Don’t Bet On It – Preventing Teen Gambling Cele Fichter DeSando, MPMAddiction Medicine Services, WPIC, UPMC
2Today’s Training Teen Gambling: A Growing Epidemic
3Today’s TrainingExplore adolescent problem gambling progression and risk and protective factorsDefine problem and pathological gambling including DSM-V stages and criteria.Identify the prevalence and relationship of problem gambling to alcohol, tobacco and other substance use as well as psychiatric disorders.Provide a survey review of research-based screening/interview tools and resources for treatment.Provide research-based prevention and intervention school and student assistance program strategies to prevent and delay adolescent problem gambling.
4What is Gambling?Gambling is an activity in which something of value is risked on the outcome of an event when the probability of winning and losing is less than certain. (Korn and Shaffer 1999).
5What is Pathological (Disordered) Gambling? Disordered gambling is classified as persistentand recurrent maladaptive gambling behavior thatdisrupts personal, family, or vocational pursuits and is not better accounted for by a manic episode.Source: American Psychiatric Association (APA),Diagnostic and Statistical Manual,Revision IV – Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), (APA, 2000).Previously categorized as an impulse control disorder but recently moved to addiction-related disorders in DSM-V
6Similarities to Addictions In DSM-V – Gambling is listed as addiction related disorder instead of old classification of impulse control disorder. The rationale for this change is that the growing body of scientific literature, especially on the brain’s reward center, has revealed commonalities between pathological gambling and substance-use disorders.Loss of controlPreoccupation, urges, pathological “wanting”, cravings, associated “highs”Negative impact on major areas of lifeMajor impacts on mood. Judgment and insightTolerance/ WithdrawalHereditary natureSimilar treatment success-12 step and cognitive behavioral therapy
7Gambling as Pervasive Recreation Increasing Opportunities Gambling in many different forms has long been a part of the history of the world48 states have some form of legalized recreational gambling in the form of Bingo, Lottery, Race Track, Slots, Poker, Table Games, Sports Betting*New Frontier -Online Gambling is widespread, yet unregulated, technically restricted and under contention in the US – Regulations change rapidly – Nevada and New Jersey recently passed legislation to allow online, while in-state, is PA next?*Exception of Utah and Hawaii
8Who Gambles?85% of U.S. adults have gambled at least once in their lifetimes (60% -80% in any given year )3-5% have a gambling disorder.(The National Council on Problem Gambling, 2010).The majority of the population can gamble without negative consequences
9Betting on a Sure Thing Who has a Problem? 1% + are estimated to be pathological gamblers (PG)2-3% are considered problem or subclinical gamblersDisordered Gambling is a term used to describe the full range of gambling problems.
10Upping the Ante: Teens and Gambling 2.8-8% of Adolescents and college students exhibit problem and pathological gambling (NORC,1999)Student athletes particularly vulnerableAffects all races – differences are found in the types of games played, belief about money, finances and self worth,Disproportionate number of smokers, substances abusers, mentally ill and poor are problem gamblers
12Vulnerable Populations Adolescents5-6% meet criteria8-8% at risk for developingElderlyHarder to recoup financial lossesMilitary – All branches run oversees slots for recreation and to make money for social eventsCasino WorkersChicken or the egg?Incarcerated#1 pastime is gamblingSubstance Use Disorders6-10x risk for PGLower SESProblems develop sooner
13How much do adolescents gamble? 60-90% have gambledSimilar, internationallyStrong pop culture influencesNo monitoring systemSocietal, parental acceptance
14Reasons for gamblingWin moneySocial activityExcitementCompetitionFantasyFamily members
15Characteristics of Low Risk Gambling Low risk gamblers know that over time nearly everyone loses. The benefit is in the social and entertainment activity not an expectation of financial gain.Low risk gambling has limits on frequency and duration.Low risk gambling has predetermined, acceptable limits for losses as in the acceptable and affordable cost of an entertainment activity.Does PA have a gambling problem?
16Gambling Ambivalence Love the Money – Hate the Problems
18Gambling and Spending How much is too much? 2002 U.S. legal gaming revenue was $68.7 billion.In 1999 the National Gambling Impact Study Commission estimated the annual cost to society of problem gambling was $5 billion.It is estimated that in 1997 Americans collectively wagered more than $1/2 trillion (National Research Council, 1999)Consumers spend more on legal gaming in the U.S. than most other forms of entertainment combined (1998 Gross Annual Wager Report, 1999)Sports betting -38 billion legally wagered-380 billion illegal
19“Gambling Nation” $600 billion wagered annually Revenue Comparisons (2005)Gambling (Legal) $83 Billion per yearDVDs: $22 Billion per yearCigarettes: $19 Billion per yearNIH Annual Budget: $30 Billion per year(American Gaming Association, CDC, Hollywood Reporter)
20Pennsylvania Monthly Casino Gambling – Table games April 2014 TablesApril 2014 Gross RevenueApril 2013 TablesApril 2013 Gross RevenueSands Casino Resort Bethlehem200$15,028,894183$13,932,560Parx Casino164$10,061,363$10,153,193SugarHouse Casino62$7,901,26158$7,316,611Rivers Casino113$6,252,232114$4,992,447Harrah's Philadelphia Casino and Racetrack126$6,154,439121$6,665,016Mount Airy Casino Resort80$4,033,10172$3,135,321Mohegan Sun at Pocono Downs87$3,684,36884$3,513,736Valley Forge Casino Resort50$3,209,574$2,790,101Hollywood Casino at Penn National Race Course73$2,451,96169$3,423,756The Meadows Racetrack and Casino77$1,914,964$4,381,161Presque Isle Downs and Casino46$1,130,264$1,248,432Lady Luck Casino Nemacolin (opened 7/1/13)28$362,370N/AStatewide Total1,106$62,184,7901,041$61,552,334
21Pennsylvania Casino Gambling Slot Machines April 2014April 2013% ChangeParx Casino$30,454,522.24$31,608,967.66-3.65%Sands Casino Resort Bethlehem$23,702,187.99$24,465,867.34-3.12%Rivers Casino$23,152,882.76$24,444,239.86-5.28%Harrah's Philadelphia Casino and Racetrack$18,668,264.14$20,618,424.07-9.46%Mohegan Sun at Pocono Downs$18,580,699.98$18,600,479.48-0.11%The Meadows Racetrack and Casino$18,533,750.02$20,110,853.72-7.84%Hollywood Casino at Penn National Race Course$18,297,057.66$20,372,504.80-10.19%Sugarhouse Casino$15,042,414.67$15,467,112.79-2.75%Mount Airy Casino Resort$12,120,975.73$12,262,468.51-1.15%Presque Isle Downs and Casino$10,629,226.63$11,809,262.50-9.99%Valley Forge Casino Resort$6,475,249.53$5,395,225.1620.02%Lady Luck Casino Nemacolin (opened 7/1/13)$2,103,745.41N/AStatewide Total$197,760,976.76$205,155,405.89-3.60%
23Of the 23 states with casinos Name the top three states for gambling revenue Nevada billionPennsylvania billionNew Jersey billion
24Gambling Ambivalence and Distortion It’s all about the Marketing Your chances of being murdered 1 in 18,000Your chances of winning Mega Millions Lottery1 in 135,145,920
25What are the odds you’ll become a problem gambler? Pathological gambling is hypothesized to be caused by a complex interplay involving neurobiological, genetic, psychological and social risk factors. (Shaffer et al. 2004c)There is evidence of associations between pathological gambling and a variety of neurotransmitters (e.g. noradrenaline, serotonin, glutamate, dopamine and endorphins); (Potenza 2008).
28Dopamine and NicotineDopamine is a brain chemical involved in many different functionsincluding movement, motivation, reward and addiction. Altering dopamine levels alters the normal communication between neurons
30Neurobiology of PG (Neuroanatomy) Potenza’s Imaging Studies (PG vs Normals)Decreased activity in:Left ventromedial PFC (Decision-making)Orbitofrontal cortex (processing of rewards, dealing with uncertainty, inhibiting responses)Anterior Cingulate (Decision-making)Ventral striatum (NA, Limbic system)
31Are brains of problem gamblers different? Pathological Gamblers exhibit lower activity in prefrontal cortex compared to Non-PGsIn performing neuro-cognitive tests, PGs showed similar dysfunctions in prefrontal cortex as Methamphetamine addictsSo a lot of what we’ve talked about helps explain to me the reason why many addicts describe this overwhelming urge and craving to engage in the activity. But what it doesn’t explain to me, is why they continue to give in to these cravings and urges, despite so many adverse consequences? MY STEP DAD. Current research is shedding light on this.We are learning that addicts in addition having a differently wired reward circuitry, also has less activities in a region of the brain known as the pre-frontal cortex (darker the color = less activation). POP QUIZ: what is the pre-frontal cortex responsible for? – Decision-making, judgment, executive functioning, etc.PGs have shown pre-frontal cortex impairments similar to those of meth addicts. So what this means is that not only do addicts have powerful urges to do these things, they also don’t have the brakes to slow them down. In a healthy individual, after losing say a few hundred dollars, might say Hmmm…what are the consequences if I lose more money? In my step father, that part of the brain was hijacked. But we must remember, this doesn’t remove the PG of personal responsibility. Let me ask you a question, since the pre-frontal cortex is impaired, do you think PGs are unable to tell right from wrong? RESEARCH ON OUTCOME EXPECTANCIES: 1) PG youth more like to continue to expect positive outcomes despite negative consequences. 2) PG youth may endorse more immediate positive outcomes (fun, excitement, money, social, feel in control) than more delayed costs like emotional impact (guilt), preoccupation, loss of control, etc. / positive outcomes may outweigh potential negativeWe shouldn’t confuse this with an inability to know right from wrong. Research actually shows that what differentiate PGs from say social or at-risk gamblers is that they are more likely to anticipate both positive and negative expectations of gambling. Meaning, not only were they more likely to anticipate that they are going to have fun, they’ll socialized, and win money, they are also more likely to anticipate negative consequences – like getting preoccupied, or the emotional impacts like feeling guilty. The theory is that while PGs recognize that there are negative consequences, the key here is the temporal relationship. The more “immediate” positive outcomes tend to exert a greater influence, whereas the long term impacts are delayed costs.What are some behavorial characteristics of people who have dysfunctions in the pre-frontal cortex?moodiness, negativity, irritability, low energy, headaches, sleep and appetite problems and poor concentration- loss of self-directed/willed behavior in favor of automatic sensory-driven behavior (loss of inhibitory controls)Potenza et al., 200331
32This Is Your Brain on Gambling fMRI of subject anticipating a monetary win in simulated gamefMRI of subject anticipating a small amount of cocaineBreiter et al. 2001Participants (12, male) participated in a simulated gambling game (Roulette). They were given $50 endowment and they were told they could retain, lose, or gain money as they go along. It was found that during the “Prospect” phase when participants are anticipating to win money – the NAc is activated, in the same way that those anticipating to receive a small amount of cocaine is activated. If you recall, NAc is part of the dopaminergic pathway in our brain that processes rewards. What this means is that winning money in our culture is SO powerful and so rewarding that in some instances it can be as powerful as drugs like Cocaine, Meth, etc.Breiter et al., 200132
33Differences from Addictions No toxicology test to diagnosis it; easier to hideBehaviors are not due to drug effects (thus, makes it more open to shame/guilt)Directly associated with financial gains and losses – accolades and blame for same behaviorGreater uncertainty of outcome (i.e. anything can happen)Ego related symptoms- gambling can boost ego or cause discord with self imageMore Socially acceptable
34Similarities / Difference Immediate gratificationAddictive: preoccupation, inability to stop, tolerance & withdrawal, progressiveCravings & urgesDenial is commonAccompanying depression / anxietyBlackouts / brownoutsDisassociationMechanism for escapeDysfunctions in the family often presentGambling more hiddenImpossible to overdose on gamblingNo ingestion of chemicalsLabile financial situationMore unpredictable outcomeGenerally not perceived as a diseaseFewer resources for gamblersFaster progression34
35DSM-V Workgroup on Gambling Disorder Gambling Disorder can be episodic or chronic, and the course of the disorder can vary by type of gambling as well as life circumstances (Hodgins and el Guebaly, 2004; Slutske, 2006). For example, an individual who wagers problematically only on football games may have Gambling Disorder during football season and not wager at all, or not wager problematically, throughout the remainder of the year. Gambling Disorder may also occur at one or more points in an individual’s life but be absent during other periods. Alternately, some individuals experience chronic Gambling Disorder throughout all or most of their lives.
36DSM-V CriteriaA. Persistent and recurrent problematic gambling behavior as indicated by four (or more) of the following in a 12-month period: 1.needs to gamble with increasing amounts of money in order to achieve the desired excitement 2. is restless or irritable when attempting to cut down or stop gambling 3. has repeated unsuccessful efforts to control, cut back, or stop gambling 4. is often preoccupied with gambling (e.g., persistent thoughts of reliving past gambling experiences, handicapping or planning the next venture, or thinking of ways to get money with which to gamble)
37DSM-V Criteria5. gambles often when feeling distressed (e.g., helpless, guilty, anxious, depressed) 6. after losing money gambling, often returns another day to get even (“chasing” one’s losses) 7. lies to conceal the extent of involvement with gambling8. has jeopardized or lost a significant relationship, job, or educational or career opportunity because of gambling 9. relies on others to provide money to relieve desperate financial situations caused by gamblingB. The gambling behavior is not better accounted for by a Manic Episode.
38What are problem gamblers looking for? With all of the negative consequences why continue to gamble?Action – Looking for excitement “rush”Escape – Looking for relief from painful emotions or stress Lesieur and Rosenthal (1991).
39Many adolescents think they can become professional
40Action Gamblers Gambles for excitement , competition More likely to engage in “skilled” forms of gaming. (sports betting, poker, etc).More likely to have early onset of gamblingLonger progression from regular to out of control (addicted) gamblingMore likely to be maleMore likely to present narcissistic or antisocial traits
43Escape GamblersGambles for relief, escape from stress or negative affectMore likely to engage in passive, luck forms of gambling (Lottery, slots, bingo)Shorter progression from regular gambling to out of control behaviorMore likely to be femaleMore likely to be have experienced chronic depresssion
45Problem Gambling Progression: When it stops being fun Winning Phase- gamblers experience a big win or series of wins resulting in unreasonable optimism or belief in their ability to win.Losing Phase-gamblers begin bragging and thinking about past wins, secretly gambling and begin to chase their losses.Desperation Phase- gambling increases in time, frequency and amount. Remorse, alienation and problems increase.Hopeless Phase – Gambler no longer believes there is help or hope. Lesieur and Custer (1984).
46Upping the ante: What’s the Problem with Problem Gambling? Several studies have documented the relationship between problem gambling and specific health issues.Mental Health – Gamblers are at increased risk for major depression, anti-social personality disorder, phobias and other mental conditions. Problem gamblers were also identified as being at increased risk for alcohol, nicotine, and other drug abuse. Potenza, (2008).
47Double or NothingIndividuals with mental and/or substance use disorders are 17 times more likely to develop pathological gamblingPathological Gamblers are 5.5 more likely to have to have had a substance use disorder (Kessler et al. 2008)75% of pathological gamblers have had an alcohol disorder; 38% have had a drug use disorder; 60% have had nicotine dependency (Petry et al. 2005).Recreational Gamblers smoke at same rate as general population, 60-80% of pathological gamblers smoke.
48The Hidden Vigorish Genetic and Familial Factors Research consistently shows higher rates of pathological gambling in teens whose parents gamble too much (Gupta & Derevensky, 1997; Jacobs, 2000; Wallisch & Liu, 1996)Children of problem gamblers have been shown to have higher levels of use for tobacco, alcohol, drug use, and overeating than do their classroom peers (Gupta & Derevensky, 1997)
49The Hidden Vigorish Co-occurring disorders In treatment-seeking pathological gamblers, 32-76% of patients evidenced other mental health problems, with anxiety, depression, and suicide being most common.Problem gamblers are 4 times more likely to have major depression than non-problem gamblersSuicide attempt rates are 17% -24% for problem gamblers (US DHHS,SAMSHA, 2005)
50The Hidden VigorishGambling problems may be major impediments to recovery and contributors to relapse in mental health and substance abuse disorders.
51Beating the System- Hedge Your Bets Mental Health, Substance Abuse and Primary Care Professionals and school professionals can help identify, intervene, and refer/treat problem gamblers.Treatment and intervention can be incorporated into existing substance abuse and mental health programs.
52What are the Odds? Risk Factors Marotta and Hynes (2003) Early onset of gambling experiences/early winBiochemical factors associated with increased physiological resting state, increased sensation seeking, increased arousal during gambling.DepressionPoor Coping SkillsSubstance Use/Abuse
53Risk Factors for Gambling Problems Accessibility/Awareness*Lack of community awareness of dangersSocial AcceptanceFamily History of Addiction and/or illegal activityCompetitive Home EnvironmentFamily History of gambling activity and attitudes.Poor Impulse Control*There is much discussion as to the extent of accessibility leading to risk and there are theories related to exposure and adaptation (Shaffer and Martin) 2010.
55Risk Factors for Adolescents Despite not being of legal age to gamble on regulated forms of gambling, adolescents are at risk for developing gambling problems (Derevensky & Gupta, 2004; Dickson, Derevensky & Gupta, 2004; Jacobs, 2004; National Research Council, 1999; Shaffer & Hall, 1996; Shaffer, Hall & Vander Bilt, 1999).Early research suggests adolescents perceive their parents to generally approve of their gambling, are not concerned about getting caught gambling, and report that gambling with family members is a fairly common occurrence (Gupta & Derevensky, 1997; Ladouceur & Mireault, 1988; Moore & Ohtsuka, 1997).55
56Our current state of knowledge concerning youth gambling problems…. Gambling is more popular amongst males than females (Derevensky, Gupta & Della Cioppa, 1996; Fisher, 1990; Govoni, Rupcich, & Frisch, 1996; Griffiths, 1989; Gupta & Derevensky, 1998a; Jacobs, 2000; Ladouceur et al., 1994; NORC, 1999; NRC, 1999; Stinchfield, Cassuto, Winters, & Latimer, 1997; Volberg, 1994, 1996, 1998; Wynne et al., 1996)Probable pathological gamblers are greater risk-takers (Arnett; 1994; Breen & Zuckerman, 1996; Derevensky & Gupta, 1996; Nower, Derevensky & Gupta, 2000; Powell, Hardoon, Derevensky, & Gupta 1999; Zuckerman, 1979, 1994; Zuckerman, Eysenck, & Eysenck, 1978)Adolescent prevalence rates of problem gamblers are 2-4 times that of adults (Gupta & Derevensky, 1998a; Jacobs, 2000; Shaffer & Hall, 1996)
58Adolescent pathological gamblers have lower self esteem compared with other adolescents (Gupta & Derevensky, 1998b)Adolescent problem gamblers have higher rates of depression (Gupta & Derevensky, 1998a,1998b; Marget, Gupta & Derevensky, 1999; Nower, Derevensky & Gupta, 2000)Adolescent problem gamblers dissociate more frequently when gambling (Gupta & Derevensky, 1998b; Jacobs, Marsten & Singer, 1985)Adolescents with gambling problems, ages 14-17, are at heightened risk for suicide ideation and suicide attempts (Gupta & Derevensky, 1998a)
59While adolescents with gambling problems report having a support group, old friends are often replaced by gambling associates (Derevensky, 1999; Gupta, 1999; Gupta & Derevensky, 2000)Adolescent problem gamblers remain at increased risk for the development of an addiction or polyaddictions (Gupta & Derevensky,1998a,1998b; Kusyszyn, 1972; Lesieur & Klein, 1987; Nower, Derevensky & Gupta, 2000; Winters & Anderson, 2000)Adolescent problem gamblers score higher on excitability, extroversion, and anxiety & lower on conformity and self-discipline (Gupta & Derevensky, 1997b,1998a; Vitaro, Ferland, Jacques & Ladouceur, 1998)
61Pathological gamblers and youth in general report early gambling in the home and with family members (Derevensky & Gupta, 1997; Gupta & Derevensky, 1997a, 1997b)Problem and pathological gambling has been shown to result in increased delinquency and crime, disruption of familial relationships and decreased academic performance (Gupta & Derevensky, 1998a; Ladouceur & Mireault, 1988; Lesieur & Klein, 1987; Wynne et al., 1996)
62Pathological gamblers report greater major and minor life stressors (Gupta & Derevensky, 2002; Kaufman, Gupta & Derevensky, 2002)Problem and pathological gambling has been shown to have greater levels of trait and state anxiety (Ste-Marie, Gupta & Derevensky, 2002)
63Using schools as a basis for prevention through promotion of social/personal competence (Haggerty, Sherrod, Garmezy, & Rutter, 1994)at-risk vs. general populationtarget appropriate age groups with developmentally appropriate interventionsfocus not merely on gambling but on social skills, coping abilities, & problem solving skills
64Profile of the Adolescent Problem Gambler (Derevensky, 2010) Predominantly MaleSignificant anxietyFamilial problemsPoor peer relationshipsPreoccupation with gambling – repeated attempts to stopDifferent forms of gambling sports betting, online, cards, diceSerious financial difficultiesFailure in school/workLying to family friends
65Profile cont.Friends usually have similar gambling problemsStealing from family, friends, stores etcDepression or feeling dead insideGambling to escape and feel betterGeneral lack of coping abilitiesConfused and conflicted about whether to stop or cut downNeed for arousal or strong sensations (possible ADHD)
66What gambling activities do teens do? Card Playing for moneyBetting on activities for moneySports betting, sports poolsOnline gambling – Internet for $ and Internet no $Lottery/Scratch off tickets
73Social mediaWhat is BuddyBet?BuddyBet is a social betting site -- one that lets you match wits with living, breathing, communicating people rather than geeky gambling experts and their supercomputers. In short, people bet against each other on BuddyBet rather than against the website itself. You set your own odds and choose your own Betting for BuddyBucksIf you'd rather not bet for cash or for actions/forfeits, you can bet for fun (and pride) using BuddyBucks, BuddyBet's virtual currency.
81Don’t Bet on ItSubstance Abuse Counselors and Student Assistance Professionals are very well poised to offer identification and help with gambling problems based on understanding of addictions and the link between the disorders.However:Substance Abuse and Mental Health counselors cannot assume knowledge of gambling and must learn the similarities/ differences, language and specifics of gambling , specific screening and treatment tools and resources for help.
82Using schools as a basis for prevention through promotion of social/personal competence (Haggerty, Sherrod, Garmezy, & Rutter, 1994)at-risk vs. general populationtarget appropriate age groups with developmentally appropriate interventionsfocus not merely on gambling but on social skills, coping abilities, & problem solving skills
83Gambling Prevention Prevention through risk-reduction individualfamilypeer and social contextscommunity contextRisk-reduction by enhancing protective factorsattributes of the individualfamily supportenvironmental supportUsing schools as a basis for prevention through promotion of social/personal competence (Haggerty, Sherrod, Garmezy, & Rutter, 1994
84Responsible prevention efforts include... Incorporating knowledge acquired from scientific researchTaking a wide-angled approach (multi-faceted)Adjusting the material to the developmental level of the recipientTesting for program effectiveness PRIOR to widespread implementationConducting focus groups with teachers and children for input on program development and to evaluate teacher willingness to implement the prevention format
85A Winning ProgramUse evidenced based prevention,assessment and treatments and existing supports such as gamblers anonymousInclude gambling screen/questions in student assistance and mental health and substance abuse assessmentsInclude a comprehensive risk assessment (suicide/harm to others)Offer multi-model approach to include, legal financial and family issuesKeep updated on gambling research
86ReferencesAm. Psychiatr. Assoc Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC: Am. Psychiatr. Assoc.Am. Psychiatr. Assoc Pathological Gambling. In Proposed Draft Revisions to DSM Disorders and Criteria, Arlington. VA: Am Psychiatr. Assoc.1998 Gross Annual Wager Report. International Gaming and Business Wagering (IGBW) Trade Magazine. (1999, August). Retrieved 2/21/02, fromGupta, R., & Derevensky, J.L. (1997). Familial and social influences on juvenile gambling behavior. Journal of Gambling Studies, 13(3),Kessler RC, Hwang I, LaBrie RA, Petukhova M, Sampson N, et al DSM-IV pathological gambling in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Psychol. Med. 38:
87References (cont.)Korn, DA, Shaffer HJ Gambling and the health of the public: adopting a public health perspective. J.Gambl, Stud. 15:Lesieur HR, Coster RL Pathological Gambling: Roots, Phases and Treatment. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 474:Lesieur HR, Rosenthal RJ Pathological gambling: a review of the literature (prepared for the American Psychiatric Association Task Force on DSM-IV Committee on Disorders of Impulse Control Not Elsewhere Classified). J. Gambl. Stud. 7:5-39Natl. Counc. Problem Gambl What is problem gambling?National Opinion Research Center (NORC). (1999). Gambling Impact and Behavior Study, Report to the National Gambling Impact Study Commission [Electronic Version]. Chicago, IL: Author.
88References (cont.)National Problem Gambling Awareness Week Problem Gambling Information: Facts and Figures.National Research Council (NRC). (1999). Pathological Gambling: A Critical Review. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.Petry NM, Stinson FS, Grant BF Comorbidity of DSM-14 pathological gambling and other psychiatric disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. J. Clin. Psychiatry 66:564-74Potenza M The neurobiology of pathological gambling and drug addiction: an overview and new findings. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. 363:
89References (cont.)Shaffer HJ, LaPlante DA, LaBrie RA, Kidman R, Donato A, Stanton M. 2004c. Toward a syndrome model of addiction: multiple expressions, common etiology. Harv. Rev. Psychiatry 12:367-74Shaffer HJ, Martin R Disorders & Gambling: Etiology, Trajectory and Clinical Consideration. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology. 2011Thompson, W., Gazel, R., Rickman, D. (1996). The social cost of gambling in Wisconsin. Wisconsin Policy Research Institute Report, 9, 144.
90References (cont.)Unwin, B.K., Davis, M.K., & Leeuw, J.B. (2000). Pathological gambling. American Family Physician, February 2000, 61,US Dept of Health & Human Services, SAMHSA, Substance Abuse Treatment for Co-Occurring Disorders Publication No ,2005Wallisch, L., & Liu, L. (1996). Drug use and gambling behavior among adults and youths in Texas: Survey findings. In: Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. Volume II: