Auditory Learning Style You learn best when: Information is presented in an oral language format. Listening to lecture and participating in group discussions. Information is presented from an audio tape. When interacting with others in a listening/speaking exchange.
Visual Learning Style You learn best when : Information is presented visually and in a written language format. Instructors use the blackboard, (overheard projector, power point) to list the essential points of a lecture. Information is provided in an outline to follow along during lecture. Information is obtained from textbooks and class notes.
Kinesthetic Learning Style You learn best when : You engage physically (hands on) in an activity You are in a lab setting where you can manipulate materials. When you can be physically active in the learning environment. When instructors encourage in- class demonstrations or field work outside the classroom.
Be an Active Listener Move closer to the front Focus your attention Evaluate what you hear Take thorough notes
Improve Your Reading Skills Seize the main idea Think about what the author is saying Be active, not passive Concentrate on what is being read. Remember as much as possible. Apply what is being read to personal experiences.
When To Study Study difficult (less interesting) subjects first Be aware of the best time of the day Use waiting time
Where To Study Use a regular study area Study where you’ll be alert Use a library or study halls Any place where there is minimal distraction
Textbook Note-taking SQ3R Reading Method Survey the chapter - Introductory and summary paragraphs - Illustrations and tables - Heading and subheading Question “What is this chapter about?” “What are the main points?” - Relationship to previous material Read - Make up questions and look for the answers - Underline key words and phrases - Summarize key points in your own words Recite (Check whether you know it or not) Review - Refreshes memory - Ties material together - Review at periodic intervals - Make a final review before exams
Note-Taking In Class Do not write down every word Write down main ideas, content, information Write down notes in an outline form Develop your own way of abbreviating Listen for important material teacher elaborates on, then summarize it
Procrastination - “Putting off until tomorrow what I can do today.” Ways to Combat Procrastination Acknowledge the problem Ask why you’re procrastinating - are you afraid of failure, for instance? Do something. Take action Reward yourself for positive change Break up the task into small challenges
TEST ANXIETY Negative Self-Talk interferes with studying Negative Self-Talk interferes with studying Good Note-Taking Skills are key (lecture and text) Good Note-Taking Skills are key (lecture and text) Find adequate study time and a quiet place Find adequate study time and a quiet place Preparation is key – Don’t cram Preparation is key – Don’t cram Check out helpful websites with study skills Check out helpful websites with study skills Review all the information Review all the information Ask yourself questions; Use flash cards Ask yourself questions; Use flash cards Before the test, practice good study skills
Getting Ready for the Test Face the day of the exam with pride Eat a sensible breakfast Relax during the hour before the exam Arrive early for the exam Avoid “Stress-Carriers” Bring a “Stress Saver” with you Use physical relaxation techniques
Facing the Test Check your internal state – scan your body Coach yourself with positive self-talk Review your test
After the Test Reward yourself! You deserve it. Evaluate your study plan – were you prepared? Were you able to control your anxiety and relax?
Exam Time Objective Tests: Read all instructions carefully Scan the text quickly to see how much time you need. Answer the easy questions first Pay close attention to all qualifiers (“usually,” ”none,” “always,” etc. Write neatly Read all of the answers carefully before you choose one
Exam Time Essay Tests: Read through the test. Decide how much time you have. Note key words, such as “contrast,” “analyze” and “evaluate,” “illustrate,” “enumerate” Outline the major points you intend to cover. Use facts and specific examples to support your answers. Proofread your essays.
If you can teach the material, then you know material. If you cannot, then you don’t
Comprehension Exercises Create or memorize an outline (e.g.: on a chapter) Utilize W questions Generate self-questions Summarize in your own words Utilize in a scenario Role playing
Example of Text to Comprehend Because strategies for the management of overdose are continually evolving, it is advisable to contact a poison control center to determine the latest recommendations for the management of an overdose of any drug (Thomson PDR, 2006, pp. 1201).
Example of Outlining Outlining is a navigation tool. With it, it is difficult to get lost. It provides context to what you are reading. I. PDR –A. Namenda Overdosage
Example of Questions One Can Ask for Comprehension One to two-word answers to assist in simplifying the meaning of the sentence or paragraph. –1. For what purpose is this statement? Is it to present a fact, to instruct, provide an example, etc.? –2. What is the main topic or issue? (think “what is it trying to address?) –3. What is it advising you to do?
Using W questions. The answer may not be clearly spelled out in the sentence. –Why is it advisable to contact a poison control center? –When is advisable to contact a poison control center? –What can be done when you contact a poison control center? –Who is this statement for? About? –Where is this taking place (or what context)? –How will this help me or others?
Self-Questions Creating your own questions will help stimulate your ability to conceptualize what you are reading. The answer does not need to be in the text, and there does not necessarily need to be an answer. Examples: What is the PCC for? Are they really up to date? Do strategies change so much? How do you manage an overdose?
Summarizing or Rephrasing Summarizing or rephrasing in your own words forces you to connect the dots. It may be helpful to personalize it
Rephrasing Example If I encounter someone who overdosed on medication, I’d better contact the poison control center because methods of helping with this change all the time. If I solely rely on what I had learned, it may not help as much because I may not be as up to date on methods as the PCC.
Utilize in a Scenario Use your imagination. Try to make it realistic or practical in your mind. Can personalize it to make it have stronger meaning for you.
Scenario Examples Patient overdoses at the hospital Friend calls me up saying he overdosed on his prescription medication I’ve accidentally overdosed on my vitamin A supplements.
Roleplay Teach to self in the mirror Teach a friend. Now turn it around. Teach your pet cat.
Other Reading Example It should be noted that efforts to cope with the impact of patient suicide or suicidal behavior can be complicated by the nature of our relationship with the patient.
SELF-DISCIPLINE AND STUDYING
Definition Self-discipline refers to the training that one gives one's self to accomplish a certain task or to adopt a particular pattern of behavior, even though one would really rather be doing something else
Preparation 1. Clarify priorities 2. Develop a time management plan to follow 3. Develop a repertoire of study skills and strategies to use 4. Then, apply self-discipline techniques to help your study objectives
Defining the Objective Make it simple Make it doable Make it specific Make it measureable Make it moderately difficult Make it consistent with your longer term goals
Objective Examples Poor: “I will study this afternoon.” Better: “I will study from 4 to 5 this afternoon.” Best: “I will study from 4 to 5, complete reading for Chapter 5, and summarize.”
Objective Examples 1.I will complete Chapter 5 and summarize. 2.I will talk to my instructor to get this question answered. 3.I will visit the Writing Center and talk with a tutor. 4.I will create my initial study plan and paper.
Behavioral Principles for Motivating Positive Reinforcer: Anything that occurs after a behavior that leads to the behavior more likely to occur later. For self- discipline, this will often be applied in the form of a reward.
Positive Reinforcement (Reward) Example If I finish reading this book chapter, I will treat myself out to a movie I have been thinking about seeing.
Other Reward Examples Go out with friend Treat self to ice cream Leisure reading time Gaming time Internet time Warm bath Monetary allowance
Rewards Caveat Make sure you reward is not self- destructive in nature Examples: –Going out to drink when you have an alcohol abuse problem –Using food as a reward when you have an eating disorder or weight concerns –Allowing yourself to spend a gazillion dollars when you have difficulties balancing a check book
Ideal Rewards NOT something you normally give yourself NOT important self-care Specific Occurs soon after your objective is achieved (e.g.: within an hour, or that evening) Does not interfere with your goals (i.e.: will not distract from your ability to study later)
Dispensing Rewards Keep it consistent. Always link the reward to completion of the objective. May be helpful to write out a “contract” to yourself and sign Keep track of objective successes. Can create a “mega-reward” after so many successes, or replace daily rewards with weekly ones when you get good at it.
Punishment Punishment: Any event that occurs following a behavior that results in the behavior less likely to occur again. It is usually thought of as being aversive.
Punishment Example You spoke on the phone instead of reviewed your book chapter during study time. So you start criticizing yourself and hit the wall.
Problems with Punishment 1.More likely to involve self-destructive or non-healthy behaviors 2.Easier to find ways around it 3.Difficult to keep tied to original objective. Tends to generalize and create new unwanted behaviors.
Bottom Line AVOID self-punishment and USE self- reinforcers. i.e.: Don’t beat yourself up over it! Try again, rework the objectives if you have to, and then reward yourself later when you finally achieve it.