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PanOULU (public access network OULU) Professor Timo Ojala University of Oulu Department of Computer Science and Engineering Urban Computing and Cultures.

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Presentation on theme: "PanOULU (public access network OULU) Professor Timo Ojala University of Oulu Department of Computer Science and Engineering Urban Computing and Cultures."— Presentation transcript:

1 panOULU (public access network OULU) Professor Timo Ojala University of Oulu Department of Computer Science and Engineering Urban Computing and Cultures research group Finland

2 2 human-city interaction Open UBI Oulu Open civic laboratory for R&D&B on human-city interaction in authentic urban setting with real users (”in the wild”) ”Smart City OS” (open source) RESOURCES OPEN APIs

3 3 Ojala T, Orajärvi J, Puhakka K, Heikkinen I & Heikka J (2011) panOULU: Triple helix driven municipal wireless network providing open and free Internet access. Proc. C&T 2011, Brisbane, Australia, panOULU ~ Campus networks of 5 municipalities and 4 other public organisations + panOULU subscriptions sold by 4 ISPs Each provider is responsible for maintenance and expenses of its WLAN zone Common core services are sponsored by City of Oulu and University of Oulu ~1440 IEEE APs Appear as one large uniform WLAN to users (SSID: panoulu) Provide open (no authentication) and free (no payment) Internet access to the general public RotuaariWLAN OuluNET OukaWLAN KampusWLAN panOULU subscriptions panOULUregion Infrastructure: panOULU WLAN

4 Founding of panOULU WLAN and consortium on Oct 15, Voucher (24 hour guest account) 4 founding members University of Oulu & Oulu Polytechnic (Academia) City of Oulu (Government) OPOY (incumbent ISP owned by City of Oulu, Industry) Logo

5 04-5 panOULU: City of Oulu’s motivation "Open wireless network is a civil right" (former) CIO Ilari Heikkinen, City of Oulu Open and free wireless Internet access in public service points/areas as municipal infrastructure

6 panOULU: City of Oulu’s Competence Oulu 400 program ( ) Part of City of Oulu’s 400th anniversary gift to the citizens 2.4 MEUR development program funded from the City of Oulu’s strategic funds 9 subprojects including panOULU: expansion of the City’s OukaWLAN zone by 400 APs OmaOulu: Municipal e-service portal Guidance: Training of citizens’ ICT skills 6 Installation of the 400th AP Celebrating a job well done panOULU clinics educating general public

7 panOULU: City of Oulu’s mesh deployment (1) Only 5 of ~60 mesh APs at downtown have fixed backhaul connection Reduces backhaul expenses in the long run

8 panOULU: City of Oulu’s mesh deployment (2) Examples of mesh AP’s (4-6 radios) 04-8

9 panOULU subscription: Incorporating telco incentive in municipal wireless Operator provided ”turnkey” solution, which comprises of … Broadband connection (typically xDSL) Standard business subscription for subscriber’s own production use Traffic routed via operator’s uplink (VLAN #1) panOULU hotspot for guests and visitors WLAN AP(s), switch and L2 link for hooking up the AP(s) into panOULU Traffic routed via panOULU’s uplink (VLAN #2) L2 connection  roaming with existing panOULU network Installation and maintenance Leasing package (operator owns all HW) panOULU ISP ”POP” L2 connection

10 panOULU subscription: For example restaurants, pubs and cafes have chosen it 04-10

11 11 Regional ’panOULUseutu’ network ( ) Controller-based WLAN zones in eight nearby municipalities Two mesh zones (Nallikari camping, Virpiniemi sports center) Existing panOULU provides core services Deprecated in the Oulu region’s municipal merger in 2013 MunicipalityAPs Hailuoto4 Haukipudas32 Kempele36 Kiiminki30 Liminka30 Muhos17 Oulunsalo35 Tyrnävä20 Total204

12 Usage in May unique devices 1.53 million sessions 18.3 million online minutes Stats from 497 APs (<50% of all APs) / / /2008 panOULU WLAN: Usage as Internet access network (1) Number of unique devices using panOULU WLAN every month / / / / /2012 Sharp valleys every summer as universities and schools are on holidays / / /2014

13 panOULU WLAN: Usage as Internet access network (2) Usage normalized with the number of APs since 1/ /2014 vs 1/2008: 6-fold increase in devices/AP 3-fold increase in online time/AP

14 14 Profiling of devices using the ”CITY” part in May 2014 Attribute All Device s Manufacturer NokiaAppleIntelSamsung # devices Proportion of all devices (%) # APs used by the devices Proportion of devices with "home AP” (%) User type "Heavy users” (%) ”Visiting users” (%) "Casual users” (%) Sessions Average per device Median per device Proportion of mobile sessions (%) Included provider crossing (%) Online time Average per device (minutes) Median per device (minutes) Most active 10% contribute (%) panOULU WLAN: Usage as Internet access network (3)

15 panOULU WLAN: Usage as Internet access network (4) Intel Nokia Apple Manufacturer proportions compiled from MAC vendor ID Samsung

16 panOULU WLAN: DPI analysis of network traffic (1) 49 days (7 weeks) of traffic in Nov-Dec 2012 Passive deep packet inspection with Procera Networks PL8720 hooked to the main internet gateway Application categories Streaming media

17 panOULU WLAN: DPI analysis of network traffic (2) Most popular web domains Traffic volume# connections

18 panOULU WLAN: DPI analysis of network traffic (3) YouTube usage Laulajainen J-P, Arvidsson Å, Ojala T, Seppänen J & Du M (2014) Study of YouTube demand patterns in mixed public and campus WiFi network. TRAC 2014, Nicosia, Cyprus, to appear.

19 panOULU WLAN: 2012 study on panOULU users Selected stats of questionnaire studies of local high school and university students conducted in May High school (N = 92) (%) University (N = 924) (%) Have used panOULU8489 Has not acquired mobile phone data plan because panOULU138 Has concerns about data safety in panOULU939 Has concerns about surveillance in panOULU420 Think that panOULU should be introduced in other cities79 Ylipulli J, Suopajärvi T, Ojala T, Kostakos V & Kukka H (2014) Municipal WiFi and interactive displays: Appropriation of new technologies in public urban spaces. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, in press.

20 panOULU WLAN: Usage as R&D resource (examples) Mobile multimedia services Aittola et al. (2003, 2004) Korhonen et al. (2006) Kukka et al. (2008) Ojala et al. (2003, 2004) Peltonen et al. (2003) Mobility/QoS/security Kuptsov et al. (2009) Sun et al. (2004, 2005) Sutinen & Ojala (2005) Network analysis and monitoring Ernst et al. (2007) Kenttälä et al. (2009) Laulajainen et al. (2014) Ojala et al. (2005, 2008, 2011, 2012) Pervasive gaming Tiensyrjä et al. (2010) Urban computing Ojala et al. (2010) Suopajärvi (2014) Ylipulli et al. (2014) panOULU BTpanOULU WSN Backhaul for Ojala T, Kukka H, Heikkinen T, Lindén T, Jurmu M, Kruger F, Sasin S, Hosio S & Närhi P (2010) Open urban computing testbed. Proc. TridentCom 2010, Berlin, Germany,

21 panOULU WLAN: panOULU Conqueror 21 PCMobile phone Tiensyrjä J, Ojala T, Hakanen T & Salmi O (2010) panOULU Conqueror: Pervasive location-aware multiplayer game for city-wide wireless network. Proc. FNG 2010, Leuven, Belgium,

22 22 panOULU WLAN: QoS comparison vs commercial 3.5G (HSPA) mobile data Measurements conducted in Nov 2011 Measurements taken at at standstill, i.e. mobility was ignored Note: operators deployed 3.9G (LTE) in the Oulu region in spring 2012 Connection grade distributions (%) Ojala T, Kokkoniemi J, Luukkonen J, Hakanen T, Salmi O & Pokkinen P (2012) Reflecting QoS of low-cost multi-provider municipal WiFi on commercial 3.5G mobile data and ISM spectrum occupancy. Proc. MobiWac 2012, Paphos, Cyprus, GradepanOULU WLANDNASoneraSaunalahti A B C43740 D F0000 No connection-12-- Avg. DL (Mbps) Avg. UL (Mbps) panOULU WLAN (802.11n) Sonera (LTE) DL UL Ping2553 GradeA+ More recent measurement (fall 2012) Mean duty cycle on 2.4 GHz ISM band only 0.3 – 3.2% !!

23 panOULU WLAN: Mobile IP pilot ( ) Goal: Safe and seamless connections for City of Oulu’s mobile workers in a multi-access network environment Consortium: City of Oulu, Fujitsu Services, Secgo Software 1-year pilot to City purchasing production system WLAN Imposed profound changes on City of Oulu’s PC policy and mobile work habits 04-23

24 panOULU WLAN: City of Oulu’s panOULU expenditure in 2011 (1) 24 ServiceService providerExpenditure (EUR) Maintenance of standalone APs (510)Commercial22113 Maintenance of mesh APs (70)Commercial28494 Network hardware and softwareCommercial20530 Network connectivity for APsOulun Tietotekniikka72629 Server room facilitiesOulun Tietotekniikka8877 Internet gatewayCommercial11514 Maintenance of core servicesUniversity of Oulu0 Total operational expenditure (EUR) Per City of Oulu’s access point (580) Per capita (142000)1.16 Per unique device (103095)1.59 Per session ( )0.02 Per 2 hours of online time ( )0.09 Annual expenditure in 2012 and 2013 was comparable (<200 kEUR)

25 25 panOULU WLAN: City of Oulu’s panOULU expenditure in 2011 (2) Net tax support EUR per capita for various leisure services in 2011 This may be the first comprehensive per capita expenditure comparison between municipal wireless and other municipal services

26 26 panOULU WLAN: City of Oulu’s panOULU expenditure in 2011 (3) Net tax support EUR per visit for various leisure services in 2011 This may be the first comprehensive per visit expenditure comparison between municipal wireless and other municipal services Net tax support for 1 ticket sold to Oulu Symphony Orchestra corresponds to ~2300 hours of online time in panOULU !

27 panOULU WLAN: Keys to success Triple helix of municipalities, academia and industry ’Champions’ providing political and operative leadership Cost effective outsourcing of operations and maintenance Have realistic expectation of WLAN’s capabilities Provide wireless coverage where it matters ’KISS’ network design to provide open and free access No QoS guarantees and ”contract” to users Involve R&D Publicly report data on network usage

28 panOULU WLAN: Challenges Network has become too popular for its own good During busy hours capacity per user is rather limited Renewal of aging hardware in current economic situation Deteriorating knowledge base due to minimizing expenses Lack of maintenance personnel Help desk of a multi-provider network Managing user expectations and media Rigorous assessment of the socioeconomic impact Legal status and public policy Related legislation in Finland since March 2011: it is no longer criminal to use a WLAN AP without the consent of the owner of the AP

29 panOULU WLAN: Future outlook Municipal WiFi as public good? Municipal WiFi vs mobile data in wireless Internet access IEEE a/g... IEEE n... IEEE ac vs 3.5G (HSPA) G (LTE)... 4G (LTE Advanced) Coexistence due to challenges for mobile data Increasing backhaul demands Pricing models (unlimited data plans, international roaming) ”Offloading of mobile data onto WiFi” Wi-Fi Alliance ”Hotspot Program” (March 2011) Future regulatory policies on provisioning open and free Internet access?

30 Thank you for your attention! Professor Timo Ojala University of Oulu Department of Computer Science and Engineering Urban Computing and Cultures research group Finland 30


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