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Basic Values in Europe Shalom Schwartz The Hebrew University of Jerusalem ESS Launch Conference Brussels November 25, 2003.

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Presentation on theme: "Basic Values in Europe Shalom Schwartz The Hebrew University of Jerusalem ESS Launch Conference Brussels November 25, 2003."— Presentation transcript:

1 Basic Values in Europe Shalom Schwartz The Hebrew University of Jerusalem ESS Launch Conference Brussels November 25, 2003

2 As a guiding principle in your life, how important is: equality equality loyalty loyalty wealth wealth ambition ambition obedience obedience pleasure creativity humility social order an exciting life

3 What are basic values? Basic values are beliefs about desirable goals in life.  Values are intrinsically positive (unlike goals)  Values apply across situations--all (e.g., honesty, security, freedom) apply at work, in the family, and with friends  People’s values form a fairly stable hierarchy of relative )  People’s values form a fairly stable hierarchy of relative importance (success>hedonism>security)  Relative importance of values is crucial to decisions Take a new job and move family? (achievement & stimulation vs. security & benevolence)

4 Why are values important? Functions of values  motivate choice of behavior--what we do  justify past behavior--why we do it  standards to evaluate people & events-- who and what we like, underlie our attitudes  direct attention and perception--what we notice

5 Inferring Basic Values in Surveys  Surveys typically measure values with attitude questions in specific life domains (religion, morality, politics, work, etc.).  Infer underlying basic value orientations from responses to these specific questions (e.g., materialism, individualism)  But meanings of responses depend on specific social and economic conditions (e.g., meaning of “give people more say in government” depends on whether one favors or opposes current government policies)

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7 Empirical Tests of Theory  75,000 + respondents, varied samples in 68 countries  Instrument lists 57 abstract value items  “How important is each item as a guiding principle in your life?”

8 Near Universal Content & Structure  Each of 10 values distinguished in vast majority of countries  Comprehensive: Added items identified no other values  Oppositions present in virtually all countries Openness vs. Conservation Self-Enhancement vs. Self Transcendence  10 values ordered around circle as theorized in vast majority of countries

9 Some Correlates of Value Priorities Replicated across Countries  voting for conservative vs liberal parties  adopting technological innovations  environmentally friendly attitudes, activities  religiosity [6 monotheistic religions] SE/PO vs UN/SD ST/SD vs SE/TR/CO UN/SD vs PO/AC TR/CO vs HE/ST Self-Direction STimulation UNiversalism BEnevolence COnformity Hedonism AChievement POwer SEcurity TRadition

10 ESS Basic Values Instrument  Need easy instrument for heterogeneous samples  21 items, each portraying a person in terms of one value (goal) that is important to him/her It's very important to him to help the people around him. He wants to care for their well-being. (BE)  Respondent rates how similar that person is to me  Indirectly reveals what values are more or less important to self

11 1.Thinking up new ideas and being creative is important to her. She likes to do things in her own original way. (Self-Direction) It is important to her to be rich. She wants to have a lot of money and expensive things. (Power) She thinks it is important that every person in the world be treated equally. She believes everyone should have equal opportunities in life. (Universalism) Very much like me Like me Some- what like me A little like me Not like me Not like me at all How much like you is this person? ESS Basic Values Exemplary Items and Response Scale

12 Value Structures in Europe: Findings Across Europe, people’s values are organized in the same way as postulated by theory  Oppositions (openness vs. conservation; self-enhancement vs. self-transcendence) present in all countries  Exactly or very near theorized order of 10 values in every country  In 13 countries, every item in expected value region; in two countries, one item near region  This signifies relative equivalence of value meanings across countries— now compare importance

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14 Opposition to Outgroup Immigration Predictors in 10 West European Countries Opposition: allow people of a different race or ethnic group from most, residualized on allow same (1-4 scale). All betas p<.001. Age, unemployment, rural-urban do not predict significantly. Allow no immi- grants R 2 =.085 Education Years Religiosity Universalism Values Security Values Household Income Tradition Values Benevolence Values Conformity Values Native Born Gender Male

15 Perceived Consequences of Immigration Predictors in 10 West European Countries Consequences: increase jobs, pay more taxes than services used, improve economy, enrich culture, country better place to live, reduce crime problem: alpha at least.80 in all countries. All betas p<.001; Age & Unemployment do not predict significantly Index of 6 Positive Effects R 2 =.173 Education Years Native Born Universalism Values Security Values Household Income Tradition Values Benevolence Values Conformity Values Religiosity Rural Gender M

16 Value Structures in Europe: Test  MDS analysis in each country  Arranges items in space to show which ones are similar and different—based on correlations  Items representing each value should form a distinct region  Value regions should array in space around circle as in theory

17 Universalism Benevolence Self-Direction Stimulation Tradition Hedonism Achievement Conformity Power Security CH, SE PL, GR FI, CH GR, IL SE, CH HU, SL GR, PT FI, NL GB, FI HU, CZ CH, HU CZ, PL IL, SL FI, CZ GR, IL CH, FI CZ, HU NO, SE CZ PL PT, CH Highest Lowest

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19 Countries Ordered on Value Priorities 1 TRADITIONCONFORMITYSECURITY 1Greece Czech Rep. 2 PolandHungary 3PortugalNorwayPoland 4PolandFinlandGreece 5SloveniaGreecePortugal 6SpainNetherlandsIreland 7IrelandSpainSpain 8HungaryIrelandFinland 9Sweden Great Britain Israel 10NorwaySlovenia 11SwitzerlandSwedenSlovenia 12 HungaryNetherlands 13IsraelIsraelSwitzerland 14FinlandPortugalNorway 15NetherlandsSwitzerlandSweden

20 Countries Ordered on Value Priorities 2 POWERACHIEVEMENTHEDONISM 1GreeceIsraelSwitzerland 2IsraelSloveniaHungary 3PolandPortugalNetherlands 4SpainHungarySweden 5 Czech Rep. Great Britain Israel 6SloveniaIrelandSlovenia 7HungaryPolandPortugal 8NorwayGreeceFinland 9IrelandNetherlandsGreece 10SwedenSwitzerland 11PortugalNorwaySpain 12 SpainNorway 13NetherlandsSwedenIreland 14SwitzerlandFinland Czech Rep. 15Finland Poland

21 Countries Ordered on Value Priorities 3 STIMULATIONSELF-DIRECTIONUNIVERSALISMBENEVOLENCE Great Britain SwitzerlandFinlandSweden FinlandSwedenSwitzerlandSwitzerland SloveniaNetherlands Czech Rep. Norway Netherlands Great Britain SwedenFinland NorwayNorwayNorway Czech Rep. SwedenFinlandSpainSpain IrelandIrelandIreland Great Britain Switzerland Czech Rep. NetherlandsNetherlands PolandIsrael Great Britain Portugal IsraelSpainPolandIreland SpainHungarySloveniaIsrael PortugalSloveniaHungaryPoland GreecePortugalPortugalGreece HungaryPolandGreeceHungary Czech Rep. GreeceIsraelSlovenia

22 Comments on Value Circle 1  Aim to derive set of universally recognized values  Content of values derives from the basic goals that people in all societies must pursue  People must communicate with each other to gain cooperation in pursuing their goals needs of biological organism--e.g. hedonism needs of biological organism--e.g. hedonism demands of social interaction--e.g. achievement demands of social interaction--e.g. achievement requirements for group survival--e.g. security requirements for group survival--e.g. security

23 Comments on Value Circle 2 Define each value in turn, noting exemplary value items Openness to Change SELF ‑ DIRECTION: Independent thought and action ‑ choosing, creating, exploring. (Creativity, Freedom, Independent, Curious...) STIMULATION: Excitement, novelty, and challenge in life. (Daring, a Varied Life, an Exciting Life) Conservation SECURITY: Safety, harmony and stability of society, of relationships, and of self. (Family Security, National Security, Social Order, Clean...) CONFORMITY: Restraint of actions, inclinations, and impulses likely to upset or harm others and violate social expectations or norms. (Politeness, Obedient, Honoring Parents and Elders...) TRADITION: Respect, commitment and acceptance of the customs and ideas that traditional culture or religion provide the self. (Humble, Devout, Respect for Tradition...) Self-Enhancement POWER: Social status and prestige, control or dominance over people and resources. (Social Power, Authority, Wealth...) ACHIEVEMENT: Personal success through demonstrating competence according to social standards. (Successful, Ambitious, Influential...) Self-Transcendence UNIVERSALISM: Understanding, appreciation, tolerance and protection for the welfare of all people and for nature. (Broadminded, Social Justice, Equality, Protecting the Environment) BENEVOLENCE: Preservation and enhancement of the welfare of people with whom one is in frequent personal contact. (Helpful, Honest, Forgiving...) HEDONISM: Pleasure and sensuous gratification for oneself. (Pleasure, Enjoying Life)

24 Comments on Value Circle 3  Structure reflects consequences of acting on various values  Adjacent values share motivation & are compatible (conformity & security) (power & achievement)  Distant values have opposing motivations, conflict (power vs. benevolence) (hedonism & tradition)  Values form a motivational continuum [colors not categorical]  Theory aspires to comprehensive coverage of major motivationally distinct types of values

25 Linking Value Priorities & Other Variables  Circular structure and motivational continuum imply  all 10 values associate systematically with any other variable  value with most positive association is usually opposite value with most negative association ST SDUN BE TR HE CO AC POSE


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