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National Center on Response to Intervention RTI Implementer Webinar Series: Understanding Types of Assessment within an RTI Framework.

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Presentation on theme: "National Center on Response to Intervention RTI Implementer Webinar Series: Understanding Types of Assessment within an RTI Framework."— Presentation transcript:

1 National Center on Response to Intervention RTI Implementer Webinar Series: Understanding Types of Assessment within an RTI Framework

2 National Center on Response to Intervention RTI Implementer Series Overview 2 IntroductionScreeningProgress Monitoring Multi-level Prevention System Defining the Essential Components What Is RTI?What Is Screening? What Is Progress Monitoring? What Is a Multi- level Prevention System? Assessment and Data-based Decision Making Understanding Types of Assessment within an RTI Framework Using Screening Data for Decision Making Using Progress Monitoring Data for Decision Making IDEA and Multi- level Prevention System Establishing Processes Implementing RTIEstablishing a Screening Process Selecting Evidence-based Practices

3 National Center on Response to Intervention Upon Completion Participants Will Be Able To:  Identify when and why to use summative, formative, or diagnostic assessments  Understand the differences between norm- referenced and criterion-referenced assessments  Recognize the benefits and drawbacks to general outcome measures and mastery measures 3

4 National Center on Response to Intervention Vocabulary Handout WordPredictionFinal MeaningPicture/Sketch/Example Primary prevention level The bottom of the pyramid that represents instruction given to students without learning problems Instruction delivered to all students using research-based curricula and differentiation in the general education classroom. Incorporates universal screening, continuous progress monitoring, and outcome measures or summative assessments. 4 Primary prevention

5 National Center on Response to Intervention Types of Assessments 5 TypeWhen?Why? SummativeAfterAssessment of learning DiagnosticBeforeIdentify skill strengths and weakness FormativeDuringAssessment for learning

6 National Center on Response to Intervention Summative Assessments  PURPOSE: Tell us what students learned over a period of time (past tense) May tell us what to teach but not how to teach  Administered after instruction  Typically administered to all students  Educational Decisions: 6 Accountability Skill Mastery Assessment Resource Allocation (reactive)

7 National Center on Response to Intervention Summative Assessments Examples:  High-stakes tests  GRE, ACT, SAT, and GMAT  Praxis Tests  Final Exams 7

8 National Center on Response to Intervention Diagnostic Assessments  PURPOSE: Measures a student's current knowledge and skills for the purpose of identifying a suitable program of learning.  Administered before instruction  Typically administered to some students  Educational Decisions: What to Teach Intervention Selection 8

9 National Center on Response to Intervention Diagnostic Assessments Examples:  Qualitative Reading Inventory  Diagnostic Reading Assessment  Key Math  Running Records with Error Analysis 9

10 National Center on Response to Intervention Formative Assessments  PURPOSE: Tells us how well students are responding to instruction  Administered during instruction  Typically administered to all students during benchmarking and some students for progress monitoring  Informal and formal 10

11 National Center on Response to Intervention Formative Assessments Educational Decisions:  Identification of students who are nonresponsive to instruction or interventions  Curriculum and instructional decisions  Program evaluation  Resource allocation (proactive)  Comparison of instruction and intervention efficacy 11

12 National Center on Response to Intervention Formative Assessments  Mastery measures (e.g., intervention or curriculum dependent)  General Outcome Measures (e.g., CBM) AIMSweb – R-CBM, Early Literacy, Early Numeracy Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) – Early Literacy, Retell, and D-ORF iSTEEP – Oral Reading Fluency 12

13 National Center on Response to Intervention Summative or Formative? Educational researcher Robert Stake used the following analogy to explain the difference between formative and summative assessment: “ When the cook tastes the soup, that's formative. When the guests taste the soup, that's summative.” (Scriven, 1991, p. 169) 13

14 National Center on Response to Intervention Types of Assessments Handout 14

15 National Center on Response to Intervention 15 Types of Assessments Handout Answers

16 National Center on Response to Intervention Norm-Referenced Vs. Criterion- Referenced Tests  Norm referenced Students are compared with each other. Score is interpreted as the student’s abilities relative to other students. Percentile scores are used.  Criterion referenced Student’s performance compared to a criterion for mastery Score indicates whether the student met mastery criteria Pass/fail score 16

17 National Center on Response to Intervention Common Formative Assessments Mastery Measurement General Outcome Measures Vs. 17

18 National Center on Response to Intervention Mastery Measurement  Describes mastery of a series of short-term instructional objectives  To implement Mastery Measurement, typically the teacher: Determines a sensible instructional sequence for the school year Designs criterion-referenced testing procedures to match each step in that instructional sequence 18

19 National Center on Response to Intervention 1.Multidigit addition with regrouping 2.Multidigit subtraction with regrouping 3.Multiplication facts, factors to 9 4.Multiply 2-digit numbers by a 1-digit number 5.Multiply 2-digit numbers by a 2-digit number 6.Division facts, divisors to 9 7.Divide 2-digit numbers by a 1-digit number 8.Divide 3-digit numbers by a 1-digit number 9.Add/subtract simple fractions, like denominators 10.Add/subtract whole number and mixed number Fourth-Grade Math Computation Curriculum 19

20 National Center on Response to Intervention Mastery Measure: Multidigit Addition Assessment 20

21 National Center on Response to Intervention WEEKS Number of problems correct in 5 minutes Multidigit Addition Multidigit Subtraction Mastery Measure: Multidigit Addition Results 21

22 National Center on Response to Intervention 1.Multidigit addition with regrouping 2.Multidigit subtraction with regrouping 3.Multiplication facts, factors to 9 4.Multiply 2-digit numbers by a 1-digit number 5.Multiply 2-digit numbers by a 2-digit number 6.Division facts, divisors to 9 7.Divide 2-digit numbers by a 1-digit number 8.Divide 3-digit numbers by a 1-digit number 9.Add/subtract simple fractions, like denominators 10.Add/subtract whole number and mixed number Fourth-Grade Math Computation Curriculum 22

23 National Center on Response to Intervention Mastery Measure: Multidigit Subtraction Assessment 23

24 National Center on Response to Intervention Mastery Measure: Multidigit Subtraction Assessment 24

25 National Center on Response to Intervention Advantages of Mastery Measures  Skill and program specific  Progress monitoring data can assist in making changes to target skill instruction  Increasing research demonstrating validity and reliability of some tools 25

26 National Center on Response to Intervention Problems Associated With Mastery Measurement  Hierarchy of skills is logical, not empirical.  Assessment does not reflect maintenance or generalization.  Number of objectives mastered does not relate well to performance on criterion measures.  Measurement methods are often designed by teachers, with unknown reliability and validity.  Scores cannot be compared longitudinally. 26

27 National Center on Response to Intervention General Outcome Measure (GOM)  Reflects overall competence in the yearlong curriculum  Describes individual children’s growth and development over time (both “current status” and “rate of development”)  Provides a decision-making model for designing and evaluating interventions  Is used for individual children and for groups of children 27

28 National Center on Response to Intervention Common Characteristics of GOMs  Simple and efficient  Classification accuracy can be established  Sensitive to improvement  Provide performance data to guide and inform a variety of educational decisions  National/local norms allow for cross comparisons of data 28

29 National Center on Response to Intervention Advantages of GOMs  Focus is on repeated measures of performance  Makes no assumptions about instructional hierarchy for determining measurement  Curriculum independent  Incorporates automatic tests of retention and generalization 29

30 National Center on Response to Intervention GOM Example: CBM  Curriculum-Based Measure (CBM) A general outcome measure (GOM) of a student’s performance in either basic academic skills or content knowledge CBM tools available in basic skills and core subject areas grades K-8 (e.g., DIBELS, AIMSweb) 30

31 National Center on Response to Intervention Student copy CBM Passage Reading Fluency 31

32 National Center on Response to Intervention 32 Common Formative Assessments Mastery Measurement General Outcome Measures Vs.

33 National Center on Response to Intervention 33 National Center on Response to Intervention RTI Action Network IDEA Partnership Need More Information?

34 National Center on Response to Intervention 34 This document was produced under U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs Grant No. H326E Grace Zamora Durán and Tina Diamond served as the OSEP project officers. The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent the positions or policies of the Department of Education. No official endorsement by the U.S. Department of Education of any product, commodity, service or enterprise mentioned in this publication is intended or should be inferred. This product is public domain. Authorization to reproduce it in whole or in part is granted. While permission to reprint this publication is not necessary, the citation should be: National Center on Response to Intervention


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