Presentation on theme: "Green Economy What is the Green Economy? The “green economy” refers to economic sectors that are focused on environmental sustainability. The green economy."— Presentation transcript:
Green Economy What is the Green Economy? The “green economy” refers to economic sectors that are focused on environmental sustainability. The green economy seeks to address the interdependence of human economic development with the health of the natural ecosystem. Bahan kajian dalam MK. Ekonomi Sumberdaya Alam Disarikan oleh: Prof Dr Ir Soemarno MS, PM PSLP-PDKLP-PPSUB
MANUSIA KHALIFAH DI MUKA BUMI ''Ingatlah ketika Tuhanmu berfirman kepada para Malaikat: ''Sesungguhnya Aku hendak menjadikan seorang khalifah di muka bumi.'' Mereka berkata: ''Mengapa Engkau hendak menjadikan (khalifah) di bumi itu orang yang akan membuat kerusakan padanya dan menumpahkan darah, padahal kami senantiasa bertasbih dengan memuji Engkau dan mensucikan Engkau?''. Tuhan berfirman: ''Sesungguhnya Aku mengetahui apa yang tidak kamu ketahui'‘ (Al-Baqarah:30)
EKONOMI HIJAU vs. EKONOMI HITAM ‘The Black economy’: pembangunan ekonomi yang bertumpu pd bahan bakar fosil seperti batubara, minyak bumi dan gas alam. “The green economy” bertumpu pd pengetahuan ekologi-ekonomi dengan tujuan menyelaraskan hubungan ekonomi- manusia dengan ekosistem- alam serta MINIMUM dampak negatif akibat kegiatan ekonomi terhadap lingkungan
Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary field of academic research that aims to address : the interdependence and coevolution of human economies and natural ecosystems over time and space www.arch.wsu.edu/.../sustain/cs-hecol.htm
ANALISIS EKOLOGI- EKONOMI Fokus issue: 1.Intergenerational equity, 2.Irreversibility of environmental change, 3. Uncertainty of long- term outcomes, 4. Sustainable development www.trp.dundee.ac.uk/library/pubs/set.html
Nilai ekonomi dari natural-capital dan ecosystem-services sangat penting dalam ecological- economics. Ecological economists may begin by estimating how to maintain a stable environment before assessing the cost in dollar terms. www.environment.gov.au/.../report/overview.html
Tujuan utama Ecological- Economics (EE) : Mengimplementasik an pemikiran dan praktek ekonomi ke dlm realita biofisik, seperti hukum termodinamika dan sistem biologis.
Sumbangan sumberdaya alam bagi kesejahteraan manusia : 1.the planetary endowment of scarce matter and energy, 2. the complex and biologically diverse ecosystems that provide goods and ecosystem services directly to human communities: 1.micro- and macro-climate regulation, 2.water recycling, 3.water purification, 4.storm water regulation, 5.waste absorption, 6.food and medicine production, 7.pollination, 8.protection from solar and cosmic radiation, 9. the view of a starry night sky, etc.
Jasa-jasa ekosistem Humankind benefits from a multitude of resources and processes that are supplied by natural ecosystems. Collectively, these benefits are known as ecosystem services and include products like clean drinking water and processes such as the decomposition of wastes.
Empat Kategori Jasa-jasa Ekosistem : 1. Provisioning services food (including seafood and game), crops, wild foods, and spices water pharmaceuticals, biochemicals, and industrial products energy (hydropower, biomass fuels) 2. Regulating services carbon sequestration and climate regulation waste decomposition and detoxification purification of water andwater crop pollination pest and disease control 3. Supporting services nutrient dispersal and cycling seed dispersal Primary production 4. Cultural services cultural, intellectual and spiritual inspiration recreational experiences (including ecotourism) scientific discovery
Enam Metode Utama dalam Valuasi Jasa-jasa Ekosistem : Avoided cost Services allow society to avoid costs that would have been incurred in the absence of those services (e.g. waste treatment by wetland habitats avoids health costs)wetland Replacement cost Services could be replaced with man-made systems (e.g. restoration of the Catskill Watershed cost less than the construction of a water purification plant)restorationwater purification Factor income Services provide for the enhancement of incomes (e.g. improved water quality increases the commercial take of a fishery and improves the income of fishers)water qualityfishery Travel cost Service demand may require travel, whose costs can reflect the implied value of the service (e.g. value of ecotourism experience is at least what a visitor is willing to pay to get there)ecotourism Hedonic pricing Service demand may be reflected in the prices people will pay for associated goods (e.g. coastal housing prices exceed that of inland homes) Contingent valuation Service demand may be elicited by posing hypothetical scenarios that involve some valuation of alternatives (e.g. visitors willing to pay for increased access to national parks)
Ekonomi Hijau melingkupi : 1. Produksi green energy yng bertumpu pd renewable energy untuk menggantikan fossil fuels 2. Konservasi energi menuju efficient energy use. Ekonomi hijau dianggap mampu untuk: 1. Mewujudkan green jobs, dan pertumbuhan ekonomi yang berkelanjutan, 2. Meminimumkan pencemaran lingkungan, global warming, pengurasan sumberdaya alam, dan degradasi lingkungan.
“The green economy” mensyaratkan adanya campur tangan pemerintah untuk memotivasi dunia-usaha dan masyarakat berinvestasi dalam memproduksi “ green-products dan green-services ”. www.smashinggreen.com/tag/green-economy
Sektor-sektor Ekonomi Hijau yang Prospektif : 1. Renewable Energy Renewable energy includes solar, wind, geothermal, and wave energy as well as bio gas and fuel cells. 2. Green Building Construction has always been a big sector of any economy. Green buildings, whether commercial or residential, form a long term sustainable impact on the environment as they are cost and energy efficient. Green buildings deal with things like alternative energy paneling, waste management, earth friendly products, and water efficiency (during construction and after). 3. Clean Transportation Transportation not only affects the economy but our everyday lives. Clean transportation means less dependency on fuel for vehicles, trains etc. From hybrid and electric cars to public transportation – if it transports and sustains, it’s included in clean transportation sector. 4. Water Management Water is becoming a short resource day by day. Water recycling, rain water systems, water purification and storm water planning has made the water management sector an important one for a green economy. 5. Waste Management Waste management involves recycling of waste, salvaging, toxic remediation, sustainable/recyclable packaging etc. Any technology that deals with how to get rid of waste or how to use it for other purposes is part of the waste management sector. 6. Land – Soils Management Land may have no depreciation value, but it can still be destroyed. The green economy aims to make it profitable and sustainable through proper land management. It does that through organic agriculture, habitat restoration, conservation, forestry, reforestation and soil stabilization.
MENUJU EKONOMI-HIJAU : by refocusing policies, investments and spending towards sectors: 1.Clean Technologies, 2.Sustainable Energy Management (SEM), 3.Sustainable Water Management (SWM), 4.Sustainable Transportation Management (STM), 5.Sustainable Waste Management (SWM), 6.Sustainable Buildings Management (SBM) 7.Sustainable agriculture Management (SM) 8.Sustainable Forests Management (SFM)
TEKNOLOGI BERSIH Profits and Potential Clean technologies stand to provide significant relief to shortages in energy, water, and other natural resources, while providing a path for both developed and developing countries to address such pressing concerns as greenhouse gas emissions, deforestation, resource scarcity, and air and water pollution. Clean technologies will engender a variety of social benefits, from reduced illness and infant mortality to citizens' improved ability to hold meaningful jobs and raise families. The success of clean technologies will depend nearly as much on government investments and policies as on companies' entrepreneurial and marketing skills.
GREEN JOB A green job are: "work in agricultural, manufacturing, research and development (R&D), administrative, and service activities that contribute(s) substantially to preserving or restoring environmental quality.
Green-job includes jobs that help to : Protect ecosystems and biodiversity; Reduce energy, materials, and water consumption through high efficiency strategies; De-carbonize the economy; and Minimize or altogether avoid generation of all forms of waste and pollution. robertsonlowstuter.wordpr ess.com/.../ Energy efficient designs, incorporation of recycled materials into the design process, or designing with disassembly in mind to make end-of- life recycling easier. jongjava.com/.../565-membuat-pupuk-organik-cair
Sustainable Energy Management (SEM) Energi Hijau Green energy is the term used to describe sources of energy that are considered to be environmentally friendly and non-polluting, such as geothermal, wind, solar, and hydro. Sometimes nuclear power is also considered a green energy source. Green energy sources are often considered "green" because they are perceived to lower carbon emissions and create less pollution. Green energy is commonly thought of in the context of electricity generation. Renewable energy certificates (green certificates or green tags) have been one way for consumers and businesses to support green energy.
Sustainable Energy Management (SEM) Energi berkelanjutan : 1. Sumber energi yang renewable: biofuels, solar power, wind power, hydro power, wave power, geothermal power dan tidal power. 2. Teknologi yng mampu meningktkn energy efficiency. www.ricksquires.com/.../
Sustainable Energy Management (SEM) Efisiensi Energi Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is using less energy to provide the same level of energy service. Insulating a home allows a building to use less heating and cooling energy to achieve and maintain a comfortable temperature. Installing fluorescent lights and/or skylights instead of incandescent lights to attain the same level of illumination.skylights Efficient energy use is achieved primarily by means of a more efficient technology or process rather than by changes in individual behavior.
Sustainable Energy Management (SEM) Renewable energy : Energi yang dihasilkan dari sumberdaya alam seperti radiasi- matahari, angin, air, hujan, pasang-surut, panas bumi, dan hayati……… ……. yang secara alamiah dapat diperbaharui
ENERGI AIR = Hydropower Energy in water can be harnessed and used. Since water is about 800 times denser than air, even a slow flowing stream of water, or moderate sea swell, can yield considerable amounts of energy.swell There are many forms of water energy: Hydroelectric energy is a term usually reserved for large-scale hydroelectric dams. Micro hydro systems are hydroelectric power installations that typically produce up to 100 kW of power. They are often used in water rich areas as a remote-area power supply (RAPS). Damless hydro systems derive kinetic energy from rivers and oceans without using a dam. Ocean energy describes all the technologies to harness energy from the ocean and the sea. This includes marine current power, ocean thermal energy conversion, and tidal power.energy oceansea
ENERGI SURYA = Solar energy Solar energy is the energy derived from the sun through the form of solar radiation.sun Solar powered electrical generation relies on photovoltaics and heat engines. A partial list of other solar applications includes space heating and cooling through solar architecture, daylighting, solar hot water, solar cooking, and high temperature process heat for industrial purposes.
ENERGI SURYA = Solar energy Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air.
BAHAN BAKAR HAYATI = Biofuel Liquid biofuel is usually either bioalcohol such as bioethanol or an oil such as biodiesel. BioethanolBioethanol is an alcohol made by fermenting the sugar components of plant materials and it is made mostly from sugar and starch crops. With advanced technology being developed, cellulosic biomass, such as trees and grasses, are also used as feedstocks for ethanol production. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions.alcoholfermentinggasoline Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils, animal fats or recycled greases. Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using transesterification.oils
PANAS BUMI = Geothermal energy Geothermal energy is energy obtained by tapping the heat of the earth itself, both from kilometers deep into the Earth's crust in some places of the globe or from some meters in geothermal heat pump in all the places of the planet. crust It is expensive to build a power station but operating costs are low resulting in low energy costs for suitable sites. Ultimately, this energy derives from heat in the Earth's core.Earth
ENERGI ANGIN = Wind power Airflows can be used to run wind turbines. Modern wind turbines range from around 600 kW to 5 MW of rated power, although turbines with rated output of 1.5–3 MW have become the most common for commercial use; the power output of a turbine is a function of the cube of the wind speed, so as wind speed increases, power output increases dramatically. Areas where winds are stronger and more constant, such as offshore and high altitude sites, are preferred locations for wind farms. Typical capacity factors are 20-40%, with values at the upper end of the range in particularly favourable sites.
ENERGI ANGIN = Wind power Globally, the long-term technical potential of wind energy is believed to be five times total current global energy production, or 40 times current electricity demand. This could require large amounts of land to be used for wind turbines, particularly in areas of higher wind resources. Offshore resources experience mean wind speeds of ~90% greater than that of land, so offshore resources could contribute substantially more energy. This number could also increase with higher altitude ground-based or airborne wind turbines. Wind powerWind power is renewable and produces no greenhouse gases during operation, such as carbon dioxide and methane.methane
Sustainable Transportation Management (STM) Green Transport Green transport is a category of sustainable transport which uses human power, animal power and renewable energy. Often the definition does not include public transport which relies on non-renewable energy. Green transport includes: Walking Cycling and some other types of human-powered transport Solar powered vehicles Wind powered vehicles
Sustainable Transport A sustainable transportation system as one that: Allows the basic access and development needs of individuals, companies and society to be met safely and in a manner consistent with human and ecosystem health, and promotes equity within and between successive generations. Is Affordable, operates fairly and efficiently, offers a choice of transport mode, and supports a competitive economy, as well as balanced regional development. Limits emissions and waste within the planet’s ability to absorb them, uses renewable resources at or below their rates of generation, and uses non-renewable resources at or below the rates of development of renewable substitutes, while minimizing the impact on the use of land and the generation of noise.
Sustainable Transportation Management (STM) Green Vehicle A green vehicle is a vehicle that is considered to be more "environmentally friendly" than traditional all-petroleum internal combustion engine vehicles (APICEVs).vehicle This is accomplished by having a low dust to dust energy cost. Energy efficiency But car with similar production energy spendings can obtain, during the life of the car (operational phase), large reductions in energy costs through several measures: The most significant is by using alternative propulsion: An efficient engine that reduces the vehicle's consumption of petroleum (i.e. petroleum electric hybrid vehicle), or, preferably, that uses renewable energy sources throughout its working life (i.e. battery electric vehicle).
Sustainable Transportation Management (STM) Energy efficiency But car with similar production energy spendings can obtain, during the life of the car (operational phase), large reductions in energy costs through several measures: The most significant is by using alternative propulsion: An efficient engine that reduces the vehicle's consumption of petroleum (i.e. petroleum electric hybrid vehicle), or, preferably, that uses renewable energy sources throughout its working life (i.e. battery electric vehicle).petroleumrenewable energy
Sustainable Transportation Management (STM) Benefits of green vehicle use Environmental Vehicle emissions contribute to the increasing concentration of gases that are leading to climate change.climate change In order of significance, the principal greenhouse gases associated with road transport are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Of the total greenhouse gas emissions from transport, over 85% are due to CO2 emissions from road vehicles. Health Vehicle pollutants have been linked to human ill health including the incidence of respiratory and cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer. A 1998 report estimated that up to 24,000 people die prematurely each year in the UK as a direct result of air pollution. According to the World Health Organisation, up to 13,000 deaths per year among children (aged 0-4 years) across Europe are directly attributable to outdoor pollution.World Health Organisation
Sustainable Transportation Management (STM) Sustainable city A more sustainable city, or Eco-city, has fewer inputs (of energy, water, food etc) and fewer waste products (heat, air pollution, water pollution etc) than a less sustainable city.Eco-city Cities can be made more sustainable by means of: Green Green roofsreen roofs transport Sustainable urban drainage systems or SUDS Energy conservation Xeriscaping - garden and landscape design for water conservationeriscaping Ecopolis (city) An Ecopolis is a large city that follows ecological principles. The word ecopolis is a portmanteau created from ecology (interactions between living organisms and the environment) and polis (a city state).
Ruang Terbuka Hijau untuk membersihkan udara kota
Sustainable Buildings Management (SBM) GREEN BUILDING Green building is the practice of increasing the efficiency with which buildings and their sites use and harvest energy, water, and materials, and reducing building impacts on human health and the environment, through better siting, design, construction, operation, maintenance, and removal — the complete building life cycle.energywatermaterialsthe environment designconstruction Green Building, also known as green construction or sustainable building: is the practice of creating structures and using processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life- cycle: from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and deconstruction. This practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility, durability, and comfort. Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation.environmental degradation
The fundamental principles in green building : Siting and Structure Design Efficiency, Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, Materials Efficiency, Indoor Environmental Quality Enhancement, Operations and Maintenance Optimization, Waste and Toxics Reduction.
ZERO-ENERGY BUILDING A zero energy building (ZEB) or net zero energy building is a general term applied to a building with zero net energy consumption and zero carbon emissions annually.building Zero energy buildings are autonomous from the energy grid supply - energy is produced on-site. This design principle is gaining considerable interest as renewable energy is a means to cut greenhouse gas emissions. Buildings use 40% of the total energy in the US and European Union. Sustainable Buildings Management (SBM) GREEN BUILDING
A building approaching zero energy use may be called a near- zero energy building or ultra-low energy house.low energy house Buildings that produce a surplus of energy during a portion of the year may be known as energy-plus buildings.energy-plus buildings An energy autarkic house is a building concept where the balance of the own energy consumption and production can be made on an hourly or even smaller basis.autarkic Energy autarkic houses can be taken off-the-grid. Sustainable Buildings Management (SBM) GREEN BUILDING
ZERO-ENERGY BUILDING: ZEB Zero Energy Buildings are usually built with significant energy- saving features. The heating and cooling are often drastically lowered by using high-efficiency equipment, added insulation, high-efficiency windows, natural ventilation.insulation In addition, free solar daylighting with skylites or solartubes can provide 100% of daytime illumination. Nighttime illumination is typically done with fluorescent and LED lighting that use 1/3 or less of the power of incandescent lights, without adding unwanted heat that incandescent lights do.daylightingfluorescentLED Other techniques to reach net zero (dependent on climate) are Earth sheltered building principles, superinsulation walls using strawbale construction, and exterior landscaping for seasonal shading.
Green building practices Green building brings together a vast array of practices and techniques to reduce and ultimately eliminate the impacts of buildings on the environment. There are several key steps in designing sustainable buildings: specify 'green' building materials from local sources, reduce loads, optimize systems, and generate on-site renewable energy. Sustainable Buildings Management (SBM) GREEN BUILDING
ARsitektur HIJAU In the broad context, sustainable architecture seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by enhancing efficiency and moderation in the use of materials, energy, and development space. Heating, Ventilation and Cooling System Efficiency The most important and cost effective element of an efficient heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is a well insulated building. A more efficient building requires less heat generating or dissipating power, but may require more ventilation capacity to expel polluted indoor air.
ZEB advantages 1.Isolation for building owners from future energy price increases 2.Increased comfort due to more-uniform interior temperatures (this can be demonstrated with comparative isotherm maps)isotherm 3.Reduced requirement for energy austerityausterity 4.Reduced total cost of ownership due to improved energy efficiencytotal cost of ownershipenergy efficiency 5.Reduced total net monthly cost of livingcost of living 6.Improved reliability - photovoltaic systems 7.Extra cost is minimized for new construction compared to an after- thought retrofit 8.Higher resale value as potential owners demand more ZEBs than available supply 9.The value of a ZEB building relative to similar conventional building should increase every time energy costs increase 10.Future legislative restrictions, and carbon emission taxes/ penalties may force expensive retrofits to inefficient buildings
Sustainable Water Management: SWM SWM is based upon the principles, namely: 1.Freshwater is a finite and valuable resource that is essential to sustain life, the environment and development. 2. The development and management of our water resources be based on a participatory approach, involving users, and policy makers at all levels. 3. Women play a central role in the provision, management and of water resources. 4. Water has an economic value and should therefore be seen as an economic good.
Water's vital role for the environment and humans is linked to five main functions : 1. Maintaining human health : clean water is essential for maintaining human health; 2. Maintaining environmental health : the health of aquatic ecosystems is essential for fish/seafood supply, is a major determinant of biodiversity, and provides for many other vital goods and services; 3. Supporting two production functions : a) biomass production, necessary for the supply of food, fuel wood and timber; and b) economic production, since industrial development has traditionally been "lubricated" by easy access to water; 4. Supporting two carrier functions : a) water plays an active role in diluting and transpiration wastes; and b) in the natural erosion and land processes of the global water cycle; 5. Psychological function, which makes water bodies, water views, fountains and so on fundamental components of human preferences and desires. Water also plays a role in many religions and cultural activities.
SUMBER AIR : HUJAN "Dan Yang menurunkan air dari langit menurut kadar (yang diperlukan) lalu Kami hidupkan dengan air itu negeri yang mati, seperti itulah kamu akan dikeluarkan (dari dalam kubur)." (Al Qur'an, 43:11) Diperkirakan dalam satu detik, sekitar 16 juta ton air menguap dari bumi. Angka ini menghasilkan 513 trilyun ton air per tahun. Angka ini ternyata sama dengan jumlah hujan yang jatuh ke bumi dalam satu tahun.
RAIN WATER Al A’raaf : 57. Dan Dialah yang meniupkan angin sebagai pembawa berita gembira sebelum kedatangan rahmat-Nya (hujan); hingga apabila angin itu telah membawa awan mendung, Kami halau ke suatu daerah yang tandus, lalu Kami turunkan hujan di daerah itu, maka Kami keluarkan dengan sebab hujan itu pelbagai macam buah-buahan. Seperti itulah Kami membangkitkan orang-orang yang telah mati, mudah- mudahan kamu mengambil pelajaran. Al Furqoon : 50. Dan sesungguhnya Kami telah mempergilirkan hujan itu diantara manusia supaya mereka mengambil pelajaran (dari padanya); maka kebanyakan manusia itu tidak mau kecuali mengingkari (nikmat).
Green water is a very important resource for global food production. About 60% of the world staple food production relies on … green water. The entire meat production from grazing relies on green water, and so does the production of wood from forestry. In drylands almost the entire food production depends on green water (the relative importance of irrigation is minor) and most of the industrial products, such as cotton, tobacco, wood, etc. Pengelolaan Air Hijau
BAGAIMANA MEMAKSIMUMKAN MANFAAT AIR HUJAN www.vito.be/.../RuimtelijkeMilieuaspecten/
Green water is ignored … by engineers because they can't pipe or pump it, by economists because they can't price it, and by governments because they can't tax it. www.fao.org/docrep/R4082E/r4082e03.htm
KREDIT AIR HIJAU Green water credits, however, are an opportunity to address this disparity while enhancing ecosystem services for both farmers and downstream stakeholders. The International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC) is pioneering green water credits, which it describes as:ISRIC A mechanism for direct payment to people in rural areas in return for water management activities which are presently un-recognized and unrewarded. Benefits to poor people drive this initiative which, at the same time, safeguards water resources and food security for everyone. With funding from the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), ISRIC is developing a proof-of-concept project that creates financial incentives for farmers in the developing world to better manage green water.SDCIFADgreen water
KREDIT AIR HIJAU ISRIC is taking three steps to implement green water credits: 1. Quantification of the resource and how it can be optimized by land use and management; 2.Valuation of its various uses and the costs of floods, sedimentation, and the diseases caused by a lack of clean water – enabling benefit cost analysis; 3. An agreed mechanism to: a.Specify optimum management and its water benefits; b. Negotiate a fair price; c. Establish that the work is done; d. Collect and pay credits.
MEMANEN HUJAN Rainwater harvesting is the gathering, or accumulating and storing, of rainwater. Rainwater harvesting has been used to provide drinking water, water for livestock, water for irrigation or to refill aquifers in a process called groundwater recharge. Rainwater collected from the roofs of houses, tents and local institutions, or from specially prepared areas of ground, can make an important contribution to drinking water.
MEMANEN AIR HUJAN In some cases, rainwater may be the only available, or economical, water source. Rainwater systems are simple to construct from inexpensive local materials, and are potentially successful in most habitable locations. Roof rainwater can be of good quality and may not require treatment before consumption. However some rooftop materials may produce rainwater that is harmful to human health. Household rainfall catchment systems are appropriate in areas with an average rainfall greater than 200 mm per year, and no other accessible water sources.
MEMANEN AIR HUJAN There are a number of types of systems to harvest rainwater ranging from very simple to the complex industrial systems. Generally, rainwater is either harvested from the ground or from a roof. The rate at which water can be collected from either system is dependent on the plan area of the system, its efficiency, and the intensity of rainfall.
BAGAIMANA MEMANEN AIR HUJAN ? Harvest is defined as (1) to gather in or (2) to accumulate a store of. Consequently to harvest rainwater means to gather it in. In any house, this was done with an old wood barrel. It was put beside the house and rainwater drained into it. We would use this water to drink, clean the dishes and everything else you can think of.
MEMANEN AIR HUJAN DARI ATAP RUMAH www.solarhaven.org/WaterStorage.htm
MEMANEN AIR HUJAN DI TEMPAT JATUHNYA www.libertyparkusafd.org/lp/BuildingGreenUSA/...
DIMANA HUJAN JATUH ? Fortunately it comes FREE from the sky. They still have not figured out a way to privatize rain yet. Someone is actually thinking about those air space rights. cutawayview.wordpress.com/.../
BAGAIMANA CARANYA MEMANEN HUJAN? Catch it in anything that holds waters. Many landscape or garden stores can tell you where to buy barrels. We have a wide variety, with some selling new barrels and other selling barrels that have been recycled. Landscapers and even one of the gutter installers rainwater collection. Some cities offer incentives, Once you have a container, simply put the barrel beneath where the rainwater runs off your roof and you have started harvesting. Look for barrels that have a faucet attachment where you can attach a hose to use the captured water for your yard.
MEMANEN AIR HUJAN DI PERMUKIMAN www.johnsonslandscaping.com/.../raingardens/
RAIN GARDENs A rain garden is a planted depression that is designed to allow rainwater runoff the opportunity to be absorbed from impervious urban areas like roofs, driveways, walkways, and compacted lawn areas. This reduces rain runoff by allowing stormwater to soak into the ground (as opposed to flowing into storm drains and surface waters which causes erosion, water pollution, flooding, and diminished groundwater). Rain gardens can cut down on the amount of WAT ER, SEDIMENT a nd pollution reaching streams by up to 30%.
RAIN GARDENs Rain gardens are beneficial for many reasons: improve water quality by filtering run-off, provide localized flood control, aesthetically pleasing, and provide interesting planting opportunities. They also encourage wildlife and biodiversity, tie together buildings and their surrounding environments in attractive and environmentally advantageous ways, and provide significant partial solutions to important environmental problems that affect us all. A rain garden provides a way to use and optimize any rain that falls, reducing or avoiding the need for irrigation. They allow a household or building to deal with excessive rainwater runoff without burdening the public storm water systems.irrigation Rain gardens differ from retention basins, in that the water will infiltrate the ground within a day or two. This creates the advantage that the rain garden does not allow mosquitoes to breed.mosquitoes
Model Rain-gardens dgn aneka vegetasi www.ci.des-moines.ia.us/.../rain_gardens.htm
KOLAM SISTEM SURJAN PENAMPUNG AIR HUJAN www.ecotippingpoints.org/.../index.html
Berapa ukuran Penampung air hujan? Rain barrels vary in size from a few gallons/liters to about 100 gallons (i.e. 378 liters). Most barrels are around 50-60 gallons (i.e. 189 - 227 liters). Rainwater tanks run from several hundred gallons/liters to many thousand gallons (i.e. 7,000 – 75,000 liters). My tanks are about 2,000 gallons each (i.e. 7,570 liters each).
Menyiram tanaman dgn air hujan ? Yes, but grass usually takes a lot of water. A typical lawn requires about 3,000 gallons (i.e. 11,355 liters) a month. This means you would need some large tanks to hold the water, especially in drier climates. Additionally, you would need a large surface area to capture the rain. However, rain barrels can and should be used to augment your watering. This will cut your watering bill and be better for your grass. I recommend before going with big tanks to water your lawn you look at reducing your outdoor water consumption. But remember, rainwater is still free. The constraint is the cost of the reservoir-tank & its delivery system.
Bagaimana kualitas air hujan ? Rain water is generally free of harmful minerals and in most cases chemicals, but can be adversely effected by air pollutants and/or contaminated by animals in the catchment area. Due to increasing levels of pollutants, city and bottled water providers are increasingly turning to use of sophisticated treatment processes and chemincals to ensure a quality product. Consequently, rainwater for drinking should be carefully stored and treated prior to consumption. Pollution can add undesirable elements to the water. And now we know that open water sources can harbor bacteria and other health threatening organisms.
Bagaimana dgn Kolam Penampung air Hujan? Kolam penampung air hujan dapat dibuat dengan beragam ukuran dan bentuk, serta volumenya. Kolam untuk memelihara ikan dapat dirancang sedemikian rupa sehingga dapat menampung air hujan dalam periode waktu pemeliharaan ikan (3-4 bulan)
KOLAM IKAN PENAMPUNG AIR HUJAN www.ehow.com/how_5690870_create-fishpond-back...
Sustainable Forest Management SFM Forest management is the branch of forestry concerned with the overall administrative, economic, legal, and social aspects and with the essentially scientific and technical aspects, especially silviculture, protection, and forest regulation. protection This includes management for aesthetics, fish, recreation, urban values, water, wilderness, wildlife, wood products, forest genetic resources and other forest resource values.recreation waterwildlifewood products Management can be based on conservation, economics, or a mixture of the two. Techniques include timber extraction, planting and replanting of various species, cutting roads and pathways through forests, and preventing fire.replanting
Pengelolaan hutan lestari: Yakni hutan yang sehat secara EKOLOGI serta produktif secara ekonomi. Sustainable forest management (SFM) is the management of forests according to the principles of sustainable development. Sustainable forest management uses very broad social, economic and environmental goals. Sustainable forest management as: The stewardship and use of forests and forest lands in a way, and at a rate, that maintains their biodiversity, productivity, regeneration capacity, vitality and their potential to fulfill, now and in the future, relevant ecological, economic and social functions, at local, national, and global levels, and that does not cause damage to other ecosystems.
Seven key elements of sustainable forest management are: 1.Extent of forest resources 2.Biological diversity 3.Forest health and vitality 4.Productive functions and forest resources 5.Protective functions of forest resources 6.Socio-economic functions 7.Legal, policy and institutional framework.
Sustainable Agriculture Management ( SAM ) Sustainable agriculture integrates three main goals: environmental stewardship, farm profitability, and prosperous farming communities.environmental stewardshipfarmprofitabilityfarmingcommunities Sustainable agriculture refers to agricultural production that can be maintained without harming the environment. www.umanitoba.ca/afs/ncle/Research Projects.html
Sustainable Agriculture Management (S A M) It has been defined as follows: “the term sustainable agriculture means an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will, over the long term: Satisfy human food and fiber needs Enhance environmental quality and the natural resource base upon which the agricultural economy depends Make the most efficient use of nonrenewable resources and on-farm resources and integrate, where appropriate, natural biological cycles and controls Sustain the economic viability of farm operations Enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole.”
Forest Farm Management Forest farming is an agroforestry practice characterized by the four "I's"- Intentional, Integrated, Intensive and Interactive management of an existing forested ecosystem wherein forest health is of paramount concern. It is neither forestry nor farming in the traditional sense. Forest farm management principles constitute an ecological approach to forest management through efforts to find a balance between conservation of native biodiversity and wildlife habitat within the forest and limited, judicious utilization of the forest's varied resources.
Sustainable griculture and Farming systems : 1.A sustainable farming system is a system in which natural resources are managed so that crop yields do not decline over time. 2.A sustainable farming system is a system in which natural resources are managed so that the stock of natural resources do not decline over time. 3.A sustainable farming system is one that satisfies minimum conditions of ecosystem stability and resilience over time. 4.A concept related to sustainable farming systems is HNV farming systems, which are likely to be of importance from a nature-conservation point of view. 5.Sustainable agriculture is organized so that the necessary support services (credit, extension, and input supply) are guaranteed. 6.Sustainable agriculture is a system guaranteeing equality, i.e. distributional and welfare aspects are given due attention through institutions that make farmer participation possible, that are concerned about the poor and that are administered with a bottom-up approach. 7.A sustainable farming system is not unduly constrained by the socio- cultural environment or the policy-institutional environment.
DELAPAN CIRI SISTEM USAHATANI LESTARI : 1.Productivity - Land - Soils 2.Profitability 3.Stability 4.Diversity 5.Flexibility 6.Time-dispersion 7.Sustainability 8.Complementarity and environmental compatibility
PENGELOLAAN LAHAN LESTARI Soil quality is defined as “the capacity of a soil to function within ecosystem boundaries to sustain biological productivity, maintain environmental health, and promote plant and animal health” Suitability Evalution of Land & Soils Constraints & Limiting Factors Best Management Practices
Principles of Sustainable Land Management: SLM land should be managed to deliver a wide range of benefits beyond food and fibre production. These include: wildlife and distinctive landscape character; opportunities for public access; and flood protection and water management. Principle 1. Multi-functionality: Land management should reflect the principles of sustainable development. Land management should: Safeguard the primary environmental resources of air, soils and water; Contribute to long term robust and adaptable rural economies; Maintain and enhance landscapes, countryside character, biodiversity, historic and cultural values; Support rural communities - especially the people whose livelihoods depend on it, directly or indirectly. Principle 2. Sustainability:
Principles of Sustainable Land Management: SLM Land management must be integrated with rural development. Land management underpins other parts of the rural economy, for example by supplying products directly and indirectly (by maintaining the landscape) upon which rural tourism is based. Businesses based on land management provide business for other rural firms. Principle 3. Integration: a framework which can reflect regional and local needs and aspirations. People should have a greater voice in shaping land management to deliver public benefits - while still reflecting the fact that most land will remain in private ownership. These four principles of sustainable land management guide and inform our work. Principle 4. Subsidiarity:
PERIKANAN LESTARI Long term constant yield is the idea that, when undisturbed, nature establishes a steady state that changes little over time. If fishing is done properly, at about the level of maximum sustainable yield, then nature will also adjust and settle down to a new steady state, with the harvest occurring sustainably in a stable and predictable way. However, this is a naive view. Such constancy is not an attribute of marine ecosystems, and this approach fails. It is entirely natural for stock abundance to fluctuate, and the potential yield of fish stocks changes with naturally occurring short and long term variations.
PERIKANAN LESTARI Preserving intergenerational equity acknowledges that natural fluctuations occur, and regards as unsustainable practices which would result in a deterioration of the genetic structure, or habitat loss, or depletion of stock levels to the point where it requires several generations for rebuilding. Providing the stock can be rebuild within one generation, overfishing may be economically foolish, but it is not unsustainable. This is currently a widely accepted definition.
PERIKANAN LESTARI Maintaining a biological, social and economic system is a perspective which considers the health of the human ecosystem as well as the marine ecosystem. A mixed-species fishery which rotates its fishing effort can deplete individual stocks and still be sustainable so long as the ecosystem retains its intrinsic integrity. Such a definition might consider as sustainable fishing practices that lead to the reduction and possible extinction of some members of the ecosystem SERVICES.
The nine commandments for ecosystem-based fisheries : 1.Keep a perspective that is holistic, risk-adverse and adaptive. 2.Maintain an “old growth” structure in fish populations, since big, old and fat female fish have been shown to be the best spawners, but are also susceptible to overfishing. 3.Characterize and maintain the natural spatial structure of fish stocks, so that management boundaries match natural boundaries in the sea. 4.Monitor and maintain seafloor habitats to make sure fish have food and shelter. 5.Maintain resilient ecosystems that are able to withstand occasional shocks. 6.Identify and maintain critical food-web connections, including predators and forage species. 7.Adapt to ecosystem changes through time, both short-term and on longer cycles of decades or centuries, including global climate change. 8.Account for evolutionary changes caused by fishing, which tends to remove large, older fish. 9.Include the actions of humans and their social and economic systems in all ecological equations.
SUSTAINABLE WASTES MANAGEMENT Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal of waste materials, usually ones produced by human activity, in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or local aesthetics or amenity. A subfocus in recent decades has been to reduce waste materials' effect on the natural world and the environment and to recover resources from them. www2.le.ac.uk/.../whyrecycle/wasteandenvironment
HIERARKHI LIMBAH The waste hierarchy refers to the "3 Rs" reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste minimization.reducereuse recycle The waste hierarchy remains the cornerstone of most waste minimisation strategies. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste.
METODE PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH Landfill A properly-designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials in a way that minimises their impact on the local environment. A poorly-designed or poorly-managed landfills can create a number of adverse environmental impacts such as wind-blown litter, attraction of vermin, and generation of leachate where result of rain percolating through the waste and reacting with the products of decomposition, chemicals and other materials in the waste to produce the leachate which can pollute groundwater and surface water.litter verminleachate Another byproduct of landfills is landfill gas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide), which is produced as organic waste breaks down anaerobically. This gas can create odor problems, kill surface vegetation, and is a greenhouse gas.methane
METODE PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH Incineration Incineration is a waste disposal method that involves the combustion of waste at high temperatures.combustion Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are described as "thermal treatment". In effect, incineration of waste materials converts the waste into heat, gaseous emissions, and residual solid ash. Other types of thermal treatment include pyrolysis and gasification.heat A waste-to-energy plant (WtE) is a modern term for an incinerator that burns wastes in high-efficiency furnace/boilers to produce steam and/or electricity and incorporates modern air pollution control systems and continuous emissions monitors. This type of incinerator is sometimes called an energy- from-waste (EfW) facility.
METODE PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH Resource recovery The process of extracting resources or value from waste is variously referred to as secondary resource recovery, recycling, and other terms. The practice of treating waste materials as a resource is becoming more common, especially in metropolitan areas where space for new landfills is becoming scarcer. Some resource recovery takes place by way of manual labourers who sift through un-segregated waste to salvage material that can be sold in the recycling market. These unrecognised workers called waste pickers or rag pickers, are part of the informal sector, but play a significant role in reducing the load on municipalities' solid waste management departments.waste pickers PEMULUNG + PROBLEMATIKANYA
PENGELOLAAN SAMPAH KOTA MALANG: RESOURCES RECOVERY Pengumpulan: TPS - TPA Pemilahan: Gradasi Sortasi Pakasi Plastik bernilai ekonomi: 12 jenis dgn harga masing-masing Kertas bernilai ekonomi 9 jenis dgn harga masing-masing Log a m bernilai ekonomi G a lss bernilai ekonomi B a h a n org a nik bernilai ekonomi 7 jenis dgn harga masing-masing Industri pengolahan Kompos & Pupuk Organik 5 jenis dgn harga masing-masing
METODE PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH Daur Ulang Recycling means to recover for other use a material that would otherwise be considered waste. The popular meaning of ‘recycling’ refer to the widespread collection and reuse of various everyday waste materials, such as newspapers and drink bottles. They are collected and sorted into common types so that the raw materials from these items can be used again to create new products. The most common consumer items recycled include aluminium beverage cans, steel, food and aerosol cans, HDPE and PET bottles, glass bottles and jars, paperboard cartons, newspapers, magazines, and cardboard.PET
Dekomposisi Anaerobik Waste materials that are organic in nature, such as plant material, food scraps, and paper products, are increasingly being recycled using biogical composting and/or digestion processes to decompose the organic matter and kill pathogens. The resulting organic material is then recycled as mulch or compost for agricultural or landscaping purposes.
VERMI- KOMPOSTING Limbah organik yang mengandung logam berat Proses vermi-komposting: Dengan agen hayati Bakteri dan Cacing PUPUK KOMPOS: 1. Nilai-pupuk yang tinggi 2. Bebas logam berat
Penjelasan undang-undang 18/2008 tentang asas nilai ekonomi disebutkan: ”Yang dimaksud dengan “asas nilai ekonomi” adalah bahwa sampah merupakan sumberdaya yang mempunyai nilai ekonomi yang dapat dimanfaatkan sehingga memberi nilai tambah”. Undang-undang ini ingin “menciptakan pemahaman” bahwa sampah adalah sumber daya bernilai ekonomis. Sebab selama ini, pemahaman banyak orang, sampah adalah sesuatu yang harus dibuang karena tidak terpakai lagi. Undang-undang ini ingin merubah pemikirian, merubah cara pandang orang. Ini semangat positif thinking yang luar biasa, dan upaya positif thinking harus didukung.
MAKNA KHALIFAH Semua manusia yang diciptakan oleh Allah di muka bumi adalah Khalifah Allah; atau pengganti makhluk Tuhan untuk melaksanakan amanah Tuhan sebagai pengelola bumi ini. Allah memberikan amanah kepada semua manusia (Khulafa) untuk membangun bumi ini; bukan kepada Malaikat, Jin, Hewan, gunung, langit dan lain sebagainya; walaupun mereka juga ciptaan Allah. “Sesungguhnya kami telah menawarkan amanah kepada langit, bumi dan gunung-gunung”. (Qs. 33:72). Manusialah yang sanggup untuk memegang amanah itu karena potensi yang dimiliki oleh manusia.
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