2 Library of Congress Prints and Photographs. John Brown believed that God commanded him to rid slavery from the United States. After leading raids in Kansas with 5 of his sons, he moved to Virginia to plan an attack that would free all the slaves. Brown was wounded and captured and later hanged for treason on December 2, 1859, for his role in trying to capture the American fort at Harpers FerryfromLibrary of Congress Prints and Photographs.John Brown, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing slightly rightJohn Brown, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing slightly right
3 1. What was John Brown best known for? His piercing, deep burning eyes which could look right through you or burn holes through you.
4 2. What two things did John Brown talk about the most when people encountered him? Slavery and how rotten it was or the Bible
5 3. How many African Americans were held in bondage during John Brown’s time? 4,000,000
6 4. What were some romantic descriptions Southerners used for slavery? Owners took care of slaves’ bodily comforts and careful religious instruction(made Christians of them)
7 5. What things made slavery bad? It limited hopes and dreams of slaves, kept them from having any personality or human life. It created hopelessness by not allowing slaves any control over their lives.
8 6. Where did John Brown first learn to hate slavery? He learned from his father.
9 7. What happened during John Brown’s first encounter with slaves? He saw a slave being whipped.
10 8. What were some jobs that John Brown worked at in his earlier years? He owned a tannery in Ohio, was a farmer, a postmaster, a shepherd, and worked in the wool business.
11 9. What law had a huge impact on John Brown in 1850? The Fugitive Slave Act
12 COMPROMISE OF 1850 Southerners threatened secession over issue Henry Clay again worked a CompromiseFor the North: California would be admitted as free stateSlave trade abolished in Washington, D.C.For the South: A more effective fugitive slave lawResidents of New Mexico & Utah would vote themselvesPicture from: The United States Senate, A.DCONGRESSIONAL DEBATEThe United States Senate, A.D – Library of Congress Prints and Photographs
13 FUGITIVE SLAVE ACTUnder the law, runaway slaves were not entitled to a trial by juryAnyone helping a slave escape was jailed for 6 months and fined $1,000Northerners were upset by the harshness of the new law and often helped hide fugitive slavesEffects of the Fugitive Slave Law – Library of Congress Prints and Photographs
14 What do you think happened? The Fugitive Slave ActFederal Commissioner ruled on each caseReceived $5 for releasing defendantReceived $10 to return to slaveholderWhat do you think happened?
15 The Fugitive Slave Act cont. Southerners felt FSA was justified becauseslaves were considered propertyNortherners resented law because it made them part of the slavery system by requiring them to capture runaway slavesIt placed fines on people who wouldn’t cooperate and jail terms on those who helped slaves escapeNortherners faced a moral choicea. Obey law and support slaveryb. Disobey law and oppose slaveryQuestion: How could a northerner break the law under the Fugitive Slave Act?
16 10. What black man inspired John Brown? Frederick Douglass
17 11. What famous book, written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, heightened the awareness of slavery in America?
18 11. UNCLE TOM’S CABINIn 1852, Harriet Beecher Stowe published her influential novel, Uncle Tom’s CabinThe book stressed the moral evil of slaverySoutherners protested that it did not portray slavery accuratelyAbolitionist protests increasedInstant best seller sold 500,000 by 1857Eliza Pursued by Bloodhoundsfrom the Library of Congress Printsand Photographs
19 12. What 1854 law allowed for the possibility of slavery in the Kansas Territory?
20 TENSION BUILDS IN KANSAS After Stephen Douglas worked to pass the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, Kansas would vote to decide on whether slavery would be legal or outlawedThis contradicted the 36° 30” of the Missouri Compromisevs.Image from an unknown source
21 12. The Kansas-Nebraska Act Proposed by Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois to divide up Nebraska Territory into Kansas and NebraskaLet people decide through popular sovereignty whether or not to allow slavery (Why did he do this?)Would end Missouri CompromiseTurned Kansas into a bloody battleground
22 BLEEDING KANSASThe race for Kansas was on. . .both supporters and opponents attempted to populate Kansas to win the vote over slaveryAs the election neared, a group of pro-slavery “border ruffians” from Missouri attempted to cross into KansasViolence erupted – Bleeding Kansas is the legacyPicture from an unknown sourceFinally, after years of fighting, Kansas is admitted as a free state in 1861
23 More Bleeding Kansas Election for government held in 1855 More proslavery than antislavery5000 proslavery Missourian’s voted illegally to swing vote for proslaveryProslavery government wonAntislavery forces elected own governmentBoth sides armed themselves“Sack of Lawrence” in May of 1856
24 http://www. latinamericanstudies. org/filibusters/titus1 Ruins of the Free-State Hotel in Lawrence in 1856 as sketched in Sara T. D. Robinson's book, Kansas; Its Interior and Exterior Life. The hotel was destroyed by Proslavery men led by Sheriff Samuel J. Jones, who were acting without authorization. Both the New England Emigrant Aid Company and its assignee, the University of Kansas, several times tried unsuccessfully to collect damages from the federal government.
25 13. Who were border ruffians? They were pro-slavery men from Missouri who came to offend (cause) violence in Kansas or to affect the election for the pro-slavery government of Kansas.14. Why did border ruffians hate the city of Lawrence, KS?Lawrence was the center of the anti-slavery movement in Kansas.
26 15. What happened in Lawrence? A pro-slavery mob attacked the city which became known as the “Sack ofLawrence.”
27 16. What violent act that took place in Congress upset John Brown greatly? Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts was attacked by Preston BrooksViolence in CongressCharles Sumner from Massachusetts delivered a speech in the Senate attacking proslavery forces in KansasInsulted Sen. A.P. Butler of S.C.Preston Brooks, Butler’s nephew, attacked Sumner on the Senate floor with his cane, hitting him about 30 times and breaking the cane
28 Charles Sumner of Massachusetts delivered a blistering speech in the Senate attacking the spread of slavery into Kansas. In his speech he attacked fellow Senators Douglas of Illinois and Butler of South Carolina. It took Sumner three years to regain his health enough to return to the Senate.Hon. Charles Sumner - the great senator and statesman, the champion of civil and political equality - born January 6th 1811, died March 11th 1874 from Library of Congress Prints and PhotographsPreston Brooks was the nephew of A.P. Butler who was singled out by Sumner in his speech. Brooks was never charged with a crime but resigned his seat in the House after surviving a censure vote. He was soon reelected to fill his own vacancy.Top Picture: Hon. Charles Sumner - the great senator and statesman, the champion of civil and political equality - born January 6th 1811, died March 11th 1874Bottom Picture:
29 17. What did John Brown and his men do to avenge the Sack of Lawrence? They murdered 5 pro-slavery men by cutting up their bodies with swords and then threw their hacked up bodies in the Pottawattamie Creek.John BrownAvenged the Sack of LawrenceWith 7 other men he murdered 5 proslavery neighbors while they slept in their bedsKnown as the Pottawatomie Massacre after creek where victims bodies were foundCivil war broke out in Kansas for 3 more years
30 18. What became John Brown’s principal object for slavery? He wanted to overthrow slavery.
31 19. Why did John Brown select the state of Virginia as his base for overthrowing slavery? It was close to a large population of slaves who could rise up and help him. It was also near the junction of the Potomac and Shenandoah Rivers where they could spread the revolt.
33 20. What weapon did John Brown have made for slaves to use? 1000 pikes
34 When John Brown raided the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, VA, how did the first part of his plan succeed?He managed to capture the arsenal.
35 HARPERS FERRYWhile politicians debated the slavery issue, John Brown plotted a major slave revoltOn October 16, 1859, he led a band of 21 men, black and white, into Harpers Ferry, VirginiaHe hoped to seize a large federal arsenal, but troops put down the rebellionBrown was tried and executedARSENALJohn BrownPrints and PhotographsHarpers Ferry Arsenal photoBROWN
36 John Brown Attacks Harpers Ferry Wanted to arm slaves to revolt for their freedomPlanned to capture weapons at the U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry, VAOct. 16, 1859, Brown and his followers captured the arsenal, killing 4 peopleBrown sent out word to arm the slaves but none cameMarines attacked the fort and captured Brown 6 of his followersBrown was hung for treason
37 22. What did John Brown not count on during his raid at Harpers Ferry? He didn’t realize that people in the town would besiege him.
38 23. What help was John Brown looking for that did not materialize 23. What help was John Brown looking for that did not materialize? No slaves came to help.
39 24. Who led the troops from Washington, D.C., that captured Brown? Col. Robert E. Lee of the U.S. Marines
40 25. What happened to John Brown during the attack by the Marines? He was wounded and captured.
41 26. During his trial, what did John Brown become? He became a preacher that put slavery and the country on trial.
42 27. What was John Brown’s ultimate fate? He was tried for treason and hanged to death on November 30, 1859.
43 Is John Brown A Hero Or Villian What Do You Think?Is John Brown A Hero Or Villian