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2 Apakah yang disebut sebagai getaran? Pusat K3 ©  Frequency  Amplitude  Acceleration

3 Apakah Vibrasi itu? Vibration is defined by its magnitude and frequency. The magnitude of vibration could be expressed as the vibration displacement (in meters), the vibration velocity (in meters per second) or the vibration acceleration (in meters per second per second or m/s²). Most vibration transducers produce an output that is related to acceleration; so acceleration has traditionally been used to describe vibration

4 Vibration Exposure Pusat K3© Contact with Vibrating Machine: Segmental Vibration ‘Segment of body’ such as hand-transmitted vibration (known as hand-arm vibration or HAV) Whole Body Vibration Vibration transmitted through the seat or feet (known as whole- body vibration or WBV).

5 Pusat K3 © Hand Arm Vibration WHAT IS HAV? HAV is vibration transmitted from work processes into workers’ hands and arms. It can be caused by operating hand-held power tools such as road breakers, hand-guided equipment such as lawn mowers, or by holding materials being processed by machines such as pedestal grinders. WHEN IS IT HAZARDOUS? Regular and frequent exposure to high levels of vibration can lead to permanent injury. This is most likely when contact with a vibrating tool or process is a regular part of a person’s job.

6 Pusat K3 © Hand Arm Vibration Moderate vibration High vibration  impact wrenches  carpet strippers  chain saws  percussive tools jack hammers scalers riveting or chipping hammers  grinders  sanders  jig saws

7 Pusat K3 © Hand Arm Vibration - Causes & Effects WHAT INJURIES CAN HAV CAUSE? Regular exposure to HAV can cause a range of permanent injuries to hands and arms including damage to the:  Blood circulatory system (e.g. vibration white finger)  Sensory nerves  Muscles  Bones  Joints

8 Pusat K3 © Hand Arm Vibration Management & Control Risk Management Process Risk Management Process Identify Sources Monitor & Evaluate Implement Controls Assess Exposures

9 Pusat K3 © Hand Arm Vibration – Management & Control Tool & Machine Manufacturers are required by law to:  Design and construct equipment which will cause the minimum risk of vibration injury;  Provide you with warning of any residual risks from vibration;  Provide you with information on vibration levels;  Provide you with instructions on how to use the equipment to avoid risks from vibration. Manufacturers’ vibration data needs careful interpretation

10 Pusat K3 © Remote control vibratory plate Operator vibration exposure - Zero

11 Pusat K3 © Vibration reduced breaker  Keep the moil point sharp  Break a little at a time,  Don’t get jammed  Don’t force anti-vibration handles  Stop breaker before pulling out

12 Found in electric, pneumatic or gas driven tools Industries: – Construction – Logging – Equipment and machinery repair – Ship Yards – Automobile manufacturing and repair – Building and maintenance of roads and railways – Foundries – Mines and quarries – Plate and sheet metal manufacturing – Public Services and public utilities

13 What is Hand-Arm Vibration? Hand-Arm Vibration is the transfer of vibration from a tool to a worker’s hand and arm. Acceleration - the rate of change of velocity in speed or direction per unit time (e.g., per second) The amount of HAV is related to the acceleration level of the tool when grasped by the worker and in use. The vibration is typically measured at the handle of the tool while in use to determine the acceleration levels transferred to the worker. …another way of putting it is the speed at which the vibrating surface goes back and forth…

14 Pusat K3 © Whole Body Vibration Whole Body Vibration -WBV  WBV is caused by machinery vibration passing through the buttocks of seated people or the feet of standing people. The most widely reported WBV injury is back pain.  Many sources of back injury in addition to WBV, which must be adequately controlled if risk of back pain and injury is to be minimised  Those at risk include regular drivers of:  Construction and quarrying vehicles and machinery  Tractors and other agricultural and forestry machinery  Industrial trucks such as lift trucks  Road haulage vehicles, rail vehicles, and buses  Those operating large static compaction, hammering and mobile crushers can be exposed to high levels of WBV  Those working on vibrating platforms

15 Whole Body Vibration(WBV) WBV refers to mechanical energy oscillations which are transferred to the body as a whole (in contrast to specific body regions), usually through a supporting system such as a seat or platform. Typical exposures include driving automobiles and trucks, and operating industrial vehicles.

16 Pelaksanaan Pengukuran Getaran Persiapan alat serta pernak-perniknya Memastikan kalibrasi Memasang pernak-pernik alat sesuai dgn getaran yang akan diukur Memasangkan transducer pada obyek pengukuran Merekam hasil pengukuran  mencatat Menginterpretasi hasil pengukuran Menuangkan dalam laporan

17 VI-400PRO The VI-400PRO is an all digital, four channel, Type 1 vibration meter and analyzer, with optional Class 1 sound analysis. It is an ideal choice for machine, hand-arm or whole body vibration measurement using channels 1, 2 and 3 with appropriate accelerometer/s and sound measurement using channel 4 with a microphone and preamp.

18 Tampilan Depan VI-400PRO The front panel of the VI- 400Pro instrument contains the following control push- buttons: 1., ( ). 2. escape, (<>) backlight. 3. alternate function. 4. <> up arrow. 5. <> left arrow. 6. <> right arrow. 7. <> down arrow. 8., ( ). 9..

19 Persiapan Peralatan Peralatan Alat utama pengukur getaran Baterrei Transducers (dan kabelnya) Formulir pencatat hasil

20 Proses Pengukuran 1. Setting peralatan 2. Mengetest alat  kalibrasi 3. Pemasangan transducer ke obyek yang diukur 4. Pengukuran hingga waktu tertentu selama obyek berproses 5. Merekam/mencatat angka maximum yang tertera didisplay 6. Interpretasi hasil pengukuran 7. Menuangkan dalam laporan

21 Setting Alat

22 Kalibrasi Alat 1. Sensitivity 2. Measurement Connecting the shaker and accelerometer

23 EN ISO 5349-2:2001 Mechanical vibration — Measurement and evaluation of human exposure to hand-transmitted vibration — Part 2: Practical guidance for measurement at the workplace

24 Memasang tranducers pada hand arm

25 Memasang transducers pada whole body

26 Connect Hand-Arm Accelerometer to VI-400Pro


28 Attach Hand-Arm Accelerometer to Tool to be Monitored

29 Have Worker Operate Tool Collect Data While Tool is in Use

30 Letakan Seat Pad Accelerometer pada obyek yang akan dimonitor

31 Have Vehicle Operator Sit on Seat Pad Collect Data While Vehicle is in Use

32 Turn on VI-400Pro using the Proceed/Pause and Start/Stop button simultaneously

33 Place VI-400Pro in Run Mode to Recording Data by pressing the Start/Stop button

34 Stop Recording at End of Desired Monitoring Period by pressing the Start/Stop button

35 Connect USB Computer Interface Cable between VI-400Pro and PC





40 Standar Evaluasi Getaran di Tempat Kerja Kep Menaker No.51/MEN/1999 – Nilai Ambang Batas Faktor Fisika di Tempat Kerja Hand-arm (8 jam) = 0.4 m/s 2 Whole Body (8 jam) = 0.5 m/s 2 Standar lain (Kep Men LH 49 Tahun 1996 – Baku Mutu Tingkat Getaran) Konversi : Percepatan = (2pf)2 x simpangan Kecepatan = 2pf x simpangan p = 3,14

41 Vibrations arise when a body moves back and forth due to external and internal forces, Figure B.1. In the case of whole-body vibration, it may be the seat of a vehicle or the platform on which a worker is standing that vibrates, and this motion is transmitted into the body of the driver

42 Vibration is defined by its magnitude and frequency. The magnitude of vibration could be expressed as the vibration displacement (in metres), the vibration velocity (in metres per second) or the vibration acceleration (in metres per second per second or m/s²). However, most vibration transducers produce an output that is related to acceleration (their output is dependent on the force acting on a fixed mass within the transducer and, for a fixed mass, force and acceleration are directly related); so acceleration has traditionally been used to describe vibration.

43 Frequency represents the number of times per second the vibrating body moves back and forth. It is expressed as a value in cycles per second, more usually known as hertz (abbreviated to Hz). For whole-body vibration, the frequencies thought to be important range from 0.5Hz to 80Hz. However, because the risk of damage is not equal at all frequencies a frequency-weighting is used to represent the likelihood of damage from the different frequencies. As a result, the weighted acceleration decreases when the frequency increases. For whole-body vibration, two different frequency weightings are used. One weighting (the Wd weighting) applies to the two lateral axes: x and y, and another (the Wk weighting) applies to the vertical, z-axis vibration

44 Both parameters A(8) and VDV are defined in ISO 2631-1:1997 The vibration directive allows for two vibration assessment methods: the daily exposure, A(8) - the continuous equivalent acceleration, normalised to an 8 hour day, the A(8) value is based on root-mean- square averaging of the acceleration signal and has units of m/s²; and the vibration dose value (VDV) is a cumulative dose, based on the 4th root-meanquad of the acceleration signal with units of m/s1.75

45 ISO 2631-1:1997 Mechanical vibration and shock – Evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration – Part 1: General requirements

46 Whole Body Vibration a daily exposure action value of 0.5 m/s² (or, at the choice of the EC Member State, a vibration dose value of 9.1 m/s1.75); a daily exposure limit value of 1.15 m/s² (or, at the choice of the EC Member State, a vibration dose value of 21 m/s1.75);

47 Human exposure to whole-body vibration should be evaluated using the method defined in International Standard ISO 2631-1:1997 and detailed practical guidance on using the method for measurement of vibration at the workplace is given in EN 14253:2003.

48 The root-mean-square (r.m.s) vibration magnitude is expressed in terms of the frequency-weighted acceleration at the seat of a seated person or the feet of a standing person (see Annex B), it is expressed in units of metres per second squared (m/s²). The r.m.s vibration magnitude represents the average acceleration over a measurement period. It is the highest of three orthogonal axes values (1.4awx, 1.4awy or awz) that is used for the exposure assessment.

49 The vibration dose value (or VDV) provides an alternative measure of vibration exposure. The VDV was developed as a measure that gives a better indication of the risks from vibrations that include shocks. The units for VDV are metres per second to the power 1.75 (m/s1.75), and unlike the r.m.s vibration magnitude, the measured VDV is cumulative value, i.e. it increases with measurement time. It is therefore important for any measurement of VDV to know the period over which the value was measured. It is the highest of three orthogonal axis values (1.4VDVwx, 1.4VDVwy or VDVwz) that is used for the exposure assessment

50 Pusat K3 © Any questions? Also for guidance & solutions see: Links to information including vibration databases on occupational vibration available at:

51 1. Gather Required Equipment 2. VI-400Pro Advanced Vibration Analyzer 3. Hand-Arm Accelerometer with Cable 4. Hose Clamp and Mounting Block 5. USB Computer Interface Cable 6. IBM-compatible PC with USB Port 7. QuestSuite® Professional II (QSP II) Application Software CD


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