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Terri M. Manning, Ed.D. Central Piedmont Community College.

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Presentation on theme: "Terri M. Manning, Ed.D. Central Piedmont Community College."— Presentation transcript:

1 Terri M. Manning, Ed.D. Central Piedmont Community College

2 A lot is going on in community colleges across the country – focusing on students success, retention, graduation, improving higher education opportunities » Achieving the Dream (first Lumina – now 80 funders) » The Rural Community College Initiative (Ford) » The Developmental Education Initiative (Gates) » Global Skills for College Success (Gates through the League to LaGuardia to 16 institutions in 14 states) » We can learn from these initiatives and use their data and techniques

3 Disbelief & Denial Paralysis - Passive resistance Anger and antagonism Resistant & Reactive Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 4 Depression Compliance - Passive reactive Acceptance & adaptation Challenge & competition Catalyst - Proactive Stage 5 Stage 3 Bargaining - no time/no money Seek outside sources

4 All NCCCS Curriculum Students in 2008-09 (IPEDS Annual Enrollments) males % male by racefemales % females by raceTotal % total by race Native American1,4791.2%3,3761.8%4,8551.5% Asian/Pac. Islander2,2931.9%3,0811.6%5,3741.7% Black/Afr. Amer.23,42019.3%51,14326.5%74,56323.7% Hispanic/Latino4,7393.9%6,8353.5%11,5743.7% White82,58468.0%119,00361.7%201,58764.2% Non Res. Alien1,3481.1%1,8310.9%3,1791.0% Other/unknown5,5254.6%7,4953.9%13,0204.1% Total 121,38838.6%192,76461.4%314,152100.0%

5 In 2007-08 international student enrollment grew by 7% to a record of 623,805 in US higher education institutions. Over the past 5-10 years, CPCC has had student from 216 countries speaking as many as 899 languages. Annually we have 5,000 to 7,500 international students. Source: english/2008/November/200811171600491CJsamohT0.646908.html

6 Whose fault is this? Can we do anything about it?

7 Of 2002 Achieving the Dream Cohort, % Needing Developmental Education Source: Achieving the Dream Data Notes,1(6) July/Aug 2006.

8 Percent of 2002 AtD Cohort referred to developmental education that attempted and completed at least one developmental course during their first term, by race. Source: Achieving the Dream Data Notes, 1(6) July/Aug 2006.

9 Source: Achieving the Dream Data Notes, 3(4), July/August 2008. Percentage of AtD students referred to developmental education by completion status of developmental requirements during the 1 st academic year.

10 Retention Rates2 nd Term2 nd Year Referred to DE – did not complete any57%45% Referred to DE – partially completed85%65% Referred to DE – completed all94%80% Not referred to DE = college ready66%54% All students70%57% Percentage of AtD students persisting by developmental status the end of the first year. Source: Achieving the Dream Data Notes, 3(4), July/August 2008.

11 (Boomers) (Xers) (Millennials) College populations are getting younger – under 25 is the fastest growing group across the country.

12 Greatest impact on us right now. Creating a multitude of issues that colleges must address.

13 Source: State ESC and NCCCS Websites ???

14 Developmental Courses Gatekeeper or gateway courses – Typically high volume, high risk courses (most sections and most enrollment.) – Courses where students often withdraw or do not pass. – They serve as the gatekeeper between developmental or pre-college courses and courses in the “majors.” – Courses are fundamental to the college due to the size of the enrollment - 35-40% of all enrollment. – The courses are fundamental to other courses at the college (often pre- requisites.) – Improvements in these courses would be beneficial to the college overall.

15 Who Are The Unemployed?

16 Displaced workers are different than the more traditional community college students - A greater need for student services Need someone to talk to Need for financial aid goes up. Number with zero family contribution (family cannot help them at all) rose from 2,891 in 2008 to 4,681 in 2009 (increase of 62% at CPCC) (It was 600% at UNCC.) Different brain usage – must be “turned back on.”

17 For Every 100 Girls Who….Number of Boys Enroll in Kindergarten116 Enroll in Ninth Grade101 Enroll in Twelfth Grade98 Are Suspended from K-12250 Are Expelled from K-12335 Diagnosed with Learning Disability276 Enroll in the gifted and talented program 94 The Boys Project. Boys Project.

18 For Every 100 Girls Who….Number of Boys Graduate from High School96 Enroll in College77 Earn an Associates Degree67 Earn a Bachelors Degree73 Earn a Masters Degree62 Earn a Doctorate92 The Boys Project.


20 In Fall 2009, Mitchell offered 574 sections of 251 courses – but 50% of the enrollment and FTE came from 25 courses (10% of your courses). What were they?

21 ENG 111 – Expository Writing 509 seats ENG111a - Lab 509 seats PSY 150 - Psychology 391 seats SOC 210 – Intro to Sociology 260 seats ART 111 - Art Appreciation 256 seats CIS 110 – Intro to Computers 248 seats COM 120 – Interpersonal Com 231 seats ENG 113 - Lit-based Research 218 seats BUS 110 - Intro to Business 181 seats SPA 111 – Elem Spanish 173 seats Gen Ed and College Transfer

22 HIS 121 – Western Civilization 151 seats ECO 251 – Prin of Microeconomics 148 seats BIO 111 – General Biology 126 seats ACC 120 – Prin of Accounting 119 seats Gen Ed and College Transfer

23 ENG 095 – Reading & Comp Strat 313 seats MAT 070 – Introductory Algebra 260 seats MAT 060 – Essential Mathematics 247 seats ENG 085 – Reading and Writing 177 seats MAT 050 – Basic Math Skills 111 seats Developmental Courses – Top Five

24 COE 111 - Work Experience 79 seats NUR 115 – Fundamentals of Nursing 62 seats CJC 100 – Basic Law Enforcement 48 seats NUR 125 – Maternal Child Nursing 45 seats COS 112 – Salon I 31 seats COS 114 – Salon II 19 seats Career Courses – Top Six

25 General Education or College Transfer Courses Highest Enrolled - Fall 2009 CourseA-C%A-CA-F%A-FAll ENG-11130860.5%38074.7%509 ENG-111A30760.3%38074.7%509 PSY-15033385.2%35490.5%391 ART-11119173.2%21983.9%261 SOC-21020076.9%22285.4%260 CIS-11015462.1%19177.0%248 COM-12017676.5%19685.2%230 ENG-11314667.0%16475.2%218 BUS-11013071.8%15585.6%181 SPA-11111566.5%13276.3%173 HIS-1218556.3%11777.5%151 ECO-25111879.7%12785.8%148 BIO-1118869.8%10583.3%126 ACC-1208067.8%9177.1%118

26 Five Developmental Courses in the Top 25 Highest Enrolled Courses - Fall 2009 CourseA-C%A-CA-F%A-FAll ENG-09521669.0%26384.0%313 MAT-07018671.8%21583.0%259 MAT-06018775.7%21085.0%247 ENG-08514682.5%15587.6%177 MAT-0508576.6%8980.2%111

27 Career Oriented Courses in the Top 25 Highest Enrolled Courses - Fall 2009 CourseA-C%A-CA-F%A-FAll COE-1115164.6%5164.6%79 NUR-1155283.9%5487.1%62 NUR-1254395.6%45100.0%45 CJC-1002990.6%2990.6%32 COS-1121754.8%1858.1%31 COS-1141578.9%1789.5%19

28 To improve success in these two areas (dev ed and gateway courses) we have to address two issues: – Strategies to increase retention – keep them to the end of the term, to the next term, to the next year and to completion. – Strategies to improve “academic skills” – to make better students of them. – Our primary goal should be for students to “master the course content” not just to keep them around for one or two more terms before they flunk out. – Retention and academic success are two different animals and require two different sets of strategies.

29 Too many math faculty believe “all roads lead to calculus.” Students don’t need that much math. We need a statistics tract for non-STEM majors. Math is typically taught by people for whom math was easy. Students will finish their entire program and wait until the last semester to take math – then never complete. It is defeating to students who discover that they need two full semesters of remediation before they can take college level classes.

30 Students need to be able to take a few college level courses while taking developmental – figure out what those should be – maybe link them. Students don’t take the placement test seriously – not enough orientation to it – don’t work with the practice test – realize after-the-fact – “I should have tried harder.”

31 Reading is a tough issue and probably the best predictor of overall success. You can teach the skill but never make up the deficit from a lifetime of not reading. English appears to be the easiest for student to successfully complete – but the area most program faculty complain the most about “they can’t write a coherent sentence.” Also the area that will “make or break” them in a career.

32 Program faculty have a sense of responsibility for all their majors – getting them through the curriculum – a set of courses to obtain the credential. Gateway faculty come from mostly service areas (no majors, just multiple courses) and often see themselves as responsible for just their course. Students come to us today needing to learn process and application skills. They are being taught by content specialists in a day when all possible content is on the internet.

33 Work ethic, including self-motivation and time management. Physical skills, e.g., maintaining one's health and good appearance. Verbal (oral) communication, including one-on-one and in a group Written communication, including editing and proofing one's work. Working directly with people, relationship building, and team work. Influencing people, including effective salesmanship and leadership. Gathering information through various media and keeping it organized. Using quantitative tools, e.g., statistics, graphs, or spreadsheets. Asking and answering the right questions, evaluating information, and applying knowledge. Solving problems, including identifying problems, developing possible solutions, and launching solutions. The Futurist Update (Vol. 5, No. 2), an e-newsletter from the World Future Society, quotes Bill Coplin on the “ten things employers want [young people] to learn in college”

34 Students in the 21 st Century will need to be proficient in: Reading, writing, speaking and listening Applying concepts and reasoning Analyzing and using numerical data Citizenship, diversity/pluralism Local, community, global, environmental awareness Analysis, synthesis, evaluation, decision-making, creative thinking Collecting, analyzing and organizing information Teamwork, relationship management, conflict resolution and workplace skills Learning to learn, understand and manage self, management of change, personal responsibility, aesthetic responsiveness and wellness Computer literacy, internet skills, information retrieval and information management (The League for Innovation’s 21 st Century Learning Outcomes Project.)

35 Most students never completed the gatekeeper courses, but in many cases that’s because these students never enrolled in them, having started and finished their educations in remediation. The rates of reaching college-level work were particularly low for those requiring multiple remedial courses to reach college work. Only 25% of remedial math student ever reached college level math.

36 Students who needed remedial courses and completed them and then enrolled in the gatekeeper courses did as well in them as did students who didn’t need remediation. Less than 20 percent of those enrolled in the lowest level of developmental mathematics (pre-algebra) ever enrolled in the gatekeeper math courses. More likely to leave between courses not fail them. Must track cohorts to see this. Community College Research Center at Columbia, 2004

37 Faculty were asked to identify the knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, etc. they wanted students student to develop throughout the general education core – by course. They could easily answer they questions: “Why do we want them to take these courses? What do we want them to get out of it?”

38 Then they were asked: “How many of you think students do poorly in these courses because they have a total inability to grasp the content?” How many raised their hand? Then they were asked: “Why do they do poorly? What are they lacking?

39 Poor study skills (note-taking, test-taking, etc.) No sense of belonging to the institution or the class – lack of affect Not understanding the purpose of the course The disconnect between effort put in and the outcome (unrealistic idea about time spent on the product) Poor course-specific self-assessment (of strengths and weaknesses, study needs)

40 Lack of understanding of their overall educational strengths and weaknesses (due to social promotion) Procrastination – don’t commit early Believing effort is the only criteria for success Poor academic background (some as far back as elementary school) Attitude toward the requirements for the course (too much effort needed – only want a C)

41 Don’t see themselves as or value being a scholar (cultural attitude toward “smart”) Too much drama/complexity in their lives Poor perception of the effort (e.g. 2 hours is a lot of study time when really 10 hours are needed) Recognizing that they must work outside of class (used to getting class time for homework – don’t know 2-3 hours outside for every 1 inside)

42 K-12 experiences (vast and varied) Lack of childhood expectation of success, early educational enrichment and prior academic success. Impacts their expectations of failure. Perceive the course to be of no value/relevance International issues (foreign born, cultural and language barriers, etc.) Irrational sense of entitlement

43 No experience with the higher education environment (lack of understanding of how to be a student) Mediocre expectations – don’t strive for an A, just want a C Lack of faculty understanding about special accommodations (large percent had IEPs in K- 12 and need special assistance)

44 How do we take their current skills, attitudes and behaviors and move them toward the threshold of where we want them to be? How can you connect “college skills or good student skills” to the content of your course? What skills are most critical to being a “master student?” This will take collaboration among all the faculty and student services staff.

45 1.Better Orientation (mandatory - students don’t do optional) Within orientation is a detailed orientation and refresher courses on placement testing subjects. – The test will contain 45 questions (what type). – The better you do, the further you go into the test. – A score in math from 43 to 55 means you will have to take 3 developmental math classes and will keep you out of your major courses for 4 semesters. – Now – would you like to practice? – Would you like to attend a refresher session on math?

46 2.Support activities a)Offer supplemental instruction, service learning opportunities, tutoring, and study groups. b)Create a series of success workshops (offered through the tutoring center, library or student success center) and require students attend a set number of them as part of their grade. c)Create learning communities or linked classes. d)Implement an Early Alert System to ensure that struggling students get help not just a warning.

47 3. Curriculum and pedagogy a)Make instruction in gatekeeper courses more related to real life experiences. b)Use techniques such as active/collaborative learning, mini learning communities in the class, and computer-assisted labs. c)Establish learning competencies and share them with students. d)Allow retesting in courses with sequential content so students can master it. When students fail the first test in math – why do we let them go on?

48 d) Institute “class conferencing” in classes – instructors meet with students individually on a regular basis. e) Used grading rubrics for all assignments and give students a copy beforehand (know what’s expected.) 4. Faculty development a)Offer professional development for faculty who teach gatekeeper courses. b)Let the faculty with great success teach these workshops. 1)Focus on retention techniques, improving academic skills and student engagement

49 5.Next Steps 5.Faculty across disciplines work together to increase the basic skills. 1)How do the paralegal faculty teach students to become better writers? 2)How do the culinary faculty improve computational skills? 3)How do the Nursing faculty improve critical thinking skills in students

50 When students exit your course with deficiencies – they enter someone else’s course with them – we are passing the deficient student along for someone else to deal with. Developmental faculty teach students the basic skills based of the content of the course – such as writing in ENG 090 and ENG 111 faculty improve those skills then pass them along to the programs. Program faculty should say “thank you very much, we’ll take it from here” - then continuously and in every course, reinforce those skills.

51 Developmental and gatekeeper faculty are the most critical and important. Why? – Greatest opportunity to improve skills and promote success. – Greatest opportunity for engagement and retention. – All program students get their foundation there. – Can help students make the decision … Do I belong here, can I do it?

52 – Seeing these courses for the opportunity they represent. – Program faculty and gatekeeper faculty should come together and make some decisions: What student skills do we want them to have when they leave the gatekeeper (pre-major) courses? Develop a reasonable list. How can we teach/facilitate those skills while teaching the content? When will they become habit? In what course is it logical that we reinforce the skills.

53 By the time students complete gen ed, we have inoculated them 10 times. A students who knows: How to be a student Where to find reputable material How to develop a solution How to organize their work How to develop a success team How to build consensus – Can master any course or major

54 Achieving the Dream – Look at Community College Strategies – Look at Data and Research Click on Data Notes Newsletter Southern Regional Education Board Look at their Fact Book on Higher Education

55 Terri Manning (704) 330-6592 Click on “studies and reports”

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