2Overview What is American Positive Psychology (PP)? What makes life worth living or what is the good life?What is the meaning hypothesis according to Frankl & Wong?
3Evolution of PPThe science of positive emotion, positive character and positive institutions (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000)The study of what makes life worth living and how to work with stress and suffering (Peterson & Park, 2003)
4What characterizes American PP? It is primarily concerned with happiness and subjective well-beingEmphasizes peace and prosperity as the ideal condition for PPBelieves that meaning in life primarily comes from happiness, positive experiences and human strengths
7Virtues & Character Strengths Meaning is at the centre of Positive Psychology.
8Peterson (2013) Major domains of the good life Meaningful workLovePlayServiceThis is Chris Peterson’s last major work, reflecting his latest thinking on the good life or worthy life. Once again, the focus is on meaningful work, meaningful relationship, and self-transcendence (service to others).
9Six Limitations of PP:Too much emphasis on the neutral and positive territories of lifeNot enough recognition of the positive potential of negatives & the negative potential of positives;Not enough recognition of the importance of morality & responsibilityNot enough recognition of the impact of existential givensNot enough recognition of the importance of philosophy of lifeA lack of balance between individualistic and collectivist concerns
10What is the meaning of life? The most important question in psychology and psychotherapy: What makes life worth living? What is the meaning of life?Different visions of the good life or worthy lifeMeaning is important for survival and flourishingMeaning involves all aspects of the person – cognitive, affective, motivational, social, cultural, spiritual and relational
11Existential Positive Psychology (EPP) The Meaning Hypothesis – life has intrinsic meaningThe Deep and Wide Hypothesis – suffering deepens & broadens resourcesThe Duality Hypothesis – positives & negatives work together for optimal functioning
12The Meaning Hypothesis The capacity for meaning seeking and meaning making (both existential & cognitive meaning)The primary motivation for meaning (both global meaning & situational meaning)Meaning offers us the best protection against existential anxieties and the best hope of living a worthy & vital lifeA meaning mindset is more adaptive than the success mindset.
13The meaning mindset vs. the success mindset Meaning FulfillmentSacrificial LifeIdeal LifeFailureSuccessThe meaning-oriented mindset focuses on self-transcendence whereas the ego-centered mindset focuses on success. If you choose the meaning-mindset, you can still find fulfillment, even when you fail to complete your mission (Examples: revolutionaries and heroes of faith in Hebrew chapter 11 of the Bible). Failure is no failure when one pursues a virtuous and noble mission for the common good.Meaning-orientation should lead to more altruism, higher life satisfaction and greater psychological maturity than the happiness-orientation, over the long haul; happiness-orientation is likely to result in more selfishness, more greed, and less altruismWasted LifeShallow LifeEmptiness
14The Meaning Mindset Life has intrinsic meaning and value I have the capacity for meaning seeking and meaning makingMeaning can be discovered anywhereI can live at a deeper level by detecting the meaning & significance of any situationI can live at a higher plane by serving a higher purpose & being attuned to the transcendental realm and sacredness in daily living.I can live fully by integrating by my potentialities with my vulnerabilities moment by momentMeaning of life can be lived in the presence of misery, insecurity, and suffering. Meaning matters, especially in difficult times. That is why research shows that meaning is often associated with stress and anxiety.
15Life Orientation Scale I can find something meaningful or significant in everyday eventsThere is a reason for everything that happens to meThere is no ultimate meaning and purpose in lifeThere is no point in searching for meaning in lifeNo matter how painful the situation, life is still worth livingThe meaning of life is to “eat, drink and be happy”What really matters to me is to pursue a higher purpose or calling regardless of personal costI would rather be a happy pig than a sad saintI am willing to sacrifice personal interests for the greater goodPersonal happiness and success are more important to me than achieving inner goodness and moral excellence
16The Search for Meaning Based on: Authenticity – seeking & pursuing a unique meaning that has real value for the personIntegrity – seeking & pursuing meaning that is consistent with one’s conscience & sense of responsibilityThe search for situational & ultimate meaning is an ongoing & ever-evolving process.
17Costs of Search for Meaning One may have to suffer & give one’s life for an ideal or mission.Soul searching to discover one’s calling may be a difficult process for some people.Meaning-making and meaning-reconstruction after trauma can be painful.
18Benefits of Meaning in Life Mental & physical healthSurvival & flourishingRecovery & resilienceReligiousness & spiritualityPersonal growthSocial harmony
19Two Types of Situational Meaning Cognitive Meaning, in terms of appraisal & attribution; it often involves intuitive information processingExistential Meaning, in terms of personal responsibleness to the situation; it involves both intuitive conscience & guiding light from Providence or the SpiritIn terms of the terminology of logotherapy, specific (i.e. situational) meaning can involve both cognitive meaning and existential meaning. His concept of ultimate meaning has to do with beliefs in a supernatural being, one’s place in the world, therefore, ultimate meaning has to do with spiritual and existential meaning.Dr. Frankl believes that it is more productive to address the specific meaning of the moment/situation, rather than talking about meaning of life in general, because ultimate meanings exist in the supra-human dimension, which is “hidden” from us. He cautions against addressing ultimate meanings in therapy, unless the client is openly religious (Frankl, 1984). However, meaning of the moment is not separable from meaning of whole, similar to our perception of figure and ground. There is the challenge and opportunity for us to arrive at some limited understanding of how specific meanings fit into larger patterns of ultimate meaning.Each individual must discover the specific meanings of the moment. Only the individual knows the right meaning specific to the moment. The therapist can also facilitate the quest and guide them to those areas in which meanings can be found (Fabry, 1994; Frankl, 1984, 1986).
20Ultimate MeaningIt is concerned with finding out how one fits in the large scheme of life.“This grandiose order, I believe, is what Frankl understands by logos, ultimate meaning. We can never hope to ‘find’ it in its totality, we can only pursue it to the best of our abilities” (Fabry, 1987, p. 5)“The Ultimate Meaning of one’s life is not a matter of his intellectual cognition, but rather of his existential commitment… Man takes a stand and makes a choice.” (Frankl, 1985, 84)Quotation is from Frankl’s (1985) Psychotherapy and Existentialism.“Ultimate meaning remains a basic assumption that can be tested only in daily living” (Fabry, 1994, p.64)
22Achievement Acceptance Transcendence Intimacy Relationship Religion Sources of MeaningAccording to Wong (1998), there are 8 sources of meaning and the good life.AchievementAcceptanceTranscendenceIntimacyRelationshipReligionFairnessPositive emotions
23Are you living a balanced life? Religion/SpiritualitySituational and Cultural ContextAchievementAcceptanceSelf-transcendenceIntimacyRelationshipFairnessPositive Emotion and Well-being
24The Deep & Wide Hypothesis Suffering deepens our inner resources such as meaning, faith, courage, etc.Suffering also broadens our resources such as creativity, innovation, & social support.One can attribute positive meanings to suffering.Personal growth is dependent on the benefits of suffering.
25Meaning in SufferingSuffering awakens the quest for meaning & the defiant human spirit.Suffering beings, Homo patiente, are concerned with meaning while human beings, Homo sapiens, are concerned with success and happiness.Suffering gives us opportunity to develop and express our highest values and noblest virtues.The will to joy in the midst of suffering is both heroic & spiritual.Frankl (1985)“Suffering is intended to guard man from apathy, from psychic rigor mortis. As long as we suffer we remain psychically alive. In fact, we mature in suffering, grow because of it – it makes us rich and stronger.” (p.109)“Suffering and trouble belong to life as much as fate and death. None of these can be subtracted from life without destroying its meaning” (p.111)Confronting any situation, we either shape fate or endure it. We try to change the situation as long as it is still possible, or endure the fate with an heroic attitude. Enduring unavoidable and uncontrollable suffering constitutes a moral achievement.
26The Power of Negative Thinking `Negative no susume-plus shiko ni unzarishiteiru anata e`By Yu Mogami (2007)This book shows people how to live a rich & vital life through harnessing the power of negative thinking.
27The Duality Hypothesis The meaning hypothesis recognizes the adaptive power of meaning-seeking & meaning- making.The deep & wide hypothesis focuses on the adaptive benefits of suffering and negative emotion.This duality hypothesis emphasizes the benefits and necessity of integrating approach and avoidance systems as being complementary
28The Duality Hypothesis (cont) Albert Camus: “There is no joy of life without despair.”Rollo May: “The ultimate paradox is that negation becomes affirmation.”Carl Jung: “It is evil to negate the dark side of personality (the Shadow).”
29The Duality Hypothesis (cont) When the two systems work together, the likelihood of survival and flourishing is greater than focusing exclusively on either approach or avoidance.There is a down side to everything positive, and there is up side to everything negative. Positive and negative potentials are often two sides of the same coin.PURE represents the positive system, while ABCDE represents coping with negatives.
31Meaning InterventionAccept and confront the negative reality -- the reality principleBelieve that life is worth living and affirm what is good– the faith principleCommit to worthy goals and responsible actions – the action principleDiscover the meaning and happiness of living – the meaning principleEnjoy the success -- the reinforcement principle or Evaluate the above – the self-regulation principle
32A Dual-System Model Normal Life Conditions Approach System (PURE) Meaning, happiness &Personal growthReduce ThreatsTransform Threats (ABCDE + PURE)Threats Noxious conditionsAvoidance system (Defense mech. + coping)Safety and SurvivalVicious CycleVigilance
33Individual differences and personal resources A Dual-System ModelIndividual differences and personal resourcesPositive ConditionsNegative ConditionsPositive OutcomeNegative OutcomeApproachAvoidancePUREABCDECultural and Contextual Variables
34ConclusionThe future of Positive Psychology and Meaning Therapy depends on integrating both disciplines, resulting in Existential Positive Psychology (EPP).Research in EPP will increase our understanding of how to live well & die well under all circumstances.EPP will enable us to design a better society or organization to optimize well-being.