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Dr. David Q. Thomas

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. David Q. Thomas"— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. David Q. Thomas

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3  Credit goes to Dr. McCaw for his contributions to these slides.

4  Traditional teaching and coaching methods tell you what techniques to teach or coach

5  Biomechanics tells you why those techniques are best to teach or coach  It can also tell you why some teaching and coaching techniques don’t work and need to be discontinued

6  AT, OT, and PT students will benefit from learning biomechanics because it will help in: ◦ determining the cause of injury, ◦ aid in preventing future injury, ◦ and guide in determining best methods for rehabilitation.

7  Exercise science students will learn the best techniques for improving fitness and enhancing exercise performance

8  PETE students will learn how to make instructional decisions based on the science of human movement

9  I will provide you with ◦ Concept ◦ Examples  You need to come up with ◦ Application  How does this concept apply to:  Physical Education Teacher Education?  Exercise Science?  Athletic Training?

10  Kines: Latin ==> “motion”  logos: “study of”  Kinesiology = Study of Motion

11 Includes:  Anatomy & Physiology  Psychology  Motor Development  Pedagogy  Biomechanics  Exercise Physiology  Athletic Training

12  Bio = life  Mechanics - study of machines  Biomechanics - study of living machines

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14 science concerned with effects of forces acting on a system (body)

15  We study biomechanics to understand how people move  This information may be used to enhance performance by improving technique  It may also be used to lower the risk for injury

16  Enhance skill performance ◦ Technique improvement  Improve current technique (shooting a foul shot)  Develop new technique (Fosbury Flop, swim hand recovery, skating in X-country skiing, ski jumping) ◦ Equipment improvement  Shoes and apparel  Implements  Protection devices ◦ Training improvement

17  Injury Prevention and Rehabilitation ◦ Techniques to reduce injury ◦ Equipment designs to reduce injury

18  To understand how living bodies can move. Edward Muybridge

19  To understand how people can move. Edward Muybridge

20  To understand how people can move. ◦ To enhance skill performance  elite athletes  USOC, WNBA, MLB, etc  Biomechanics in the Olympics GCUxzg&feature=related GCUxzg&feature=related

21  An example using anthropometrics

22 Study of the body’s size and form

23 This would include measurements of:  Height  Weight  Circumferences  Skinfolds  Girths/diameters  Etc

24 7.78/0.288 = inches

25  To allow for comparisons

26 Strength Males Versus Females

27  Destroy myths

28 Can a cow really jump over the moon? cow moon/cowmoon.html

29  To understand how people can move. ◦ To enhance skill performance  physical challenges  ACL deficit  CP gait  Wheelchair  Age-related disease

30  To understand how people can move. ◦ To enhance skill performance  physical challenges  ACL deficit  CP gait  Wheelchair  Age-related disease

31  To understand how people can move. ◦ To enhance skill performance  Physical development

32  To understand how people can move. ◦ To enhance skill performance  Improve equipment

33 Biomechanics and Safety

34  To understand how people can move. ◦ To enhance skill performance  Not limited to humans

35  To understand how people can move. ◦ To enhance skill performance ◦ To lower the risk for injury  Exercise equipment & technique  shoes & surfaces  braces & orthotics  Equine biomechanics

36  To understand how people can move. ◦ To enhance skill performance ◦ To lower the risk for injury  Automobiles  collisions

37  To understand how people can move. ◦ To enhance skill performance ◦ To lower the risk for injury  Automobiles  collisions

38  To understand how people can move. Vsevolod Meyerhold’s Biomechanical Theatre 1920’s

39  To understand how people can move. Borelli

40  Borelli’s major scientific achievements are focused around his investigation into biomechanics. This work originated with his studies of animals. His publications, De Motu Animalium I and De Motu Animalium II, relate animals to machines and utilize mathematics to prove his theories. The anatomists of the 17th century were the first to suggest the contractile movement of muscles. Borelli, however, first suggested that ‘muscles do not exercise vital movement otherwise than by contracting.’ He was also the first to deny corpuscular influence on the movements of muscles. This was proven through his scientific experiments demonstrating that living muscle did not release corpuscles into water when cut. Borelli also recognized that forward motion entailed movement of a body’s center of gravity forward, which was then followed by the swinging of its limbs in order to maintain balance. His studies also extended beyond muscle and locomotion. In particular he likened the action of the heart to that of a piston. For this to work properly he derived the idea that the arteries have be elastic. For these discoveries, Borelli is labeled as the father of modern biomechanics.biomechanics 

41  To understand how people can move. ◦ To enhance skill performance ◦ To lower the risk for injury

42  To understand how people can move. ◦ To enhance skill performance ◦ To lower the risk for injury

43  To understand how people can move. ◦ To enhance skill performance ◦ To lower the risk for injury

44  Some of us are not doing a good job ◦ Coach: focus on strategy ◦ Teaching  skills: “farm system”  vs  fitness: CV & strength  Cater to the converted.  Serve the skilled.  We treat symptoms of an injury, with less emphasis on etiology (cause) of an injury ◦ placebo effect vs true treatment effects ◦ high rate of reoccurrence Safety & Performance Trade-Off

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46  Quantitative analysis - mainly a clinical research perspective.  Qualitative analysis - most teachers/coaches need this ability.

47  Science concerned with the effects of forces acting on objects (body) ◦ body: focus of the analysis  human body  individual body segment  specific tissue / anatomical site  balls, pucks  implement: bat, stick, club

48  Science concerned with the effects of forces acting on objects (body) ◦ Rigid-body mechanics ◦ Deformable body mechanics ◦ Fluid mechanics ◦ Relativistic mechanics ◦ Quantum mechanics

49  Acceptable for analyzing gross movements  Assumptions ◦ body does not deform by bending, stretching or compressing ◦ segments are rigid links joined by frictionless hinges at joints

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51  Length - of what size?  Time - of what duration?  Mass - how much matter?  Inertia - what resistance to movement?

52  Describe someone out for a run

53 ◦ Kinematics  How far did she run?  How long to run that far?  How fast was she?  How big is she? ◦ Kinetics  What friction under her feet?  What forces on her joints?  What tension in her muscles?

54  Measure to describe ◦ location at a particular point in her run ◦ how far she ran  Feet, inches, miles  Systeme Internationale d’Unites (SI) ◦ meter ◦ 1 m = 3.28 feet = 39 inches

55  Measure to describe how long it takes her  seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, years  Systeme Internationale d’Unites (SI) ◦ second (s)

56  Space to move in and time during which to move  speed & velocity==> length per unit of time ◦ miles per hour ◦ m / s or m. sec -1  acceleration ◦ m/s/s or m. sec -1. sec -1

57  Inertia ◦ resistance to a change in state of motion  Who is harder to start or stop moving ◦ Olympic weight lifter ◦ Olympic gymnast

58  Inertia ◦ resistance to a change in state of motion  Who is harder to start or stop moving ◦ Olympic weight lifter: has more inertia ◦ Olympic gymnast

59  Inertia ◦ resistance to a change in state of motion  Mass ◦ the quantity of matter a body possesses ◦ quantifies inertia (the measure of inertia)  Greater mass, greater inertia èresistance to change state of motion ◦ units are kilogram (kg) or slug (English) ◦ Not the same as weight

60  Provide an example of changing motion in ◦ sport ◦ exercise ◦ workplace

61  Provide an example of changing motion in ◦ Sport: size expectations of different positions (i.e. interior defensive linemen) ◦ Exercise: alter mass to be moved to increase load on NMS system (i.e. push-up) ◦ Workplace: alter mass of components to reduce load (i.e. cement bags, engine blocks)

62  Length  Time  Mass  Force: defined from the above ◦ a push or pull acting on a body All that is needed to describe and explain the motion of objects

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66 Biomechanics Lab at ISU Research Not to know is bad. Not to wish to know is worse.


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