3KudosCredit goes to Dr. McCaw for his contributions to these slides.
4Why study biomechanics? Traditional teaching and coaching methods tell you what techniques to teach or coach
5Why study biomechanics? Biomechanics tells you why those techniques are best to teach or coachIt can also tell you why some teaching and coaching techniques don’t work and need to be discontinued
6Why study biomechanics? AT, OT, and PT students will benefit from learning biomechanics because it will help in:determining the cause of injury,aid in preventing future injury,and guide in determining best methods for rehabilitation.
7Why study biomechanics? Exercise science students will learn the best techniques for improving fitness and enhancing exercise performance
8Why study biomechanics? PETE students will learn how to make instructional decisions based on the science of human movement
9Learning Biomechanics I will provide you withConceptExamplesYou need to come up withApplicationHow does this concept apply to:Physical Education Teacher Education?Exercise Science?Athletic Training?
10Kinesiology Kines: Latin ==> “motion” logos: “study of” Kinesiology = Study of Motion
11Kinesiology Includes: Anatomy & Physiology Psychology Motor DevelopmentPedagogyBiomechanicsExercise PhysiologyAthletic Training
12Biomechanics Bio = life Mechanics - study of machines Biomechanics - study of living machines
14science concerned with effects of forces actingon a system (body)
15Why study biomechanics? We study biomechanics to understand how people moveThis information may be used to enhance performance by improving techniqueIt may also be used to lower the risk for injury
16Why study biomechanics? Enhance skill performanceTechnique improvementImprove current technique (shooting a foul shot)Develop new technique (Fosbury Flop, swim hand recovery, skating in X-country skiing, ski jumping)Equipment improvementShoes and apparelImplementsProtection devicesTraining improvement
17Why study biomechanics? Injury Prevention and RehabilitationTechniques to reduce injuryEquipment designs to reduce injury
18Why study Biomechanics? To understand how living bodies can move.Edward Muybridge
19Why study Biomechanics? To understand how people can move.Edward Muybridge
20Why study Biomechanics? To understand how people can move.To enhance skill performanceelite athletesUSOC, WNBA, MLB, etcBiomechanics in the Olympics GCUxzg&feature=related
21Enhancing Skill Performance An example using anthropometrics
22Study of the body’s size and form AnthropometricsStudy of the body’s size and form
23Anthropometrics This would include measurements of: Height Weight CircumferencesSkinfoldsGirths/diametersEtc
24Ball comparison, NBA vs WNBA 7.78/0.288 = inches
25Why study biomechanics? To allow for comparisons
34Why study Biomechanics? To understand how people can move.To enhance skill performanceNot limited to humans
35Why study Biomechanics? To understand how people can move.To enhance skill performanceTo lower the risk for injuryExercise equipment & techniqueshoes & surfacesbraces & orthoticsEquine biomechanics
36Why study Biomechanics? To understand how people can move.To enhance skill performanceTo lower the risk for injuryAutomobilescollisions
37Why study Biomechanics? To understand how people can move.To enhance skill performanceTo lower the risk for injuryAutomobilescollisions
38Why study Biomechanics? To understand how people can move.Vsevolod Meyerhold’s Biomechanical Theatre1920’s
39Why study Biomechanics? To understand how people can move.Borelli
40Borelli http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giovanni_Alfonso_Borelli Borelli’s major scientific achievements are focused around his investigation into biomechanics. This work originated with his studies of animals. His publications, De Motu Animalium I and De Motu Animalium II, relate animals to machines and utilize mathematics to prove his theories. The anatomists of the 17th century were the first to suggest the contractile movement of muscles. Borelli, however, first suggested that ‘muscles do not exercise vital movement otherwise than by contracting.’ He was also the first to deny corpuscular influence on the movements of muscles. This was proven through his scientific experiments demonstrating that living muscle did not release corpuscles into water when cut. Borelli also recognized that forward motion entailed movement of a body’s center of gravity forward, which was then followed by the swinging of its limbs in order to maintain balance. His studies also extended beyond muscle and locomotion. In particular he likened the action of the heart to that of a piston. For this to work properly he derived the idea that the arteries have be elastic. For these discoveries, Borelli is labeled as the father of modern biomechanics.
41Why study Biomechanics? To understand how people can move.To enhance skill performanceTo lower the risk for injury
42Why study Biomechanics? To understand how people can move.To enhance skill performanceTo lower the risk forinjury
43Why study Biomechanics? To understand how people can move.To enhance skill performanceTo lower the risk for injury
44Why do we need biomechanics? We treat symptoms of an injury, with less emphasis on etiology (cause) of an injuryplacebo effect vs true treatment effectshigh rate of reoccurrenceSome of us are not doing a good jobCoach: focus on strategyTeachingskills: “farm system”vsfitness: CV & strengthCater to the converted.Serve the skilled.Safety & Performance Trade-Off
46Problem-solving approach: Quantitative analysis - mainly a clinical research perspective.Qualitative analysis - most teachers/coaches need this ability.
47MechanicsScience concerned with the effects of forces acting on objects (body)body: focus of the analysishuman bodyindividual body segmentspecific tissue / anatomical siteballs, pucksimplement: bat, stick, club
48MechanicsScience concerned with the effects of forces acting on objects (body)Rigid-body mechanicsDeformable body mechanicsFluid mechanicsRelativistic mechanicsQuantum mechanics
49Rigid Body Mechanics Acceptable for analyzing gross movements Assumptionsbody does not deform by bending, stretching or compressingsegments are rigid links joined by frictionless hinges at joints
51Basic Dimensions of Biomechanics Length - of what size?Time - of what duration?Mass - how much matter?Inertia - what resistance to movement?
52Basic dimensions in mechanics Describe someone out for a run
53Basic dimensions in mechanics Describe someone out for a runKinematicsHow far did she run?How long to run that far?How fast was she?How big is she?KineticsWhat friction under her feet?What forces on her joints?What tension in her muscles?
54Length Measure to describe Feet, inches, miles location at a particular point in her runhow far she ranFeet, inches, milesSysteme Internationale d’Unites (SI)meter1 m = 3.28 feet = 39 inches
55Time Measure to describe how long it takes her seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, yearsSysteme Internationale d’Unites (SI)second (s)
56Length & time = motion Space to move in and time during which to move speed & velocity==> length per unit of timemiles per hourm / s or m . sec-1accelerationm/s/s or m . sec-1 . sec-1
57Inertia Inertia Who is harder to start or stop moving resistance to a change in state of motionWho is harder to start or stop movingOlympic weight lifterOlympic gymnast
58Inertia Inertia Who is harder to start or stop moving resistance to a change in state of motionWho is harder to start or stop movingOlympic weight lifter: has more inertiaOlympic gymnast
59Inertia and Mass Inertia Mass resistance to a change in state of motionMassthe quantity of matter a body possessesquantifies inertia (the measure of inertia)Greater mass, greater inertiaresistance to change state of motionunits are kilogram (kg) or slug (English)Not the same as weight
60Importance of Inertia & Mass Provide an example of changing motion insportexerciseworkplace
61Importance of Inertia & Mass Provide an example of changing motion inSport: size expectations of different positions (i.e. interior defensive linemen)Exercise: alter mass to be moved to increase load on NMS system (i.e. push-up)Workplace: alter mass of components to reduce load (i.e. cement bags, engine blocks)
623 basic dimensions All that is needed to describe LengthTimeMassForce: defined from the abovea push or pull acting on a bodyAll that is needed to describeand explain the motion of objects