3 KudosCredit goes to Dr. McCaw for his contributions to these slides.
4 Why study biomechanics? Traditional teaching and coaching methods tell you what techniques to teach or coach
5 Why study biomechanics? Biomechanics tells you why those techniques are best to teach or coachIt can also tell you why some teaching and coaching techniques don’t work and need to be discontinued
6 Why study biomechanics? AT, OT, and PT students will benefit from learning biomechanics because it will help in:determining the cause of injury,aid in preventing future injury,and guide in determining best methods for rehabilitation.
7 Why study biomechanics? Exercise science students will learn the best techniques for improving fitness and enhancing exercise performance
8 Why study biomechanics? PETE students will learn how to make instructional decisions based on the science of human movement
9 Learning Biomechanics I will provide you withConceptExamplesYou need to come up withApplicationHow does this concept apply to:Physical Education Teacher Education?Exercise Science?Athletic Training?
10 Kinesiology Kines: Latin ==> “motion” logos: “study of” Kinesiology = Study of Motion
11 Kinesiology Includes: Anatomy & Physiology Psychology Motor DevelopmentPedagogyBiomechanicsExercise PhysiologyAthletic Training
12 Biomechanics Bio = life Mechanics - study of machines Biomechanics - study of living machines
14 science concerned with effects of forces actingon a system (body)
15 Why study biomechanics? We study biomechanics to understand how people moveThis information may be used to enhance performance by improving techniqueIt may also be used to lower the risk for injury
16 Why study biomechanics? Enhance skill performanceTechnique improvementImprove current technique (shooting a foul shot)Develop new technique (Fosbury Flop, swim hand recovery, skating in X-country skiing, ski jumping)Equipment improvementShoes and apparelImplementsProtection devicesTraining improvement
17 Why study biomechanics? Injury Prevention and RehabilitationTechniques to reduce injuryEquipment designs to reduce injury
18 Why study Biomechanics? To understand how living bodies can move.Edward Muybridge
19 Why study Biomechanics? To understand how people can move.Edward Muybridge
20 Why study Biomechanics? To understand how people can move.To enhance skill performanceelite athletesUSOC, WNBA, MLB, etcBiomechanics in the Olympics GCUxzg&feature=related
21 Enhancing Skill Performance An example using anthropometrics
22 Study of the body’s size and form AnthropometricsStudy of the body’s size and form
23 Anthropometrics This would include measurements of: Height Weight CircumferencesSkinfoldsGirths/diametersEtc
24 Ball comparison, NBA vs WNBA 7.78/0.288 = inches
25 Why study biomechanics? To allow for comparisons
34 Why study Biomechanics? To understand how people can move.To enhance skill performanceNot limited to humans
35 Why study Biomechanics? To understand how people can move.To enhance skill performanceTo lower the risk for injuryExercise equipment & techniqueshoes & surfacesbraces & orthoticsEquine biomechanics
36 Why study Biomechanics? To understand how people can move.To enhance skill performanceTo lower the risk for injuryAutomobilescollisions
37 Why study Biomechanics? To understand how people can move.To enhance skill performanceTo lower the risk for injuryAutomobilescollisions
38 Why study Biomechanics? To understand how people can move.Vsevolod Meyerhold’s Biomechanical Theatre1920’s
39 Why study Biomechanics? To understand how people can move.Borelli
40 Borelli http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giovanni_Alfonso_Borelli Borelli’s major scientific achievements are focused around his investigation into biomechanics. This work originated with his studies of animals. His publications, De Motu Animalium I and De Motu Animalium II, relate animals to machines and utilize mathematics to prove his theories. The anatomists of the 17th century were the first to suggest the contractile movement of muscles. Borelli, however, first suggested that ‘muscles do not exercise vital movement otherwise than by contracting.’ He was also the first to deny corpuscular influence on the movements of muscles. This was proven through his scientific experiments demonstrating that living muscle did not release corpuscles into water when cut. Borelli also recognized that forward motion entailed movement of a body’s center of gravity forward, which was then followed by the swinging of its limbs in order to maintain balance. His studies also extended beyond muscle and locomotion. In particular he likened the action of the heart to that of a piston. For this to work properly he derived the idea that the arteries have be elastic. For these discoveries, Borelli is labeled as the father of modern biomechanics.
41 Why study Biomechanics? To understand how people can move.To enhance skill performanceTo lower the risk for injury
42 Why study Biomechanics? To understand how people can move.To enhance skill performanceTo lower the risk forinjury
43 Why study Biomechanics? To understand how people can move.To enhance skill performanceTo lower the risk for injury
44 Why do we need biomechanics? We treat symptoms of an injury, with less emphasis on etiology (cause) of an injuryplacebo effect vs true treatment effectshigh rate of reoccurrenceSome of us are not doing a good jobCoach: focus on strategyTeachingskills: “farm system”vsfitness: CV & strengthCater to the converted.Serve the skilled.Safety & Performance Trade-Off
46 Problem-solving approach: Quantitative analysis - mainly a clinical research perspective.Qualitative analysis - most teachers/coaches need this ability.
47 MechanicsScience concerned with the effects of forces acting on objects (body)body: focus of the analysishuman bodyindividual body segmentspecific tissue / anatomical siteballs, pucksimplement: bat, stick, club
48 MechanicsScience concerned with the effects of forces acting on objects (body)Rigid-body mechanicsDeformable body mechanicsFluid mechanicsRelativistic mechanicsQuantum mechanics
49 Rigid Body Mechanics Acceptable for analyzing gross movements Assumptionsbody does not deform by bending, stretching or compressingsegments are rigid links joined by frictionless hinges at joints
51 Basic Dimensions of Biomechanics Length - of what size?Time - of what duration?Mass - how much matter?Inertia - what resistance to movement?
52 Basic dimensions in mechanics Describe someone out for a run
53 Basic dimensions in mechanics Describe someone out for a runKinematicsHow far did she run?How long to run that far?How fast was she?How big is she?KineticsWhat friction under her feet?What forces on her joints?What tension in her muscles?
54 Length Measure to describe Feet, inches, miles location at a particular point in her runhow far she ranFeet, inches, milesSysteme Internationale d’Unites (SI)meter1 m = 3.28 feet = 39 inches
55 Time Measure to describe how long it takes her seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, yearsSysteme Internationale d’Unites (SI)second (s)
56 Length & time = motion Space to move in and time during which to move speed & velocity==> length per unit of timemiles per hourm / s or m . sec-1accelerationm/s/s or m . sec-1 . sec-1
57 Inertia Inertia Who is harder to start or stop moving resistance to a change in state of motionWho is harder to start or stop movingOlympic weight lifterOlympic gymnast
58 Inertia Inertia Who is harder to start or stop moving resistance to a change in state of motionWho is harder to start or stop movingOlympic weight lifter: has more inertiaOlympic gymnast
59 Inertia and Mass Inertia Mass resistance to a change in state of motionMassthe quantity of matter a body possessesquantifies inertia (the measure of inertia)Greater mass, greater inertiaresistance to change state of motionunits are kilogram (kg) or slug (English)Not the same as weight
60 Importance of Inertia & Mass Provide an example of changing motion insportexerciseworkplace
61 Importance of Inertia & Mass Provide an example of changing motion inSport: size expectations of different positions (i.e. interior defensive linemen)Exercise: alter mass to be moved to increase load on NMS system (i.e. push-up)Workplace: alter mass of components to reduce load (i.e. cement bags, engine blocks)
62 3 basic dimensions All that is needed to describe LengthTimeMassForce: defined from the abovea push or pull acting on a bodyAll that is needed to describeand explain the motion of objects