1By Pamela Busch SPED Dept Head, CRMS Feb. 5, 2010 Differentiating Instruction with the Implications of Special Education: The What, Why, and HowBy Pamela BuschSPED Dept Head, CRMSFeb. 5, 2010
2What is Differentiated Instruction? Providing students with different avenues to acquire content; to processing, constructing, or making sense of ideas; and to developing teaching materials so that all students within a classroom can learn effectively, regardless of differences in ability.” - WikipediaConsidering student’s varying background knowledge and preferences in lesson development.Ask them all- what is this? Note that after you have asked- form of baseline for a teacher in where on Bloom’s.Different avenues based on background knowledge, learning styles, time for processing, and where they are ready in terms of Bloom’s Taxonomy. (Remembering, Understanding, Applying, Analyzing, Evaluating, Creating).
3What is Differentiated Instruction? “Even though students may learn in many ways, the essential skills and content they learn can remain steady. Students can take different roads to the same destination.”– Carol Ann TomlinsonAuthor has LOTS of info out there!MUST know info in ensuring your SPED kids are getting the objective. Differentiate so that the most important is what they walk away with. NOT everything in the text book, not every vocab word, but if takes an assessment, even gets a C is the most critical. SPED student in the reg ed setting with a “C” is better than getting straight A’s in the pull out setting.
4The Science Behind It….Lev Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist, proved that individuals learn best in accordance with their readiness to do so (Allan & Tomlinson, 2008). This theoretical influence provides a concrete foundation for differentiated instruction. The readiness of the individual should match what a student learns, how they learn it and how the student demonstrates what they learned when using differentiated instruction.This is PROVED!Key words here: BASELINE TO WHAT TO HOW TO PRODUCTHow do teachers manage doing this? Multiple lesson plans for different kids- NO! We’ll see.
5The Philosophy Behind It…. The philosophical idea that interest based options seize on intrinsic motivation, supports the key element of differentiated instruction, student interest. According to Jerome Bruner (as cited by Allan & Tomlinson, 2000), when interest is tapped, learning is more likely to be rewarding and the student becomes a more autonomous learner.An American psychologist, Howard Gardner, developed the theory of multiple intelligences. His theory states that people have different intelligences and learn in many different ways.Student interest: Emotions trigger learning- novelty, pictures, music, excitement, out of the norm, jokes, games, acting crazy!Autonomous learner: Happens as students are motivated based on success. Setting students up to experience success. SELF-EFFICACY theory.MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES: Build on strengths! Found in IEP evaluations and accommodations. SPED needs to be better about accommodations- revamping the form to have strengths.Not just for SPED, but Mult Intell for gifted, ALL kids!
6Differentiated Instruction Looks Like… Learning centers …yes- even in secondary school.Whole group, small group, facilitating, workshops, acting, singing, moving, drawing, reading, writing, calculating, etc..….Student choices in the types of assignments they do.Keeping data on skill mastery and re-teaching those who need it, while challenging those who don’t.Different types of delivery, processing, student output, and grading,Student’s are receiving feedback on a regular basis (systematic approaches).Cooperative learning.What does this look like? BEFORE fading in, a way to differentiate is to- I would toss the ball to the students that raise their hand. Encourages them to speak out. I’ll have them differentiate another way to process in a moment.
7Differentiated Instruction does not look like…. Teaching the same way everyday.Using the same tools everyday.Moving forward and never re-teaching.Only data kept is a grade book.Only feedback students get is the grade on the paper.All students are doing the same assignment.SAME PROCESS2) Doing this with students PREVENTS misconceptions. Look at both sides.
8Why do we differentiate instruction? Because it’s what’s good for kids!Because it’s the law and intent behind RTI.RTI came out of SPED law, although a regular education function, for the following reasons:The “wait to fail” discrepancy model does not take care of the root of a SPED diagnosis.Students have been segregated for far too long.The problem has been placed on the student rather than on effective teaching.Allowing kids to fail to only have them go to SAT and have it dealt with in SPED is an injustice.Even when kids are in SPED, they are reg ed kids first!Many kids have not had D.I. before simply really do need new teaching methods- hence 9 weeks of RTI before SPED referral. But what’s the point if we aren’t doing anything DIFFERENTLY?Segregating students widens gaps (makes HOLES BIGGER) for those students that have been in reg ed and move to pull out when there is not a TRUE disability.For others, it closes them.Students are moved and shifted rather than teachers moving and shifting. There is an OVER trend of disabilities!
9To the person next to you… Tell each other two to three concepts on what differentiated instruction is and two to three other ideas on what it is not.
10Why do we differentiate instruction? Because we are here to ensure ALL students excel.Because we are not making AYP.To ensure that RTI implementations are truly different than what we have previously been doing.We are not making AYP across the board in SPED. No one is singled out as not doing what they need to do, this is a collective project, need, practice. The law may change later, but regardless of the law- we have a job to do!RTI- How the tiers different in your school? How is each tier different than how you were doing things before? How is Tier 3 different than your other Tiers, especially for those in Tier 3 but in the reg ed setting?
11Why do we differentiate instruction? To accommodate the BRAIN!Because people’s brains work differently.Balances in active, settling, and passive learning.TPR.And on top of having different brains, some of those brains also have disabilities.Let’s check that out….Brain research: The brain stores based on similarities and recalls on differences.EXAMPLE: Note taking- color coding different concepts or even different subjects.Not taking and process at different times.Information is in patterns and can be seen.Asking questions at the end of the unit and not necessarily at the beginning.2) Processing deficits, multiple intelligences, brain injuries, dyslexia.3) Active learning: Pair sharing, building, discussing. Passive Learning: Listening, watching, processing, generalizing. Settling Time: walking, reflecting, eating, taking breaks, sleeping, drinking water.4) TPR- Nancy Fetzer. Body memory. Sign Language.
12In groups of three…. Assign each person a role Briefer Questioner ConnectorBriefer: Give main ideas of the video.Questioner: Pose questions based on your reflections or on unclear ideas.Connector (Presenter): Summarize the main ideas, reflections, and questions/answers.1) Do activitiy. 2) Assign roles by strengths. Connector is your slower learner needing to process. Questioner: higher level thinking student.
13Differentiating is us bending and finding different avenues to reach kids. It’s not expecting kids to have the equal abilities to do what we want them to do the way we want them to do it.1) We should be teaching a concept or skill at least three different ways/modalities/forums, etc….
14How do we differentiate? Three considerations:ContentProcessProductBased on student:Readiness, Interest, and Learning ProfileThere are other models including assessment as well.
15Content (Standards & Benchmarks): Modifications (vs. accommodations)Need to know vs. Nice to knowIEP Goals and ObjectivesBased on reading levelsCurriculum/toolsWHAT you’re teaching.
16Process: Curriculum/Tools Auditory/Visual/Kinesthetic Whole group/small group/cooperative learningRe-teaching/ in the moment assessing/ preventing misconceptionsQuestioningRe-wordingPacingAllowing for student processingPractice, and level of support through practiceParticipationHigh-Yield StrategiesCentersHOW you teach it.Tools also drives process. Pick good ones that YOU manipulate. Don’t always let curriculum drive your process!2) At least 2-3 modalities.3) Cooperative learning allows for more processing, repeating, sharing, repetition of concepts, pacing is run by the students.4) Processing:5) Practice is critical for mastery. Homework is a great way for practice. About a 12% increase in middle school.6) High yield- components for learning- differentiate those as a start!7) Centers (similar to READ 180) three diff ways to work on skills and one on one w/teacher ability grouped for specific IEP goals and objectives.Only 6% in elementary school.However, homework creates good study habits and fosters a link between learning and home.Compared to 24% in high school.Each additional 30 minutes of homework per night increases the GPA by a .5 point. Should be independent (increase speed/mastery/recall), parents aware, give feedback).
17Product: Quantity Time allotment Level of difficulty Not letting barriers determine mastery.Student choice indemonstrating mastery of concept.Multi-modal assessing.Based on readiness (at level to remember, understand all the way to evaluating and creating).Many accommodations focus on this area. What is the most essential to know- here again with looking at grading and objectives of student work.
18Work as a group to match the accommodations to the component of D. I Work as a group to match the accommodations to the component of D.I. - D.I. happens across ALL areas (content, process, AND product). - It is a state-of-mind! - How do we help teachers make this shift?
19The data of D.I. Use data to find baselines Curriculum/SKILL assessmentsShort Cycle AssessmentMAPNMSBATrack specific skillsEnsure mastery of those skillsContinue to practice and embed skills within new skillsYou gotta know where your students are for – readiness levels, - background knowledgeNeed to know what to compare post tests to in order to show effectiveness and PROGRESS. Not just if students learned it but also how much they progressed!
20Once we define our system requirements, how often should improvements take place? Once a year?Four timesa year?Once a year- NMSBA Four times- MAP Every week- YES! Specific skills, re teaching, immediate feedback (not just, “you got it wrong, but this is what’s right.”Every week?
21Special Education and Data If students in SPED are going give us the data/test scores we want, we have to ensure they are:Use those IEP’s to guide you!PLOP and Goals/Objectives.Fill in those HOLES!In the reg ed setting as muchas possibleSuccessful in the regulareducation setting
22Examples of systematic data use to drive D. I… Examples of systematic data use to drive D.I….what does this look like?
23How do you align the classroom assessment system with the CHAPTER TESTDATAFor Chapter 1, three students failed and retook until passed. (In fact, several opted to retake for a better grade!) Ensured everyone knew concepts to move on. Didn’t accept failing grades and move students on regardless of mastering and understanding previous concepts. Why would we move on when educational concepts only build?For Chapter 2, all passed.For Chapter 3, all three below the red line re-took, again, until passed.Teacher charts classroom data for personal use or for all to see.When students can visually see this, they tend to want to see their own dot moved above the line (even though no one knows their grade, only that student).Also, creates class responsibility for all to charted above the red line and move towards this “visual” goal.How do you align the classroom assessment system with theSchool’s Quarterly Assessment System?9-49-169-1810-1710-28
24i GOAL 80% DATA on SCA in math. SCA covers How many did we get right on our math test?Based on short-cycle assessments so remember beginning data based on what student s should know by the end of the year.In first column, note that some students have already mastered a lot of the year’s expectations. These students are going to need a challenge, honors, or even possible acceleration!Notice how each implementation of the cycle, movement moves up until all students are “passing” that grade level’s concepts by the last SCA.Throughout the year can focus on those students below the line after the 2nd and 3rd distribution (tutoring, parent contact, reinforcement, reteaching, etc…)Again, visual for class to see. Students will take more ownership as they don’t want their dot to be the one that is below the line for all to see (even though the rest of the class doesn’t know who is who).DATA on SCA in math. SCA coversALL essential learning standards.Dots represent how manyquestions students gotcorrect on the test.#10
25SCA DATAThis is very specific for the teacher to use.X’s represent what hasn’t been mastered.Great support for determining IEP mastery and chart can be catered to do so.Easily done in EXCEL. Based on IEP objectives from PLOP. Based on HOLES.Is individually specific, well also shows the entire class.Example: Fact Families everyone knows could be taught over to most of the class delivering another lesson on this skill.Example: Matthew needs little support while several other students have three or more areas of mastery still.#2. Example of using an item analysis to identify student performance gaps
26Once you know where your kids are and where you want them to go, decide how you are going to get them ALL there. What different roadmaps will you create?
27Differentiated Instruction in Action Think-Tac-ToesCreate a survey and graph the results.Research a person and present to the class.Create a hypothesis and through research prove/deny.Write a rap/song and perform to class.Write a letter to the editor.Design a power point.Make a comparison/contrast poster.Write a skit with two others and act out.Create a test with correct answers.Utilize different areas of Bloom’s Taxonomy throughout. Integrate High Yield Strategies.
28Cooperative Learning Assigning roles to student strength areas Main Idea Finder/Concept ManagerDetail PersonQuestion AskerKey Word FinderDesigner (of charts, graphs)Resource gathererAssign roles based on strengths. GROUPS- Mention Read 180 Model and how that works so well. Especially in blocks.
29Q.A.R.- Questions/Answers/Relationships Level 1- In the book questions are “right there.”Level 2- In the book questions to “think, search, and find.”Level 3- In my head questions, “author and me.”Level 4- In my head questions, “on my own.”Guiding thought processes and use of resources. Creating habits on HOW TO.
30Bloom’s Cube Each side of cube, rolled by students, has a task: Describe (knowledge level)Explain (comprehension level)Develop (application level)Classify (analysis level)Create a new (synthesis level)In your opinion (evaluation level)Look at pink handout. All sorts of verbage to use to change this up a bit.
31Characteristics Think alouds. Modeling Practice, feedback, practice again.HomeworkSetting specific objectives and students self- charting success.Graphic organizersCues and questionsAllowing for processing timeStudent PDSA’sDon’t ellaborate on if short of time. Skip to the pair/share next.
32Pair/Share: Find someone new What new strategies/approaches can you implement in your school (or to support schools) to ensure ALL teachers are trained on differentiating instruction?How does Tier 3 in your school truly differ from Tiers 1 and 2 in the regular education classroom?
33How do we be EVEN MORE EFFECTIVE? Build relationships with students.Make them feel safe taking risks.The more students are engaged and busy, feeling important, the less negative behaviors.Set them up to experience successes so that they want more!Recognize achievements.Have students repeat back directions, concepts, to assist with processing delays.Give immediate and corrected feedback to students!
34Resources http://www.uhseport.net/published/k/sh/kshaw/collection/1/ How to Differentiate in the Mixed Ability Classroom. By Carol Ann Tomlinson.Making Differentiation a Habit. By Diane HeacoxDifferentiating Instruction in a Whole Group Setting. By Betty Hollas.Teaching with the Brain in Mind. By Eric Jensen.