Presentation on theme: "Differentiating Instruction with the Implications of Special Education: The What, Why, and How By Pamela Busch SPED Dept Head, CRMS Feb. 5, 2010."— Presentation transcript:
Differentiating Instruction with the Implications of Special Education: The What, Why, and How By Pamela Busch SPED Dept Head, CRMS Feb. 5, 2010
What is Differentiated Instruction? Providing students with different avenues to acquire content; to processing, constructing, or making sense of ideas; and to developing teaching materials so that all students within a classroom can learn effectively, regardless of differences in ability.” - Wikipedia Considering student’s varying background knowledge and preferences in lesson development.
What is Differentiated Instruction? “Even though students may learn in many ways, the essential skills and content they learn can remain steady. Students can take different roads to the same destination.” – Carol Ann Tomlinson
The Science Behind It…. Lev Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist, proved that individuals learn best in accordance with their readiness to do so (Allan & Tomlinson, 2008). This theoretical influence provides a concrete foundation for differentiated instruction. The readiness of the individual should match what a student learns, how they learn it and how the student demonstrates what they learned when using differentiated instruction.
The Philosophy Behind It…. The philosophical idea that interest based options seize on intrinsic motivation, supports the key element of differentiated instruction, student interest. According to Jerome Bruner (as cited by Allan & Tomlinson, 2000), when interest is tapped, learning is more likely to be rewarding and the student becomes a more autonomous learner. An American psychologist, Howard Gardner, developed the theory of multiple intelligences. His theory states that people have different intelligences and learn in many different ways.
Differentiated Instruction Looks Like… Learning centers …yes- even in secondary school. Whole group, small group, facilitating, workshops, acting, singing, moving, drawing, reading, writing, calculating, etc..…. Student choices in the types of assignments they do. Keeping data on skill mastery and re-teaching those who need it, while challenging those who don’t. Different types of delivery, processing, student output, and grading, Student’s are receiving feedback on a regular basis (systematic approaches). Cooperative learning.
Differentiated Instruction does not look like…. Teaching the same way everyday. Using the same tools everyday. Moving forward and never re- teaching. Only data kept is a grade book. Only feedback students get is the grade on the paper. All students are doing the same assignment.
Why do we differentiate instruction? Because it’s what’s good for kids! Because it’s the law and intent behind RTI. –RTI came out of SPED law, although a regular education function, for the following reasons: The “wait to fail” discrepancy model does not take care of the root of a SPED diagnosis. Students have been segregated for far too long. The problem has been placed on the student rather than on effective teaching.
To the person next to you… Tell each other two to three concepts on what differentiated instruction is and two to three other ideas on what it is not.
Why do we differentiate instruction? Because we are here to ensure ALL students excel. Because we are not making AYP. To ensure that RTI implementations are truly different than what we have previously been doing.
Why do we differentiate instruction? To accommodate the BRAIN! Because people’s brains work differently. –Balances in active, settling, and passive learning. –TPR. And on top of having different brains, some of those brains also have disabilities. Let’s check that out….
In groups of three…. Assign each person a role –Briefer –Questioner –Connector Briefer: Give main ideas of the video. Questioner: Pose questions based on your reflections or on unclear ideas. Connector (Presenter): Summarize the main ideas, reflections, and questions/answers.
Differentiating is us bending and finding different avenues to reach kids. It’s not expecting kids to have the equal abilities to do what we want them to do the way we want them to do it.
How do we differentiate? Three considerations: ContentProcessProduct Based on student: Readiness, Interest, and Learning Profile
Content (Standards & Benchmarks): Modifications (vs. accommodations) Need to know vs. Nice to know IEP Goals and Objectives Based on reading levels Curriculum/tools
Process: Curriculum/Tools Auditory/Visual/Kinesthetic Whole group/small group/cooperative learning Re-teaching/ in the moment assessing/ preventing misconceptions Questioning Re-wording Pacing Allowing for student processing Practice, and level of support through practice Participation High-Yield Strategies Centers
Product: Quantity Time allotment Level of difficulty Not letting barriers determine mastery. Student choice in demonstrating mastery of concept. Multi-modal assessing. Based on readiness (at level to remember, understand all the way to evaluating and creating).
Work as a group to match the accommodations to the component of D.I. - D.I. happens across ALL areas (content, process, AND product). - It is a state-of-mind! - How do we help teachers make this shift?
The data of D.I. Use data to find baselines –Curriculum/SKILL assessments –Short Cycle Assessment –MAP –NMSBA –Track specific skills –Ensure mastery of those skills –Continue to practice and embed skills within new skills
Once we define our system requirements, how often should improvements take place? Once a year? Four times a year? Every week?
Special Education and Data If students in SPED are going give us the data/test scores we want, we have to ensure they are: –Use those IEP’s to guide you! PLOP and Goals/Objectives. Fill in those HOLES! –In the reg ed setting as much as possible –Successful in the regular education setting
Examples of systematic data use to drive D.I….what does this look like?
How do you align the classroom assessment system with the School’s Quarterly Assessment System? CHAPTER TEST DATA
i DATA on SCA in math. SCA covers ALL essential learning standards. Dots represent how many questions students got correct on the test. How many did we get right on our math test? GOAL 80% #10
SCA DATA #2. Example of using an item analysis to identify student performance gaps
Once you know where your kids are and where you want them to go, decide how you are going to get them ALL there. What different roadmaps will you create?
Differentiated Instruction in Action Think-Tac-Toes Create a survey and graph the results. Research a person and present to the class. Create a hypothesis and through research prove/deny. Write a rap/song and perform to class. Write a letter to the editor. Design a power point. Make a comparison/ contrast poster. Write a skit with two others and act out. Create a test with correct answers.
Cooperative Learning Assigning roles to student strength areas –Main Idea Finder/Concept Manager –Detail Person –Question Asker –Key Word Finder –Designer (of charts, graphs) –Resource gatherer
Q.A.R.- Questions/Answers/Relationships Level 1- In the book questions are “right there.” Level 2- In the book questions to “think, search, and find.” Level 3- In my head questions, “author and me.” Level 4- In my head questions, “on my own.”
Bloom’s Cube Each side of cube, rolled by students, has a task: –Describe (knowledge level) –Explain (comprehension level) –Develop (application level) –Classify (analysis level) –Create a new (synthesis level) –In your opinion (evaluation level)
Characteristics Think alouds. Modeling Practice, feedback, practice again. Homework Setting specific objectives and students self- charting success. Graphic organizers Cues and questions Allowing for processing time Student PDSA’s
Pair/Share: Find someone new What new strategies/approaches can you implement in your school (or to support schools) to ensure ALL teachers are trained on differentiating instruction? How does Tier 3 in your school truly differ from Tiers 1 and 2 in the regular education classroom?
How do we be EVEN MORE EFFECTIVE? Build relationships with students. Make them feel safe taking risks. The more students are engaged and busy, feeling important, the less negative behaviors. Set them up to experience successes so that they want more! Recognize achievements. Have students repeat back directions, concepts, to assist with processing delays. Give immediate and corrected feedback to students!
Resources haw/collection/1/http://www.uhseport.net/published/k/sh/ks haw/collection/1/ How to Differentiate in the Mixed Ability Classroom. By Carol Ann Tomlinson. Making Differentiation a Habit. By Diane Heacox Differentiating Instruction in a Whole Group Setting. By Betty Hollas. Teaching with the Brain in Mind. By Eric Jensen.