Presentation on theme: "What is Organizational Behaviour?"— Presentation transcript:
1 What is Organizational Behaviour? Chapter 1What is Organizational Behaviour?
2 What is Organizational Behaviour? Questions for ConsiderationWhat is organizational behaviour?What challenges do managers and employees face in the workplace of the 21st century?How does knowing about organizational behaviour make work and life more understandable?Isn’t organizational behaviour common sense? Or just psychology?What are the building blocks to understanding organizational behaviour?
3 Organizational Behaviour a field of study that investigates how individuals, groups and structure affect and are affected by behaviour within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness.This material is found in more detail on page 3.
4 Why Do We Study OB?To learn about yourself and how to deal with othersYou are part of an organization now, and will continue to be a part of various organizationsOrganizations are increasingly expecting individuals to be able to work in teams, at least some of the timeSome of you may want to be managers or entrepreneursThis is one of the slides I use on the first day of class to help motivate the course.
5 Exhibit 1-1 Challenges Facing the Workplace Organizational Level•ProductivityDeveloping effective employeesGlobal competitionManaging in the global villageGroup LevelWorking with othersWorkforce diversityIndividual LevelJob satisfactionEmpowermentBehaving ethicallyThe material for this illustration is found on page 5.
6 Today’s Challenges in the Canadian Workplace Challenges at the Individual LevelJob SatisfactionEmpowermentBehaving EthicallyChallenges at the Group LevelWorking With OthersWorkforce DiversityThis material is found in more detail on pages 5-9.1. In a 2002 survey of 1100 Canadian and American employees, more than half reported negative feelings about their jobs.2. Overall job satisfaction in the Canadian workplace has been declining.• In 1991, 62% of employees reported they were highly satisfied with their jobs.In 2001, only 45% of employees reported they were highly satisfied with their jobs.3. Managers are empowering employees. They are putting employees in charge of what they do. And, in the process, managers are learning how to give up control, and employees are learning how to take responsibility for their work and make appropriate decisions.4. In addition to the more obvious groups—women, First Nations peoples, Asian Canadians, African Canadians, Indo-Canadians—the workplace also includes people with disabilities, gays and lesbians, and the elderly.
7 Today’s Challenges in the Canadian Workplace Challenges at the Organizational LevelProductivityDeveloping Effective EmployeesAbsenteeismTurnoverOrganizational CitizenshipCompetition From the Global EnvironmentManaging and Working in a Global VillageThis material is found in more detail on pages 9-12.1. Absences in 2001 resulted in the loss of 3.4% of weekly work time. Absenteeism’s annual cost has been estimated at over $18 billion for Canadian firms and $60 billion for U.S. organizations. 2. In recent years, Canadian businesses have faced tough competition from the United States, Europe, Japan, and even China. To survive, they have had to cut fat, increase productivity, and improve quality.3. As multinational corporations develop operations worldwide, as companies develop joint ventures with foreign partners, and as workers increasingly pursue job opportunities across national borders, managers and employees must become capable of working with people from different cultures.
8 Productivity Productivity Effectiveness Efficiency A performance measure including effectiveness and efficiencyEffectivenessAchievement of goalsEfficiencyThe ratio of effective work output to the input required to produce the workThis material is found in more detail on pages 9.
9 Effective Employees Absenteeism Turnover Failure to report to workTurnoverVoluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from the organizationOrganizational citizenship behaviourDiscretionary behaviour that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirements, but is helpful to the organizationThis material is found in more detail on pages
10 Exhibit 1-2 Companies Respected for their HR Management 1.RBC Financial Group2.Dofasco Inc.3.Magna International Inc.4.IBM Canada Ltd.5.BMO Financial Group6.WestJet Airlines Ltd.7.BCE Inc.8. Scotiabank Group9.Bombardier Inc.10.General Electric Canada Inc.LocationTorontoHamilton, ONAurora, ONMarkham, ONMontrealCalgaryMontrealMississauga, ONIndustryFinancial servicesSteelmakerAutomotiveComputersAir transportationTelecommunicationsransportationElectroniccontrols/instrumentsRank on FinancialPerformance1103n/a974Rank onInvestment Value52Source: Adapted from R. Bloom,“RBC Reclaims Top Spot in Survey,”The Globe and Mail, January 20, 2003, pp. B1, B5.The material for this illustration is found on page 13.Many of the firms that made the KPMG-Ipsos-Reid top 10 list of Most Respected Corporations for Human Resource Management also scored high on financial performance, and investment value.Five of the companies placed in the top 10 on both financial measuresEight scored in the top 10 of at least one of the financial measures.
11 How Will Knowing OB Make a Difference? For ManagersKnowing organizational behaviour can help you manage well and makes for better corporations.Managing people well leads to greater organizational commitment.Finally, managing well may improve organizational citizenship.The material for this illustration is found on pagesOrganizational commitment refers to an employee’s emotional attachment to the organization, resulting in identification and involvement with the organization.This type of commitment is often called affective commitment and represents the attitude of managers and employees who go beyond expected behaviours to provide extra service, extra insight, or whatever else is needed to get the job done.
12 How Will Knowing OB Make a Difference? For IndividualsWhat if I’m not going to work in a large organization?The theories generally apply to organizations of any size.What if I don’t want to be a manager?To some extent, the roles of managers and employees are becoming blurred in many organizations.While self-employed individuals often do not act as managers, they certainly interact with other individuals and organizations as part of their work.The material for this illustration is found on pagesOrganization: A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of a group of people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
13 Bottom Line: OB Is For Everyone Organizational behaviour is not just for managers.The roles of managers and employees are becoming blurred in many organizations.Managers are increasingly asking employees to share in their decision-making processes rather than simply follow orders.OB applies equally well to all situations in which you interact with others: on the basketball court, at the grocery store, in school, or in church.The material for this illustration is found on pages
14 Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field PsychologySociologySocial PsychologyAnthropologyPolitical ScienceThis material is found in more detail on pages 15-16Psychology is the science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behaviour of humans and other animals.Sociology: Whereas psychologists focus on the individual, sociologists study the social system in which individuals fill their roles; that is, sociology studies people in relation to other human beings.Social psychology is an area within psychology, but it blends concepts from psychology and sociology. It focuses on the influence of people on one another. One of the major areas receiving considerable investigation from social psychologists has been change--how to implement it and how to reduce barriers to its acceptance. processes.Anthropology is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. Anthropologists’ work on cultures and environments, for instance, has helped us understand differences in fundamental values, attitudes, and behaviour between people in different countries and within different organizations.Political science studies the behaviour of individuals and groups within a political environment. Specific topics of concern include structuring of conflict, allocation of power, and the manipulation of power for individual self-interest.
15 Exhibit 1-3 Toward an OB Discipline Social psychologyPsychologyBehaviouralscienceContributionUnit ofanalysisOutputAnthropologySociologyPolitical scienceStudy ofOrganizationalBehaviourOrganizationsystemLearningMotivationPerceptionTrainingLeadership effectivenessJob satisfactionIndividual decision makingPerformance appraisalAttitude measurementEmployee selectionWork designWork stressGroup dynamicsWork teamsCommunicationPowerConflictIntergroup behaviourFormal organization theoryOrganizational technologyOrganizational changeOrganizational cultureIntraorganizational politicsOrganizational environmentBehavioural changeAttitude changeGroup processesGroup decision makingGroupComparative valuesComparative attitudesCross-cultural analysisIndividualThe material for this illustration is found on pages
16 The Rigour of OB OB looks at consistencies What is common about behaviour, and helps predictability?OB is more than common senseSystematic study, based on scientific evidenceOB has few absolutesOB takes a contingency approachConsiders behaviour in contextThis material is found in more detail on pagesThis would be a good place to get students’ views on questions such as: (1) Are happy workers always productive workers? (2) Are individuals always more productive when their boss is a real “people person?” (3) Does everyone want a challenging job?
17 Beyond Common Sense Systematic Study Looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects and drawing conclusions based on scientific evidenceThis means data are gathered under controlled conditions, and measured and interpreted in a reasonably rigorous manner—rather than relying on common sense.This material is found in more detail on page 17.
18 Exhibit 1-4 The Layers of OB The OrganizationChangeOrganizational cultureDecision makingThe GroupLeadershipPower and politicsNegotiationConflictCommunicationThe material for this illustration is found on page 18.The IndividualGroups and teamsMotivating self and othersEmotionsValues and attitudesPerceptionPersonality
19 Summary and Implications OB is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behaviour within an organization.OB focuses on improving productivity, reducing absenteeism and turnover, and increasing employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment.OB uses systematic study to improve predictions of behaviour.This material is found in more detail on page 20.
21 For Review 1. Define organizational behaviour. 2. What is an organization? Is the family unit an organization? Explain.3. “Behaviour is generally predictable, so there is no need to formally study OB.” Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Why?4. What are some of the challenges and opportunities that managers face as we move into the 21st century?5. What are the three levels of analysis in our OB model? Are they related? If so, how?6. Why is job satisfaction an important consideration for OB?7. What are effectiveness and efficiency, and how are they related to organizational behaviour?8. What does it mean to say OB takes a contingency approach in its analysis of behaviour?This material is found in more detail on page 21.
22 For Critical Thinking1. “The best way to view OB is through a contingency approach.” Build an argument to support this statement.2. “OB is for everyone.” Build an argument to support this statement.3. Why do you think the subject of OB might be criticized as being “only common sense,” when one would rarely hear such a criticism of a course in physics or statistics? Do you think this criticism of OB is fair?4. On a scale of 1 to 10 measuring the sophistication of a scientific discipline in predicting phenomena, mathematical physics would probably be a 10. Where do you think OB would fall on the scale? Why?This material is found in more detail on page 21.
23 Learning About Yourself Scoring KeyDirector: 1, 2, Mentor: 13, 14, 15Producer: 4, 5, 6 Facilitator: 16, 17, 18Coordinator: 7, 8, 9 Innovator: 19, 20, 21Monitor: 10, 11, 12 Broker: 22, 23, 24The material for this exercise is found on page 23.Use this to remind students of the scoring key as they fill out the survey.
24 Learning About Yourself Exercise 1. Taking initiative2. Goal setting3. Delegating effectively4. Personal productivity and motivation5. Motivating others6. Time and stress management7. Planning8. Organizing9. Controlling10. Receiving and organizing information11. Evaluating routine information12. Responding to routine information13. Understanding yourself and others14. Interpersonal communication15. Developing subordinates16. Team building17. Participative decision making18. Conflict management19. Living with change20. Creative thinking21. Managing change22. Building and maintaining a power base23. Negotiating agreement and commitment24. Negotiating and selling ideasThe material for this exercise is found on page 23.Ask students for a show of hands to determine which skills they deem most important. You can then related this to the competing values framework to indicate which areas of OB/mgt. behaviour would be weakened because of omitted skills.
25 Breakout Group Exercises Form small groups to discuss the following topics:1. Consider a group situation in which you have worked. To what extent did the group rely on the technical skills of the group members vs. their interpersonal skills? Which skills seemed most important in helping the group function well?2. Identify some examples of “worst jobs.” What conditions of these jobs made them unpleasant? To what extent were these conditions related to behaviours of individuals?3. Develop a list of “organizational puzzles,” i.e., behaviour you’ve observed in organizations that seemed to make little sense. As the term progresses, see if you can begin to explain these puzzles, using your knowledge of organizational behaviour.This material is found in more detail on page 24.
26 Working With Others Exercise This exercise asks you to consider the skills outlined in the Competing Values Framework to develop an understanding of managerial expertise. Steps 1–4 can be completed in 15–20 minutes.1. Using the skills listed in “Learning About Yourself,” identify the 4 skills that you think all managers should have.2. Identify the 4 skills that you think are least important for managers to have.3. In groups of 5–7, reach a consensus on the most-needed and least-needed skills identified in Steps 1 and 2.4. Using Exhibit 1-4, determine whether your “ideal” managers would have trouble managing in some dimensions of organizational demands.The material for this exercise is found on page 24.
28 Exhibit 1-5 Competing Values Framework FlexibilityControlInternal FocusExternal FocusThe material for this illustration is found on page 27.In teaching this, you may want to start by having students do the Learning about Yourself and Working with Others exercises on pages 23 and 24. Debriefing the exercise will provide information about what skills students think are important, and what skills they believe they already have.You can then point to the skill gaps, and the problems that organizations and managers would face as a result.
29 Competing Values Framework Internal-External DimensionInwardly toward employee needs and concerns and/or production processes and internal systemsorOutwardly, toward such factors as the marketplace, government regulations, and the changing social, environmental, and technological conditions of the futureFlexibility-Control DimensionFlexible and dynamic, allowing more teamwork and participation; seeking new opportunities for products and servicesControlling or stable, maintaining the status quo and exhibiting less changeThis material is found in more detail on pages
30 Exhibit 1-6 Skills for Mastery in the New Workplace FlexibilityInternalExternalControlMentorInnovator1. Understandingyourself and others2. Interpersonalcommunication3. Developingsubordinates1. Team building2. Participativedecision making3. Conflictmanagement1. Receiving andorganizing information2. Evaluatingroutine information3. Responding to1. Planning2. Organizing3. Controlling1. Taking initiative2. Goal setting3. Delegating effectively1. Personal productivityand motivation2. Motivating others3. Time and stress1. Building and maintaininga power base2. Negotiating agreementand commitment3. Negotiating andselling ideas1. Living with change2. Creative thinking3. Managing changeFacilitatorMonitorDirectorProducerBrokerCoordinatorThe material for this illustration is found on page 28.Source: R.E. Quinn. Beyond Rational Management. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc., 1988, p. 48.
31 Supplemental Material Slides for activities I do in my own classroom
32 Exercise In groups of 6 The interview Introduce yourselves Pick an interviewerDecide on questions or topics you want interviewer to ask meThe interviewIntroduce interviewer to me and the classAsk one question from your list (we will go around the groups with one question at a time)On the first day of class I permit students to do a round-robin interview of me—each group asks one question, and we go around the room, several times until all questions have been answered. I let them ask anything they want: about the course, about me, about anything the want to know. I have found this has worked well to set the tone that all questions will be treated with respect (even if in some cases I do not give them the answer they request—for instance, my salary). I have done this for years, and have been quite happy with the results.