2What is Qualitative Research? What are you curious about? What questions do you have about your area of study?
3What is Qualitative Research? Key TermsResearch: the notion of inquiring into, or investigating something in a systematic manner
4What is Qualitative Research? Key Terms2 Categories of Research:1. Basic: motivated by intellectual interest in a phenomenon and has as its goal the extension of knowledge- to know more about the topic
5What is Qualitative Research? Key Terms2 Categories of Research:2. Applied: undertaken to improve the quality of practice of a particular discipline- improve the way things are done
6What is Qualitative Research? Key TermsModels: overall framework for how we look at reality- what reality is like & its basic elements- nature and status of knowledge
7What is Qualitative Research? Key TermsConcept: clearly defined set of ideas deriving from a particular model- ways of looking at the world to help define the research problem- filing cabinet
8What is Qualitative Research? Key TermsTheories: arranged set of concepts to define and explain some phenomenon- contain plausible relationships- provides a footing for considering the world- basis for considering how the unknown may be organized
9What is Qualitative Research? Key TermsHypothesis: a proposition(s) set forth as an explanation for the occurrence of some specified group of phenomena- directly tested
10What is Qualitative Research? Key TermsMethodology: specific means of studying a topic, gathering data, and analysis of that data- contain:1. preference for certain methods2. theory of scientific knowledge3. range of solutions4. systematic sequence of procedural steps
11What is Qualitative Research? Key Terms2 Types of Research:Qualitative and Quantitative
12What is Qualitative Research? DefiningQuantitative Research: the systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships.a. Objective is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and/or hypothesis pertaining to the topic being examined
13What is Qualitative Research? DefiningQuantitative Research:b. Measurement process is crucial- provides the fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships
14What is Qualitative Research? DefiningQualitative Research:To seize upon the interpretations people place on existence and to synthesize them so they are more readily available to us. This is a process of making large claims from small matters: studying particular rituals, poems, plays, conversations, songs, dances, theories, and myths and gingerly reaching out to the full relations within a culture or a total way of life.James Carey (1975)
15What is Qualitative Research? DefiningQualitative Research:Generic term for investigative methodologies described as ethnographic, naturalistic, anthropological, field, or participant observer research.- Emphasizes the importance of looking at variables in the natural setting in which they are found. Interaction between variables is important.
16What is Qualitative Research? DefiningQualitative Research:- Detailed data is gathered through open ended questions that provide direct quotations.- The interviewer is an integral part of the investigation(Jacob, 1988)
17What is Qualitative Research? DefiningQualitative Research:Umbrella term covering an array of interpretive techniques which seek to describe, decode, translate, and otherwise come to terms with the meaning, not the frequency, of certain more or less naturally occurring phenomenon in the social world
18What is Qualitative Research? DefiningQualitative Research:- an attempt to understand the meaning people of constructed /how people make sense of their world(Van Maanen, 1979, p. 520)
19What is Qualitative Research? Qualitative Research Characteristics:Purpose: Understanding - Seeks to understand people’s interpretations.2. Reality: Dynamic - Reality changes with changes in people’s perceptions.mutual simultaneous shaping: multiple events occur to shape events/meaning
20What is Qualitative Research? Qualitative Research Characteristics:3. Viewpoint: Insider - Reality is what people perceive it to be.4. Values: Value bound - Values will have an impact and should be understood and taken into account when conducting and reporting research.
21What is Qualitative Research? Qualitative Research Characteristics:5. Focus: Holistic - A total or complete picture is sought.- cylinder6. Orientation: Discovery - Theories and hypotheses are evolved from data as collected.
22What is Qualitative Research? Qualitative Research Characteristics:7. Data: Subjective - Data are perceptions of the people in the environment.8. Instrumentation: Human - The human person is the primary collection instrument.
23What is Qualitative Research? Qualitative Research Characteristics:9. Conditions: Naturalistic - Investigations are conducted under natural conditions.10. Results: Valid - The focus is on design and procedures to gain "real," "rich," and "deep" data.
24What is Qualitative Research? Qualitative Research Competencies:A questioning stance with regard to your work and life context- Why are things the way they are?2. High tolerance for ambiguity and flexibility
25What is Qualitative Research? Qualitative Research Competencies:3. Being a careful observer4. Asking good questions5. Thinking inductively- moving from raw data to categories and concepts6. Strong writing capabilities
26What is Qualitative Research? Qualitative Research Characteristics:Advantages:1. Produces more in-depth, comprehensive information.2. Uses subjective information and participant observation to describe the context, or natural setting, of the variables under consideration, as well as the interactions of the different variables in the context. It seeks a wide understanding of the entire situation.
27What is Qualitative Research? Qualitative Research Characteristics:Disadvantages1. The very subjectivity of the inquiry leads to difficulties in establishing the reliability and validity of the approaches and information.2. It is very difficult to prevent or detect researcher induced bias.3. Its scope is limited due to the in-depth, comprehensive data gathering approaches required.
28What is Qualitative Research? Qualitative Research CharacteristicsQualitative research is all about exploring issues, understanding phenomena, and answering questions.- Happens in nearly every workplace and study environment, nearly every day.
29What is Qualitative Research? Multiple Focus PointsWhat people sayMean, NeedCulture or DesireWhat people do
30What is Qualitative Research? Difference b/t Qualitative & QuantitativeWhere quantitative research which attempts to gather data by objective methods to provide information about relations, comparisons, and predictions and attempts to remove the investigator from the investigation, the researcher is an integral part of qualitative research.(Smith, 1983)(
31What is Qualitative Research? Difference b/t Qualitative & QuantitativeWhere quantitative research which attempts to gather data by objective methods to provide information about relations, comparisons, and predictions and attempts to remove the investigator from the investigation, the researcher is an integral part of qualitative research.(Smith, 1983)
32What is Qualitative Research? Philosophical PerspectivesParadigm: a framework for observation and understanding that shapes what we see and how we understand it- accepted assumptions
33What is Qualitative Research? Philosophical Perspectives & ParadigmsParadigmsCan not be true or falseCyclical in natureTheories and methods
34What is Qualitative Research? Philosophical Perspectives & ParadigmsPositivist:Objective reality knowable only through empirical observationsGeneralizable laws3. Study of variables- Cause & effect relationships
35What is Qualitative Research? Philosophical Perspectives & ParadigmsPositivist:Hypothesis (predictions)Quantifiable data
36What is Qualitative Research? Philosophical Perspectives & ParadigmsInterpretive:Understanding human behavior and meanings the meanings in which they are embedded2. No single reality – many factors- Purposive meaning-making activities
37What is Qualitative Research? Philosophical Perspectives & ParadigmsInterpretive:Humans are individuals and behavior can not be “pigeon-holed” or generalizedUnique explanationsQualitative data
38What is Qualitative Research? Philosophical Perspectives & ParadigmsCritical:Goal is to challenge, transform, and empowerReads interactions in terms of conflict and oppressionFrame research questions in terms of power
39What is Qualitative Research? Philosophical Perspectives & ParadigmsPostmodern:Sees explanations of the way things are in the world as myths or grand narrativesThere is no single reality, but rather multiple truthsCelebrates diversity among people, ideas, and institutions
40What is Qualitative Research? Languages of Qualitative Research1. Naturalism: seeks to minimize presuppositions in order to witness subjects’ worlds in their own terms- focuses on the factual characteristics of the object under study
41What is Qualitative Research? Languages of Qualitative Research2. Emotionalism: the primary issue is to generate data that gives an authentic insight into people’s experiences- tend to favor open-ended interviews- locates the “real” in real life- concerned with authenticity
42What is Qualitative Research? Languages of Qualitative Research2. Ethnomethodology: the study of folks’ methods. Seeks to describe methods persons use in constructing reality in everyday life- creates meaningful categories- may lose sight of the topic due to focusing too much on the process of creation
43What is Qualitative Research? Languages of Qualitative Research2. Postmodernism: interdisciplinary movement based on the critique of all concepts and paradigms- analyzes and questions modern achievements- examines how we come to acknowledge and accept “truths” as being true
44What is Qualitative Research? Should I use qualitative methods?See questions on page 11