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What is MIOSHA? Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Act (P.A. 154 of 1974, as amended) Allows enforcement of occupational safety and health regulations.

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Presentation on theme: "What is MIOSHA? Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Act (P.A. 154 of 1974, as amended) Allows enforcement of occupational safety and health regulations."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is MIOSHA? Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Act (P.A. 154 of 1974, as amended) Allows enforcement of occupational safety and health regulations at the state level versus the federal level (OSHA)

2 Definition - “employee” “A person permitted to work by an employer” Definition of an employee includes: volunteers students interns temporary help

3 Employer’s Responsibilities Furnish to each employee a workplace that is free from recognized hazards that are causing, or likely to cause, death or serious physical harm Comply with standards, regulations and orders issued pursuant to the Act Keep employees informed of their protections and obligations under the Act including applicable rules and standards Provide PPE at employer’s expense when required by a standard

4 Employee’s Responsibilities Comply with standards and regulations covered under MIOSHA Never remove, displace, damage, destroy or carry off a safeguard furnished or provided for use in the workplace Cannot interfere in any way with the use of a safeguard by another person

5 Other Provisions Under MIOSHA Employer/Employee participation in compliance inspections/investigations Inspections: survey to detect presence of hazards and compliance with Act Investigations: detailed evaluation of working conditions Discrimination Imminent danger

6 Other Provisions Under MIOSHA Notification of fatality or catastrophe Within 8 hours 1 fatality or 3 or more hospitalizations from same incident Recordkeeping Variances Permanent Temporary

7 Inspection Procedures Opening conference Programs I&I log (Forms 300, 300A, 301) Hazard Communication MIOSHA poster Others (i.e., respirator) Walk-through of facility Sampling Ventilation Check Closing conference Report sent MIOSHA Website to find I&I forms: /0,1607, _ ,00.html

8 Health Hazards of Abrasive Blasting Silica Noise Metals Mechanical

9 What is Silica? “Crystalline Silica” and “Quartz” refer to the same thing 2 nd most common mineral in the earth’s crust Major component of sand, rock, granite and mineral ore Toxic and less/nontoxic forms

10 Types of Silica TOXIC Silica, Crystalline (as dust) Trade Names  Cristobalite  Tridymite  Tripoli  Quartz Common-Sandblasters NON/LESS TOXIC Silica, Amorphous Trade Names  Diatomaceous earth  Diatomaceous silica  Diatomite  Silica Gel  Silicon Dioxide (amorphous)

11 What is Abrasive Blasting? Operations where an abrasive is forcibly applied to a surface by pneumatic or hydraulic pressure or by centrifugal force. Does not apply to steam blasting or steam cleaning or hydraulic-cleaning methods where work is done without the aid of abrasives Frequently used for: cleaning sand from foundry castings cleaning and removing paint from metal surfaces finishing tombstones etching and frosting glass

12 What is Silicosis? Lung disease disabling nonreversible sometimes fatal Cause: Inhalation of respirable crystalline silica 1+ million American workers exposed/year 250+ Americans will die with silicosis No cure!

13 Who Is At Risk? Blasters using silica sand as an abrasive Blasters without adequate protection Workers near the blast areas cleaners pot tenders painters Silicosis is preventable if employers and employees work together to reduce exposures

14 Why & What We Breathe Inhalation and Exhalation Oxygen/Carbon Dioxide Exchange Air & Particulates Small fraction of inhaled particles are deposited Remainder are exhaled or removed Particle size determines what stays in the lung

15 Respirable Dust Less than 10 microns (µ) diameter WHAT’S A MICRON? 1/24,000 of an inch Human Hair microns in diameter Respirable Silica that causes Silicosis: (µ)

16 Your Bronchial Tree Resembles the Branches on a Tree Divided into Smaller and Smaller Branches Bronchi Bronchioles Business End Alveoli

17 How Does Exposure Occur? During blasting, silica sand fractures into very fine particles and becomes airborne Particles and dusts are inhaled and, if small enough, become imbedded in the lungs

18 Disease Process Silica particles enter the alveoli and become trapped Macrophages (white blood cells) try to “eat” and remove the silica from the lung Silica causes macrophage cells to break and release material into lung tissue which causes scarring (fibrosis) Scarring develops & grows around silica particles causing (nodules) to form

19 What are the Health Effects? Early stages, may not notice any health effects As condition worsens, nodules become larger, making breathing more difficult Lungs can’t get enough oxygen from the air may die from suffocation May be complicated by tuberculosis

20 Forms of Silicosis ACUTE CHRONIC Simple Complicated Accelerated

21 Acute Silicosis Symptoms develop within a few weeks to 4-5 years after initial exposure Very high exposure concentrations Fluid accumulations in lungs

22 Chronic Silicosis Simple Complicated Accelerated l 10+ years of exposure l relatively low exposure l 10+ years of exposure l relatively low exposure l Symptoms develop 5-10 years after exposure l moderate exposure

23 Chronic Silicosis Simple Silicosis Nodules in upper lungs Nodules are small No symptoms Accelerated Silicosis Nodule formation similar to simple Symptoms similar to simple or complicated Complicated Silicosis Nodules in lungs Nodules are large Symptoms Secondary disease

24 Symptoms Dry or productive cough Breathlessness Loss of appetite Pain in chest Malaise Weight loss Secondary disease TB Respiratory failure Congestive heart failure

25 Tuberculosis Silica affects the cells that control TB infection (macrophages) People with chronic silicosis more likely to get TB infections Symptoms: Coughing up blood Fever Shortness of breath

26 Carcinogenicity Respirable crystalline silica has been classified as a Group I “known human carcinogen” Lung Cancer Silica exposure linked to: Stomach Cancer Skin Cancer Lymphatic Cancer

27 Lung Cancer International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified respirable crystalline silica: KNOWN CANCER CAUSING AGENT Lung Cancer Symptoms:  Coughing up blood  Chest Pain  Shortness of breath

28 Diagnosis Occupational work history Symptoms Chest X-ray Pulmonary function test

29 Medical Exams Baseline and every 3 years Medical and occupational history Chest X-ray Pulmonary function test TB skin test

30 NO CURE Only secondary complications treated TB Respiratory Failure Lung Cancer Heart Disease

31 Occupational Disease Report Within 10 days All known or suspected occupational disease Employer, physician, clinic, hospital Annual summary MIOSHA-MTSD-51 form MIOSHA Website to find Occupation Disease Report Form: _ ,00.html

32 Noise Noise: Unwanted sound When noise exposure is too intense or prolonged, may cause harmful effects: Temporary or permanent hearing loss Fatigue, irritability, tension, circulatory effects May not be able to hear warning signals

33 Noise Rules l Exposure Monitoring PEL = 90 dBA AL = 85 dBA Hose noise must be monitored If above PEL, engineering or administrative controls must be implemented Seek out quieter equipment

34 Audiometric Testing If above AL (action level) Qualified personnel Baseline Annual - Standard Threshold Shift (STS)

35 Hearing Protection Mandatory Selection (formable plugs, premolded plugs, ear muffs) Noise Reduction Rating (NRR) Amount of decibels that a given device will reduce noise exposure Protected dBA=Unprotected dBA-[NRR-7] Example:  Unprotected Workplace Exposure dBA = 95  Ear protection NRR = 19  Protected dBA=95 – [19-7] = 95 – [12]  Protected dBA = 83

36 Metals Lead Long term exposure may result in damage to your nervous system, reproductive system, kidneys and blood forming system Cadmium Long term exposure may result in kidney damage, increased risk of prostate and lung cancer Inorganic arsenic Skin irritant, damage to your nervous system, liver and may cause lung cancer

37 Mechanical Hazards Media ricochet Being shot by another blaster Jammed hose

38 Preventing Silicosis & Deaths From Sandblasting

39 What Precautions Can Reduce The Risk? Substitute Alternative Blasting Medias aluminum oxide coal slag (watch out for arsenic) steel shot and grit (low toxicity) plastic media corn cob garnet glass beads copper slag (watch out for arsenic) specular hematite (low toxicity)

40 What Precautions Can Reduce The Risk? Post Warning signs to mark areas contaminated with crystalline silica Provide Medical Examinations, including periodic x-rays, to all potentially exposed employees Worker Training should include information on health effects, work practices, and protective equipment for silica Report All Cases of Silicosis to the State on MIOSHA-MTSD-51 form (blue form)

41 What Precautions Can Reduce The Risk? Conduct Air Monitoring to measure worker exposure Use Proper Respiratory Equipment when exposures cannot be kept below the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) Blast In Automatic Blast Cleaning Machines or Cabinets when possible, permitting workers to operate the machinery from outside Maintain Dust Control Systems to make sure they are working properly

42 What Precautions Can Reduce The Risk? Practice Good Personal Hygiene. Workers should wash their hands and face before eating, drinking or smoking Wear Disposable Clothes Shower and Change Clothes before leaving the worksite Park Cars where they will not be contaminated with overspray No Food, Drink or Tobacco in blasting area

43 Respiratory Protection How to: Determine whether a respirator is necessary Select an appropriate respirator Determine whether a respirator fits properly Occupational Health Standard, Respiratory Protection, Part 451 Occupational Health Standard, Abrasive Blasting, Part 523

44 When Do You Use Respiratory Protection? PEL exceeded IDLH/Oxygen deficiency Engineering controls not feasible Administrative controls not feasible

45 WHAT IS PEL? Permissible Exposure Limit OSHA PEL (respirable fraction) 10 mg/m 3 % SiO PEL varies by % crystalline silica

46 Abrasive Blasting Engineering controls enclosures containment ventilation Typically do not control exposures to below the PEL of crystalline silica Respiratory protection is necessary

47 Abrasive Blasting (Part 523) Only approved respirators may be used Employees must wear abrasive-blasting respirators when : Working inside blast-cleaning rooms Using silica sand in manual blasting operations where operator is not physically separated from blasting operation When above PEL and operator not physically separated from blasting operation Employees should wear respirators : During clean-up operations

48 NIOSH Table National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Specifies: Type of respirator to be worn at different concentrations of silica exposure Based on the assigned protection factors (APF) of the different types of respirators

49 Respirator APF Assigned Protection Factor (APF): T he workplace level of respiratory protection that a respirator or class of respirators is expected to provide to employees when the employer implements a continuing, effective respiratory protection program

50 Respirator MUC l Maximum Use Concentration: –The maximum atmospheric concentration of a hazardous substance from which an employee can be expected to be protected when wearing a respirator, and is determined by the APF of the respirator or class of respirators and the exposure limit of the hazardous substance. –Determined mathematically by multiplying the APF specified for a respirator by the required OSHA PEL, short-term exposure limit, or ceiling limit. When no OSHA exposure limit is available for a hazardous substance, an employer must determine an MUC on the basis of relevant available information and informed professional judgment.

51 NIOSH Approved Abrasive Blasting Respirators Continuous flow, loose hood, APF = 25 Continuous flow, tight-fitting facepiece, APF = 50 Positive Pressure, tight-fitting half-mask facepiece, APF = 1000 Pressure demand or positive pressure, tight-fitting full facepiece, APF = 2000 Respirator User Notice 10/4/93

52 Respirator APF (d)(3)(1)(A)

53 Notes for Table 1 1 Employers may select respirators assigned for use in higher workplace concentrations of a hazardous substance for use at lower concentrations of that substance, or when required respirator use is independent of concentration. 2 The assigned protection factors in Table 1 are only effective when the employer implements a continuing, effective respirator program as required by this section (29 CFR ), including training, fit testing, maintenance, and use requirements.

54 Notes for Table 1 3 This APF category includes filtering facepieces, and half masks with elastomeric facepieces. 4 The employer must have evidence provided by the respirator manufacturer that testing of these respirators demonstrates performance at a level of protection of 1,000 or greater to receive an APF of 1,000. This level of performance can best be demonstrated by performing a WPF or SWPF study or equivalent testing. Absent such testing, all other PAPRs and SARs with helmets/hoods are to be treated as loose-fitting facepiece respirators, and receive an APF of 25.

55 Notes for Table 1 5 These APFs do not apply to respirators used solely for escape. For escape respirators used in association with specific substances covered by 29 CFR 1910 subpart Z, employers must refer to the appropriate substance- specific standards in that subpart. Escape respirators for other IDLH atmospheres are specified by 29 CFR (d)(2)(ii).

56 Medical Exams Consists of medical questionnaire PLHCP reviews questionnaire, recommends follow-up examination if medically necessary Frequency of medical evaluations (after initial assessment) is event-related instead of time-related

57 Medical Evaluations Required: When wearing a tight-fitting facepiece respirator Prior to fit-test and before first use PLHCP determines : Tests in the followup medical exam Restrictions

58 Respirator Fit Testing Type CE Abrasive Blasting Respirators (hoods, helmets) DO NOT need to be fit tested Negative or positive pressure tight-fitting facepiece respirators MUST be fit tested Different sizes and models Pick size/model to fit person’s face Types of fit tests: Qualitative Quantitative

59 Fit Test Protocol Individual wears respirator Series of exercises Test atmosphere Recommended protocol - Appendix A of the Respiratory Protection Standard

60 Types of Fit Tests Qualitative: Test agent directed around the head of the respirator wearer If user can detect agent, test is failed Quantitative: Test atmosphere Quantifies respirator fit using instrumentation to determine the amount of leakage into the respirator facepiece

61 Fit Tests Qualitative Fit Test Banana oil Irritant smoke Saccharin challenge Bitrex solution Quantitative Fit Test Expensive machinery Fit Factors Outside to inside concentration Standard prohibits facial hair which interferes with face - to - facepiece seal or valve function

62 User Seal Checks Assures a proper fit Face to facepiece seal Recommended protocols in Appendix B-1 of Respirator Standard User Seal Check Positive pressure check Negative pressure check Not a substitute for Fit Testing

63 Maintenance & Care Clean and disinfect as often as necessary to maintain a sanitary condition Inspect before and after each use and after cleaning Store away from heat, cold, light, moisture, dusts and chemicals See Appendix B-2 of

64 Written Respiratory Protection Program Standard Operating Procedures Respirator Selection Medical Evaluations Fit Testing Proper use (emergency) Maintenance Program Respirator air supply monitoring Employee Training Respiratory Hazards Proper use of Respirator Program Evaluation

65 Respirator Training Initial Competent person Topics Selection Use and limits Maintenance How to wear Good fit Medical signs & symptoms

66 Compressors Locate so contaminated air cannot enter Low moisture content Inline air-purifying sorbent bed & filter maintained Tag showing maintenance kept at compressor Pressure reducing valve

67 Compressors Oil Lubricated Alarm for overheating CO monitor or both Non oil lubricated Assure CO not more than 10 ppm

68 Personal Protective Equipment Hazard Assessment Selection Communication Fit Safe, reliable, & sanitary Clean, inspect & maintain MUST NOT use defective or damaged PPE

69 Hazard Assessment Written Certification (General Industry) Workplace assessed Certifier Date of workplace hazard assessment Major hazard: IMPACT of the ricocheting abrasive media while blasting

70 PPE for Abrasive Blasters Disposable or washable work clothes Heavy canvas or leather gloves Heavy canvas or leather apron Protective head, neck and shoulder gear Safety shoes Respirator

71 Protective Clothing Employees leave at worksite Dispose or employer launders

72 PPE Training When, why and what How to wear Limitations Care and Maintenance Disposal Certify with employee’s name date of training subject of training

73 PPE Training Retraining required when: Workplace changes makes previous training obsolete PPE changes makes previous training obsolete Employee knowledge or use of PPE indicates retraining needed

74 Conclusion Hazard Assessment Training Head, neck & shoulder protection Hand protection Body protection Hearing protection Safety shoes Respirator

75 Personal Hygiene Shower after work Wash hands & face before eating, drinking or smoking No food, drink or tobacco in blast area Park cars away from area Vacuum clothing using a vacuum equipped with a HEPA filter

76 Housekeeping Clean up dust promptly Vacuum surfaces with HEPA filter DO NOT dry sweep DO NOT use compressed air for cleaning surfaces or clothing

77 Awareness Planning Prevent Silicosis


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