Presentation on theme: "1. According to traditional Jewish law, what identifies someone as a Jew? How is this designation of membership in the religion different from Islam and."— Presentation transcript:
1. According to traditional Jewish law, what identifies someone as a Jew? How is this designation of membership in the religion different from Islam and Christianity ?
— To be Jewish means to be born of a Jewish mother or convert to Judaism. In Islam and Christianity, however, a person must make a statement of faith to become a member of either.
2. What does it mean to say that Judaism is typically not a proselytizing religion?
— Judaism is a religion strictly for Jews. It is a religion of a people, and it is only possible to become Jewish by birth or by conversion. Judaism is the religion for Jews while other religions are for other people.
3. What confusion does distinguishing between Judaism and Jewishness attempt to address?
— It attempts to address the difference between the religion and the social and cultural aspects of the Jewish people.
4. Name the two perspectives that Judaism has toward history. How is the perspective on history different from the perspective held by Hinduism and Buddhism?
— History is both sacred and dynamic for Judaism; compared to Hinduism and Buddhism, for which history belongs in the realm of illusion and appearances.
5. Why does the word “ agreement ” rather than “ contract ” better define covenant as Jews understand the concept?
— The word “ agreement ” defines covenant better because it is less legalistic and more relational.
6. What is the origin of the concept covenant?
— The concept originated with the interactions among Middle Eastern people where resources were scarce. Additionally, covenants laid out the terms of agreement between a ruler and subjects in a nation.
7. According to the Bible, who initiates the covenant between God and the Jewish people?
— God initiates the covenant, and he continues to remain faithful to it, even when the Jewish people do not.
8. How is Judaism different from Deism?
— Judaism believes that God has been active in the world since he created it. Deism believes, on the other hand, that God created the world and then left natural forces and humans to determine its course.
9. What does the term “ Hebrew ” say about the ancestors of the Jewish people?
— The word “ Hebrew ” means “ strangers, ” a term that identified the ancestors of the Jewish people as people without a homeland.
10. What does God ask of Abraham as a “ sign of the covenant ” ?
— God asks of Abraham as a sign of the covenant that all male children undergo circumcision at the age of eight days.
11. What is the origin and meaning of the word “ Israel ” ?
— The origin of the name “ Israel ” is derived from Jacob ’ s struggle with a stranger — a messenger from God — which ends in the stranger asking Jacob ’ s name, then renaming him “ Israel. ” The descendents of Abraham take on the name “ Israelites, ” or “ children of Israel. ”
12. What is the pivotal story of the Jewish religion?
— The Exodus, in which the Jews are liberated from slavery, survive a desert journey, and arrive as a united people in the promised land.
13. How do Jews today view the Exodus experience of liberation?
— Liberation is an ongoing theme in the lives of Jews. Alone, people are enslaved, with God ’ s intervention, they are set free.
14. What is the meaning of Yahweh?
— It means “ I am who am, ” a dual natured understanding of God. God is both a mystery and an active presence in the world.
15. What does it mean to say that Judaism believes in ethical monotheism?
— Ethical monotheism means that the belief in the one, true God has ethical implications. Belief in God cannot be separated from moral acts.
16. What role did the people known as Judges play in formation of Israel?
— The Judges led the early nation of Israel before Samuel anointed Saul king.
17. Who were the three kings during the period of a united Israel?
— Saul, David, and Solomon.
18. What is the difference between the temple and synagogues?
— The temple was built as a place where Jews could worship God and offer animal sacrifices, it became the focal point of their religion — a place of pilgrimage. Synagogues developed after the temple was destroyed by the Babylonians. The Jews who survived the Babylonian captivity created synagogues to continue their traditions and study Scripture. This study of Scripture helped hold the Jewish people together.
19. What does “ messiah ” literally mean? What is the Greek translation of the word?
—“ Messiah ” literally means “ anointed one. ” The Greek translation is “ christ. ”
20. How were the prophets extolled in Scripture different from official prophets?
— Official prophets were often retained by rulers, prophets from Scripture were “ unofficial ” and they frequently challenged the king and the people of Israel to keep the covenant.
21. Name the three parts of the Hebrew Bible.
— The Pentateuch (or the Torah), the books that describe the actions of the prophets, and the Writings (which included the psalms, proverbs, and wisdom literature).
22. What 70 B.C. event transformed Judaism?
— The Roman army crushed a rebellion in Jerusalem, and in the process, destroyed much of the city and the temple. Only the Western Wall (the Wailing Wall) remains.
23. What is the relationship between the Talmud and Torah?
— The Torah is the Hebrew word for “ five books, ” or the Pentateuch — as it is known in Greek. The Torah provides the laws for Jews to live by as provided by God. The Talmud, on the other hand, provides rules set forth by great rabbis that interpret the meaning of many of the laws from the Torah so that Jews could remain faithful to the Torah in times of change.
24. Who were the Sephardim and the Ashkenazim?
— The Sephardim are Jews who lived in Muslim-controlled land, particularly in southern Spain. Jews who lived in Christian-controlled land, particularly in Germany and Eastern Europe, were known as Ashkenazim.
25. What was the Spanish Inquisition?
— The Spanish Inquisition were trials set up to punish anyone suspected of undermining or rejecting the Christian faith.
26. What position did Saint Augustine of Hippo take regarding Jews?
— Jews should be allowed to exist in the Christian world to serve as a living reminder of Christianity ’ s roots, but that Jews should always be second-class citizens to serve as a reminder that Christianity has superceded Judaism.
27. What principal differences exist among the four major branches of modern Judaism?
— Reform Judaism seeks to adopt Judaism to the modern world. Orthodox Jews seek to stay as close as possible to traditional ways of dress, lifestyle, and worship. Conservative Jews, in the 19 th Century, felt that the reform movement had gone too far and want to conserve more of their Jewishness. Reconstructionist Jews see Judaism as constantly evolving throughout history, and, as such, they wish to create a religious civilization by building on the past while also being open to contemporary developments within the Jewish community and the world.
28. Define Zionism and shoah.
— Zionism was the movement to reestablish a nation of Israel on the land where the ancient kingdom of Israel had once existed. Shoah is the term that Jews use to refer to the murder of their people in the Holocaust — an event that led to the formation of the nation of Israel.
29. What function does the Sabbath play for Jews?
— It is a day to meditate and reflect. It is a day to stop business, rest, and appreciate God and his gifts.
30. What feasts mark the beginning and end of the High Holy Days in Judaism? What time of the year are they celebrated?
— Rosh Hashanah begins the High Holy Days, and Yom Kippur ends them. They are celebrated beginning on the first day of the autumn month of Tishri.
31. What is the origin of Sukot? What does it celebrate today? How is it celebrated?
— Sukot originated with the harvest time among Jews who discovered it was more practical to stay in the fields than return home after the day ’ s work. Today it celebrates the fragility of life and one ’ s dependence upon God — as their ancestors did when traveling to the Promised Land. It is celebrated by building a hut-like structure covered with branches, fruits, and vegetables.
32. What does Pesach commemorate? How is it celebrated?
— Pesach — or Passover — commemorates the Exodus from Egypt. It is celebrated with the seder meal, designed to assure that the meaning of the meal is not lost by having the youngest child present questions about why Pesach night is different from all other nights.
33. What does Chanukah celebrate? Why has it taken on increased significance recently?
— Chanukah celebrates the rededication of the temple after Greek rulers who controlled Israel were driven out. It has increased in significance recently because it falls around the time of Christmas.
34. What serves as the initiation rites for infant boys and girls into Judaism?
— For boys, circumcision is the initiation rite. For girls, a ceremony for naming formally initiates them.
35. What do Bar and Bat Mitzvah mean? What is the significance of these ceremonies?
— Bar and Bat Mitzvah mean “ son or daughter of the commandment. ” When a Jewish boy or girl turns 13, he or she is called upon to observe the commandments and to be a responsible adult member of the Jewish community.
36. Name two rituals associated with the Jewish wedding ceremony.
— The couple being wed stands under a chupah during the ceremony. The ceremony ends with the groom stepping on a glass and everyone saying Mazel tov.
37. What is Shivah?
— Shivah is an initial seven-day mourning period following the death of a family member or loved one that is spent at home with friends during which the family and friends recite special prayers.
38. Why is assimilation a concern of Jews in America?
— Assimilation refers to a minority group losing their identity and becoming part of the dominant community. As Judaism and Jewishness are such large parts of being a Jew, assimilation would destroy large parts of what it means to be a Jew.