2We are discussing no small matter, but how we ought to live -- Socrates.
3Morality is, at very least, the effort to guide one’s conduct by reason -- that is, to do what there are the best reasons for doing-- while giving equal weight to the interests of each individual who will be affected by what one does -- James Rachels.
4Moral PrinciplesGeneral moral principles make some general statement about what is morally right or wrong, or good or bad, or what we should or ought, or shouldn’t or ought not to do.
6Characteristics of Moral Principles 1. Prescriptive2. Universal3. Overriding4. Public5. Practical
7Some common moral arguments or principles If we can benefit someone, without harming someone else, we ought to do so.If we can prevent harm to someone, without harming someone else, we ought to do so.
8Some common moral arguments or principles It is wrong to use people as means to other people’s ends.
9What is wrong about using people? It violates their autonomy.It may be against their wishes.What if the person cannot make decisions for themselves?
10Some common moral arguments It is wrong to kill one person to save another.Are there exceptions?
11Some common moral arguments We should save as many as we can.Human life is sacred.
12Some common moral arguments Human lives are equally valuable.Human lives are equally sacred.
13What is a moral position? A moral position is one that I can support with reasons.
14What is moral reasoning? The morally right things to do is whatever there are the best reasons for doing.The facts of the case support our reasoning for a particular choice being right.
15What is moral reasoning? The reasoning is impartial.The arguments supporting the reasoning are valid.The arguments supporting the reasoning are sound.
16What is a sound argument A sound argument is one in which the facts of the case support our reasoning and the arguments supporting the reasoning are valid.
17Dworkin's list of unacceptable reasons to justify a moral position. 1. Prejudice2. Personal emotional reaction3. Proposition of fact that is patently false and/or implausible4. Position that relies completely on the beliefs of others
18Ethics as the evaluation of other people's behaviour Sources of mistrust about moral judgementsHypocrisyKnowing other peopleThe right to judgeJudging and interventionJudging and caring
19How Would You Define Ethics? Ethics as the search for the meaning of our own livesHow Would You Define Ethics?
20The field of ethics (or moral philosophy) involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior.Ethics refers to well based standards of right and wrong that prescribe what humans ought to do, usually in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness, or specific virtues.
21Ethics describes the topic, idea, study, analysis, and discussion, of the hypothetical criteria for assessing the appropriateness of behaviors, decisions, actions, and/or intellectual positions.Ethics is concerned with what is right or wrong, good or bad, fair or unfair, responsible or irresponsible, obligatory or permissible, praiseworthy or blameworthy. It is associated with guilt, shame, indignation, resentment, empathy, compassion, and care. It is interested in character as well as conduct.
22Ethics refers to principles that define behavior as right, good, and proper. Ethics is the study of how we ought to liveEthics tells us what is right or wrong, or good or bad, or what we should or ought, or shouldn’t or ought not to do.