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#1 Who was given credit for gathering together stories of a great war that happened 3,000 years ago? What were his stories called? Homer The Iliad and.

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Presentation on theme: "#1 Who was given credit for gathering together stories of a great war that happened 3,000 years ago? What were his stories called? Homer The Iliad and."— Presentation transcript:



3 #1 Who was given credit for gathering together stories of a great war that happened 3,000 years ago? What were his stories called? Homer The Iliad and The Odyssey

4 #2 What was the real historical background of these stories? When did it occur? The struggles for control of the waterway leading from the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara & Black Sea 1200 BC

5 # 3 What is the subject of the first epic? 10-year war outside of Troy, known as the Trojan War

6 # 4 In what modern-day country can the ruins of Troy be found? Who participated in this war? Turkey People of Troy vs. the alliance of early Greek Kings

7 #5 What was the primary cause of this war and who were three people involved? Romantic jealousy: Helen ran away with Paris and Helen’s husband (the King, Menelaus) became angry & wanted revenge

8 # 6 What is the subject of the second epic (the one we’ll read)? The story of Odysseus, a Greek soldier, trying to make his way back home after the 10-year Trojan War

9 # 7 Define “epic” A long, narrative poem that tells the adventures of heroes who, in some way, embody the values of civilization

10 # 8 For what type of story is The Iliad a primary model? Epic of war

11 # 9 For what type of story is The Odyssey the model? List 3 examples The epic of a long journey Examples: Moby Dick, The Lion King, Forrest Gump, The Wizard of Oz

12 # 10 Who is the leader of the Greeks and why did he become involved in the war with Sparta (and King Menelaus)? Agamemnon He is the brother of King Menelaus & Agamemnon wanted to help avenge the insult he suffered because of his wife’s unfaithfulness

13 # 11 Who was the greatest of Greek warriors? Achilles

14 #12 What happened to Agamemnon when he returned home after the war? He was murdered by his unfaithful wife.

15 # 13 Give at least 2 reasons why modern readers might relate to Odysseus, a “hero in trouble”. He seems lost in a world of difficult choices He has to cope with unfair authority figures. He has to work hard to get what he wants

16 #14 What is the home island-kingdom of Odysseus? Who are his wife and son? Ithaca Wife: Penelope Son: Telemachus

17 #15 What actions did Odysseus take to try to avoid going to war? How was he shown to have been faking? He pretended to be insane; acted as though he didn’t recognize his visitors (Agamemnon & Menelaus) They threw his son in front of a plow and when Odysseus couldn’t bare it, Odysseus saved his son, thus proving that he was in the right mind (& faking)

18 #16 Explain the wooden horse trick. The Greeks built a huge wooden horse; soldiers hid in its belly. They pushed the horse to the gates of Troy and the Trojans brought the horse into their city, accepting it as a “trophy” for winning the war. Later that night, the Greeks snuck out of the horse, opened the gates to let more soldiers in & attacked the Trojans. (Greeks won!)

19 #17 How old is Telemachus at the beginning of The Odyssey? What threats does he face? 10 years old Threatened by rude, powerful men, trying to take Odysseus’s place in the Kingdom

20 #18 Define “Myth”. Stories that use fantasy to express ideas about life that cannot easily be expressed in realistic terms.

21 #19 Define “alter ego” A reflection of a hero’s best or worst qualities

22 #20 What god/ goddess supports Odysseus? What god/ goddess opposes Odysseus? Supports: Athena Opposes: Poseidon

23 #21 Define “rhapsodes” “Singers of Tales” – historians & entertainers “myth-makers” of their time

24 #22 Give at least 3 of the formulas that the oral storyteller has in his memory arrival- greetings of guests Eating of meals Taking of baths

25 #23 Define “Homeric simile” Aka “heroic simile” Extended comparison that compares heroic or epic events to something simple & understandable; an everyday event

26 #24 How many lines was The Odyssey? 11, 300 lines


28 Homer Lived during late 8 th /early 7 th century B.C.? Possible author of Iliad and Odyssey Stories not original; came from long tradition of oral poetry

29 Odyssey Setting 12 th century B.C. (Bronze Age) Greece Gods still visited earth; mortals were superhuman

30 Content Begins after fall of city of Troy (10 yrs. have passed already during the War) Odysseus’s journey home to Ithaca Represents an individual’s journey through life & the search for self-knowledge Odyssey

31 Epic Poetry Long poems that tell of adventures of gods or heroes. Tension between meaning and structure (ignore the line breaks; read as sentences)

32 Epic Hero: An epic’s central character (Odysseus) Epic heroes posses most or all of 7 general characteristics: 1. A noble birth 2. Capable of deeds of great strength & courage 3. Great Warrior 4. Travels over a Vast Setting 5. National Heroism 6. Humility 7. Faces Supernatural Foes and/or Receives Supernatural Help **REFER TO YOUR “CHARACTERISTICS OF EPIC HEROES” HANDOUT**

33 In the beginning of the text… Odysseus still not home after Trojan War (10 yrs. Ago – Left Ithaca 20 years before) Home in Ithaca is fighting for survival Wife: Penelope Son: Telemachus Telemachus is fighting off suitors to his mother in order to save Mom and inheritance Poseidon had grudge against Odysseus Athena intervenes & saves Odysseus

34 Odysseus lands at Phaeacia, home of the Phaeacians. Phaeacians promise to give Odysseus safe passage to Ithaca, but first he must tell them about his travels Odysseus describes the chain of events that led up to his captivity on Calypso’s island (his last stop before reaching Ithaca). The “story” that Odysseus is telling to the Phaecians is what we’re reading. That’s why the epic is written in quotation marks (you’ll see) In the beginning (continued)…

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