2Different moods and different ways to express them ABILITYPOSSIBILITYPERMISSIONOBLIGATIONEXPECTABILITYPROBABILITYVerbsAdjectivesModal Verbs
3Present, past and future I amYou /we /they areHe /she /it isI / he / she / it wasYou /we /they wereIYou /we /they will beHe /she /itThere isThere areThere wasThere wereThere will beI /you /we /they writeHe / she / it writesYou wroteHeWe livedTheyYouHe will writeWe
4Structure of Modal Verbs IModal Verb(can /should, etc.)Infinitive(without TO)YouHeSheItWeThey
5CAN is used to indicate the possession of an ABILITY. e.g. He can speak German fluently(= He’s able to speak German fluently)
6I Rewrite the sentences. Use “CAN” for ability. He’s able to drive a car.My daughter is capable of playing the piano beautifully.She’s an excellent secretary. She has the ability to type 80 words a minute.He can drive a car.My daughter can play the piano beautifullyShe can type 80 words a minute.
7Most adults are unable to use a computer. A recent investigation shows that 65% of high school students don’t know how to use a calculator.Only 2% of Chileans are able to speak English fluently.Most adults can’t use a computer.... 65% of high school students can’t use a calculator.Only 2% of Chileans can speak English fluently.
8Different ways to express ability CanBe able toBe capable of (ING)Have the ability toKnow how to
9CAN / MAY are used to indicate a present or future POSSIBILITY e.g. The solution may / can be found at theback of the book(= It’s possible to find the solution at the back of the book)
10II Rewrite the sentences. Use “MAY” or “CAN” for possibility. Due to the repairs, trains are possibly subject to delays.It’s possible that we face an energy crisis this winter.Maybe we’ll change rooms for the next test since the room is very small.Due to the repairs, trains may be subject to delays.We may face an energy crisis this winter.We may change rooms for the next test since the room ...
11Perhaps agronomists will have to test the soil because they’ve found traces of pollutants. Let’s not wait any longer. It’s possible that he won’t come today.It’s possible that ships won’t dock in the harbor because of the rain.Agronomists may have to test the soil because ...He may not come today.Ships may not dock in the harbor because of the rain.
12CAN / MAY are also used to give PERMISSION. e.g. You can / may speak to the patient just a few minutes.(=You’re allowed to speak to the patient just a few minutes)
13III Rewrite the sentences. Use “MAY” or “CAN” for permission. He has permission to play after doing his homework.You’re allowed to miss classes if you get 85% on the first test.Do I have permission to smoke?He may play after doing hid homeworkYou may miss classes if you get 85% on the first test.May I smoke?
14You’re allowed to call me by my nickname. I gave her permission to leave the class earlier since she has stomach cramps.You may call me by my nickname.She may leave the class earlier since she has ...
15SHOULD is often used to indicate what is regarded as PROBABLE or reasonably EXPECTED e.g. The introduction of new machinery should contribute greatly to better results.(=It’s expected that the introduction of new machinery will contribute greatly…)
16IV Rewrite the sentences. Use “SHOULD” for what is probable or expected. They expect the meeting to be finishing right now.The Conservatives are expected to win the next election.We don’t expect that it will take long to get there.The meeting should be finishing right now.The Conservatives should win the next election.It shouldn’t take (us) long to get there.
17It probably won’t be difficult to pass the test. The new regulation probably won’t affect the old students.It shouldn’t be difficult to pass the test.The new regulation shouldn’t affect the old students.
18MUST is often used to indicate OBLIGATION. e.g. You must obtain a visa to travel to USA.(=It’s compulsory that you obtain a visa to travel to USA.)
19V Rewrite the sentences. Use “MUST” for obligation. There’s no gravity in space. Astronauts have to take showers inside big plastic bags.Astronauts are also obliged to drink through tubes.It’s compulsory that students write the test in ink.Astronauts must take showers inside plastic bags.Astronauts must also drink through tubes.Students must write the test in ink.
20I feel obliged to visit them again. It’s obligatory that he works at the weekend.She’s to answer all the questions before the jury.He’s forced to make a choice.I must visit them again.He must work at the weekend.She must answer all the questions before the jury.He must make a choice.
21VI These sentences are wrong. Correct the mistakes. He can playing tennis very well.We must to hurry or we’ll be late.At the meeting tomorrow he may mentioned the problem.He can play tennis very well.We must hurry or we’ll be late.At the meeting tomorrow he may mention the problem.
22He’s been here for hours. He must been tired. She should knows the answer.He’s been here for hours. He must be tired.She should know the answer.
23Translate these sentences into English. Use a Modal Verb. Debido a la lluvia, es posible que no venga a clases mañana.Es obligación que los alumnos asistan a la reunión.Se espera que ellos ganen el partido.Nadie tiene permiso para irse antes.Todos tienen que pagar para entrar.¿Sabes nadar?A lo mejor están en la biblioteca.Nadie es capaz de reparar esta máquina.